A Abade

University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Distrito de Coimbra, Portugal

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Publications (28)65.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: The - 13910C>T polymorphism has been associated with lactase persistence (LP) in European populations. Aim: To assess - 13910C>T genotypes across Portugal and in adult individuals with unspecific gastrointestinal complaints associated with milk consumption. Subjects and methods: This study genotyped - 13910C>T in the general population from Northern (n = 64), Central (n = 70) and Southern (n = 65) Portugal and in 40 subjects with gastrointestinal symptoms. Additionally, the concordance was evaluated between breath-hydrogen test and - 13910C>T genotypes in 65 samples. Results: An overall frequency of 0.349 for the LP - 13910*T allele was estimated in the general population, with a noticeable decrease in the South (0.269) compared with North (0.383) and Centre (0.393). Among the symptomatic group, the frequency of the - 13910*T allele (0.363) was not significantly different from the general population. A 94% concordance was found between the breath-hydrogen and the molecular tests. Conclusions: This study suggests that (i) the distribution of the LP polymorphism is not uniform across the country, (ii) genotyping - 13910C>T is a good diagnostic tool for lactase status in the Portuguese population and (iii) self-reported gastrointestinal complaints are not good predictors of the LP status, implying that a significant part of those complaints may not be related to hypolactasia.
    Annals of Human Biology 01/2013; · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic diversity of human populations in Portugal results from several different demographic events that occurred in distinct prehistorical and historical periods. The main objective of this study was to examine if patterns of Y-chromosome diversity explained by ancient maritime Mediterranean expansions can be observed in Coimbra district (central-west region of Portugal). A total of 125 male DNA samples were typed for 16 Y-SNPs and eight Y-STRs using standard molecular methodologies. Thirteen different haplogroups were identified, being the typical Western European haplogroup R1b1b2-M269 the most common (57.6%), followed by J-M304 (16%) and E1b1b1-M35 (12%). Haplogroup J-M304, whose origin maps to the Middle East, showed significant differences when comparisons were made between Coimbra district and the innermost region of Beira Interior (p = 0.022), in the same geographic area of the country, but not with the Portuguese regions of Alentejo (p = 0.165) and Algarve (p = 0.254), with known evidences of Mediterranean influence. Y-STR analysis revealed in Coimbra district several haplotypes previously associated with ancient maritime Mediterranean expansions. These findings suggest that maritime routes in the first millennium B.C. may have been important for introduction of new male lineages in Central Portugal.
    Anthropologischer Anzeiger 01/2013; 70(4):355-67. · 0.54 Impact Factor
  • Cristina Santos, Augusto Abade, Manuela Lima
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    ABSTRACT: The Azores archipelago (Portugal) is formed by nine islands whose relative positions define them as three geographical groups: Eastern (S. Miguel and Sta. Maria), Central (Terceira, Faial, Pico, Graciosa and S. Jorge) and Western (Flores and Corvo). Using the father's surname of 187,398 individuals living on the nine Azorean Islands, a population analysis based on inter-island relationship and hierarchical organization was conducted. The relation between islands was investigated using summary statistics, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) as well as graphical methods. When the values of heteronymy were contrasted with values of gene diversity based on haplogroup frequencies of the Y chromosome, it was possible to verify that Graciosa and Sta. Maria appeared to have the least diverse populations, and that Flores, despite its smaller population size and geographical isolation, has considerably higher levels of diversity. As for inter-island relationships, the difficulty of directly interpreting summary statistics values was evidenced. The AMOVA revealed that only 0.77% of the variation in surnames can be attributed to among-island variation, a value that, although small, can be considered significant. Application of Malécot's model revealed that geographic distance has an important impact in the genetic structure of the archipelago. Monmonier's maximum-difference algorithm demonstrated that the most isolated island of the archipelago appears to be Graciosa, followed by the islands of the Western group and by Sta. Maria. After integrating values of summary statistics with results from AMOVA and graphical methods, a more accurate genetic profile of the Azores, highly supported by genetic data, has emerged.
    Journal of Biosocial Science 08/2008; 40(4):607-21. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A population sample from São Tomé e Príncipe (West Africa) was screened for the G6PD-deficient variants A- (376G/202A), Betica (376G/968C), and Santa Maria (376G/542T). G6PD locus haplotype diversity was also investigated using six intragenic RFLPs (FokI, PvuII, BspHI, PstI, BclI, NlaIII) and a (CTT)n microsatellite 18.61 kb within the G6PD locus. The estimated frequencies of the G6PD*B normal allele, the G6PD*A variant (376G), and the G6PD*A- allele were 0.698, 0.194, and 0.108, respectively. G6PD variants Betica and Santa Maria were not found. Similar levels of microsatellite diversity were found on variants G6PD*B and G6PD*A (H = 0.61 and 0.68, respectively), indicating a similar age for both alleles. All G6PD*A- alleles share the RFLP-microsatellite haplotype ++(-)+(-)+/195, the same haplotype described in nearly all the *A-alleles from sub-Saharan, Mexican Mestizo, and Portuguese populations, consistent with a single and recent origin of the G202A mutation on this *A haplotype.
    Human Biology 01/2008; 79(6):679-86. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: G6PD deficiency mutational profile and haplotype diversity using 6 RFLPs (FokI/PvuII/BspHI/PstI/BclI/NlaIII) and a (CTT)(n) microsatellite, were investigated in 70 G6PD-deficient Portuguese individuals. All but one G6PD A-(376G/202A) variants (44/45) have a single haplotype (+/+/-/+/-/+/195). G6PD Betica(376G/968C) alleles (n=10) have a single RFLP haplotype (+/-/-/+/-/+) and 4 different (CTT)(n) repeats. Age estimates based on microsatellite variation suggest that Betica mutation arose 900 generations ago. G6PD SantaMaria(376G/542T) allele was found on haplotype (+/-/-/+/-/+/201) and 10 G6PD variants on RFLP haplotypes (-/-/+/+/-/-), (-/-/+/+/-/+) and (-/-/+/+/+/+).
    Haematologica 01/2008; 92(12):1713-4. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty biallelic Y chromosome markers were analyzed in Angolares, Forros and Tongas, three population groups from the African archipelago of São Tomé e Príncipe. While most male lineages belonged to sub-Saharan haplogroups, the component of European origin added up 23.9% in the archipelago. This contrasts with the reported absence of European mtDNA lineages, and the combined findings testify to a strong sex-biased admixture process during the long-lasting colonial period in São Tomé e Príncipe. Furthermore, the male mediated European component was clearly found to be out of proportion to the small demographic impact of the Portuguese on the islands, reflecting high variance in the reproductive success of the individuals that contributed to its peopling. The male portion of European ancestry was 33.3% in Forros, 27.3% in Tongas and approximately two-fold less, 14.5%, in Angolares. The Angolares also showed the lowest haplogroup diversity and the most reduced number of different haplogroups. The current results reinforce our previous evidence pointing to remarkable restrictions in gene flow between Angolares and other São Tomean inhabitants, in agreement with their considerable isolation and confinement to the south-eastern tip of São Tomé until recently.
    Annals of Human Genetics 02/2007; 71(Pt 1):77-85. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have conducted studies to assess the variability of mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers in the Azores Islands (Portugal) and found that, for both genetic systems, the Azores, as a whole, fit well into the pattern of variation described for other Western European populations. Phylogeographic analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed a major contribution from Mainland Portugal, as well as evidences of influxes from Northern Europeans, Africans and Jewish groups. Characterization of markers on the non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY) has shown a main component of European lineages as well as the presence of North African chromosomes, in frequencies similar to those described for Mainland Portugal. On the other hand, both mtDNA and NRY analyses have evidenced differential demographic histories for the three groups of islands forming the archipelago.
    International Congress Series 04/2006; 1288:85–87.
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    ABSTRACT: The island of Flores is the most westerly of the Azores archipelago (Portugal). Despite its marked geographic isolation and reduced population size, biodemographic and genetic studies conducted so far do not support the idea that its population constitutes a genetic isolate. In this study we conducted a surname analysis of the Flores population for two time periods: the second half of the 19th century and the present day. Our main purposes were (1) to biodemographically and genetically characterize the island, taking into account the strong reduction in population observed from the middle of the 19th century to the present day; and (2) to analyze the influence that the effective population size and geographic distance have on the genetic structure of populations. For both periods analyzed, all indicators of diversity revealed a high level of surname diversity. Our results are in accordance with the diversity estimates obtained from both monoparental genetic markers located in the Y chromosome and frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups. Contrary to what could be expected, considering the strong reduction of population in the last 150 years, we observed that diversity was maintained and that microdifferentiation decreased. Both observations support a higher openness of parishes as a consequence of the increase in communication routes. From the first to the second period analyzed, a change in surname composition is evident, although the more frequent surnames in Flores are almost the same for both periods and some of them are reported to be surnames present in the first settlers of Flores. This result testifies to the impact of founders on the present-day gene pool of Flores island and allows us to infer that the genetic characterization of the present-day population of Flores could provide reliable information about the history of the peopling of the Azores.
    Human Biology 07/2005; 77(3):317-41. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from maternally related individuals originating from the Azores Islands (Portugal) in order to estimate the mutation rate of mtDNA and to gain insights into the process by which a new mutation arises and segregates into heteroplasmy. Length and/or point heteroplasmies were found at least in one individual of 72% of the studied families. Eleven new point substitutions were found, all of them in heteroplasmy, from which five appear to be somatic mutations and six can be considered germinal, evidencing the high frequency of somatic mutations in mtDNA in healthy young individuals. Different values of the mutation rate according to different assumptions were estimated. When considering all the germinal mutations, the value of the mutation rate obtained is one of the highest reported so far in family studies. However, when corrected for gender (assuming that the mutations present in men have the same evolutionary weight of somatic mutations because they will inevitably be lost) and for the probability of intraindividual fixation, the value for the mutation rate obtained for HVRI and HVRII (0.2415 mutations/site/Myr) was in the upper end of the values provided by phylogenetic estimations. These results indicate that the discrepancy, that has been reported previously, between the human mtDNA mutation rates observed along evolutionary timescales and the estimations obtained using family pedigrees can be minimized when corrections for gender proportions in newborn individuals and for the probability of intraindividual fixation are introduced. The analyses performed support the hypothesis that (1) in a constant, tight bottleneck genetic drift alone can explain different patterns of heteroplasmy segregation and (2) in neutral conditions, the destiny of a new mutation is strictly related to the initial proportion of the new variant. Another important point arising from the data obtained is that, even in the absence of a paternal contribution of mtDNA, recombination may occur between mtDNA molecules present in an individual, which is only observable if it occurs between mtDNA types that differ at two or more positions.
    Molecular Biology and Evolution 07/2005; 22(6):1490-505. · 10.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we propose a hierarchical approach that allows the screening of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in populations that have essentially West Eurasian mtDNA backgrounds but that could have some non-West Eurasian contributions. To develop and validate this scheme, we used data on 18 coding region polymorphisms (17 analyzed by RFLP analysis and 1 by sequencing) and sequences of hypervariable segment I (HVSI) of the mtDNA control region from the Azores Islands (Portugal) population. The proposed scheme allows the characterization of almost all West Eurasian and African major clusters by means of RFLPs. Furthermore, the scheme includes information on situations in which sequencing is pertinent to defining a particular haplogroup. The validity of the scheme is ensured by (1) using relatively stable polymorphic positions, (2) screening more than one position to define a specific haplogroup, and (3) typing confirmatory positions. Dubious samples can be resolved by sequencing. The robustness of this approach was assessed by sequencing all samples for HVSI, taking advantage of the previously established relationships between RFLPs and control region sequence polymorphisms. The use of this hierarchical approach avoids the screening of unnecessary control region polymorphisms and therefore results in a more rapid and cost-efficient screening than one in which all polymorphic positions are analyzed. Even if this approach leads to a lower level of phylogeographic resolution than the sequencing of all samples, it allows us to define population movements on a continental level and can be applied, unlike sequencing all samples, with a low cost in any laboratory.
    Human Biology 07/2004; 76(3):431-53. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have analysed the matrilineal genetic composition of three self-reported ethnic groups from São Tomé e Príncipe (Gulf of Guinea), an African archipelago whose settlement begun in the late fifteenth century. Sequence data from the hypervariable segments I (HVS-I) and II (HVS-II) were obtained for 30 Angolares, 35 Forros and 38 Tongas. The repertory of mtDNA lineages in São Tomé e Príncipe denoted a fully African maternal pool, primarily arisen from a Central/Southwestern substratum. The absence of any lineages of putative European descent means that the European impact at the mitochondrial pool was virtually nil. Angolares showed a clear reduction of mtDNA diversity and a slight genetic differentiation relative to Tongas or Forros, whereas the latter two groups did not present any signs of genetic boundaries between each other. The data obtained here reinforce the depiction of genetic substructuring in São Tomé e Príncipe previously derived from Y-chromosome STRs. In addition, the crossing of mtDNA and Y-STR information led to the inference that the female mediated gene flow within the archipelago was less restricted than the male, a pattern that could be framed in the cultural traditions and socio-historical interactions among the groups.
    Annals of Human Genetics 02/2004; 68(Pt 1):40-54. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sequence data from the hypervariable segments I (HVS-I) and II (HVS-II) was obtained for 30 Angolares, 35 Forros and 38 Tongas, three self-reported ethnic groups from São Tomé e Prı́ncipe, an African archipelago (Gulf of Guinea) whose settlement begun in the late 15th century. The repertory of mtDNA lineages denoted a fully African maternal pool primarily arisen from a Central/Southwestern substratum. The absence of any lineages of putative European descent means that the European impact at the mitochondrial pool was virtually nil. Angolares showed a clear reduction of mtDNA diversity and a slight genetic differentiation relatively to Tongas or Forros, whereas the two last groups did not present any signs of genetic boundaries between each other. The data now obtained reinforce the depiction of genetic substructuring in São Tomé e Prı́ncipe previously derived from Y-chromosome STRs.
    International Congress Series 01/2004; 1261:377-379.
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    ABSTRACT: The Azores islands (Portugal), uninhabited when discovered by Portuguese navigators in the fifteenth century, are located in the Atlantic Ocean 1500 km from the European mainland. The archipelago is formed by nine islands of volcanic origin that define three geographical groups: Eastern (S. Miguel and Sta. Maria), Central (Terceira, Faial, Pico, Graciosa and S. Jorge) and Western (Flores and Corvo). To improve the genetic characterisation of the Azorean population, and to clarify some aspects related to the history of settlement, a study of mtDNA was conducted in the population of the archipelago. The HVRI region was sequenced and specific RFLPs were screened in 146 samples obtained from unrelated individuals with Azorean ancestry (50 from the Eastern group, 60 from the Central group, and 37 from the Western group). Samples were classified into haplogroups based on the information obtained from both sequencing and RFLP analysis. All the analyses performed support the idea that, in the whole group of islands, the majority of mtDNA lineages originated from the Iberian Peninsula, mainly from Portugal (mainland). However contributions from other European populations, especially from Northern Europe, cannot be disregarded. The values obtained for the various diversity parameters in the Azores archipelago indicate that the Azorean population, as a whole, does not exhibit the typical characteristics of an isolated population. The analysis of genetic data by groups of islands showed that the Western group exhibited particular features. The distribution of haplogroups in the Western group is very atypical, being significantly different from what is observed in the Eastern and Central groups. Furthermore, the diversity values are, in general, lower than those observed in other populations used for comparison. African haplogroups were found in all the groups of islands. Therefore the presence of Moorish and African slaves on the islands, as reported in historical sources, is supported by the mtDNA genetic data, especially in the Eastern group. The presence of Jews in the Central group is also supported by the mtDNA data. Neither historical nor genetic data (phylogeography of mtDNA) supports the idea of a differential settlement history for the Western group; however, it is represented in the phylogenies as an isolated branch. The effect of genetic drift, induced by the reduced population size since peopling occurred, has led to a very atypical distribution of haplogroups/haplotypes in this group of islands. We cannot ignore the influence of biodemographic and genetic processes, namely founder effect, genetic drift, migration, and even recent mutational events in the mtDNA lineages of the Azorean populations. Nevertheless, a great part of the variation in the Azorean mtDNA can be explained by the settlement history.
    Annals of Human Genetics 10/2003; 67(Pt 5):433-56. · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • L Manco, A Abade
    Clinical Genetics 01/2002; 60(6):472-3. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder of adult onset, associated with the expansion of a (CAG)n tract in the coding region of the causative gene, localized on 14q32.1. Machado-Joseph Disease shows non-Mendelian features typical of other triplet repeat disorders, including clinical heterogeneity, variable age at onset and anticipation. Three phenotypes have been proposed (clinical types 1, 2 and 3). Type 1 is associated with early age at onset and a high repeat number of the CAG sequence, and Types 2 and 3 have later onset and lower numbers of CAG repeats. This paper investigates whether there is selection against the MJD gene, acting through differential survival. nuptiality and fertility associated with clinical type and age at onset. The study sample comprised 40 MJD patients from the Azores (Portugal) having fully documented reproductive histories and known dates of death. The proportion of married patients of each clinical type increased from 0.22 among Type 1 patients, to 0.40 in Type 2 and 0.95 in Type 3. Age at onset and length of survival were also associated with marital status, with the married cases having later mean age at onset and longer mean survival time. In the whole sample, clinical type was associated with fertility, with significantly fewer children born to Type 1 patients. Among married patients clinical type was not associated with age at marriage, reproductive span or number of children. No reduction of fertility was detected among married patients in whom the onset of MJD was below the age of 50. The authors' interpretation of these results is that the high-repeat CAG haplotypes associated with early age at onset and clinical Type 1 are selected against through reduced survival and fertility. The fertility component of selection is mediated by nuptiality rather than marital fertility.
    Journal of Biosocial Science 08/2001; 33(3):361-73. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four intragenic PKLR polymorphisms [1705A/C, 1738C/T. T10/19, and (ATT)n microsatellite] were studied in normal population samples of Central Portugal and São Tomé e Príncipe, a small archipelago located in the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa. For all loci, the observed genotype distributions do not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allele frequencies found in the Portuguese population are similar to those previously described in Caucasian populations. Mother-child pair analysis for the (ATT)n microsatellite does not show deviations to the Mendelian rules. In São Tomé e Príncipe the biallelic polymorphisms 1705A/C, 1738C/T, and T10/19 presented inverse allelic frequencies when compared with the Portuguese population. Two new alleles were found at the (ATT)n microsatellite. Significant statistical differences were found between both populations. The results showed that São Tomeans had higher haplotype diversity and lower linkage disequilibrium among the polymorphic sites. The PKLR intragenic polymorphisms, commonly used in haplotype analysis with the gene mutations in PK-deficient patients, can thus be successfully employed in anthropological genetics.
    Human Biology 07/2001; 73(3):467-74. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seven Y-chromosome STR loci, DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393 have been analysed in population samples of Angolares, Forros and Tongas, three ethnic groups from the African archipelago of São Tomé e Príncipe (Gulf of Guinea). Complete typings were obtained for 103 chromosomes, which belonged to 79 different haplotypes. The mean heterozygosity per locus in the overall São Tomean sample was 0.566, with the highest value found among Forros and the lowest among Angolares. Angolares also showed the lowest level of haplotype diversity. On average, the mean pairwise difference between two random haplotypes from Angolares, Forros and Tongas was 4.69, 6.74 and 6.23 repeats, respectively. The genetic distances were found to be statistically significant between Angolares and Forros or Tongas. In accordance, AMOVA revealed that the percentage of variation attributable to differences among groups was only significant when we distinguished between Angolares and non-Angolares. Globally, these results indicate that, with respect to the pool of male lineages of São Tomé e Príncipe, some genetic sub-structuring does exist, basically determined by the Angolares ethnic group.
    Annals of Human Genetics 06/2001; 65(Pt 3):271-83. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) reaches its highest prevalence world-wide in the Azores, thus constituting a public health problem in these islands. The aim of the study was thus to (1) determine the level of knowledge about the disease; (2) estimate the expected level of request for predictive testing, and (3) analyse the intentions of at-risk individuals concerning their reproductive decisions. A questionnaire on these points was distributed to 42 affected and 36 at-risk individuals. As expected, the educational level of the respondents was significantly associated with the level of knowledge about the disease. The survey indicated that 83.3% of the at-risk individuals would make use of predictive test and that 77.8% would make use of prenatal diagnosis. Of the latter, 36.1% would terminate pregnancy if confronted with a positive result for the fetus. The level of knowledge about MJD in the Azorean families is considered to be fair. Although the actual behavior can prove to be different from the intentions put forward by at-risk individuals based solely on the results of this study we can estimate that the request for a predictive test would be quite high. The intentions expressed by at-risk individuals seem to indicate that the prenatal diagnosis will have an effect on their reproductive decisions. Results obtained certify the importance of implementing genetic testing for MJD in the Azores.
    Community Genetics 02/2001; 4(1):36-42. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the PKLR gene responsible for pyruvate kinase (PK)-deficient anaemia are mainly located in the coding regions: 11 are in the splicing sites and, recently, three mutations have been described in the promoter region. We now report a novel point mutation A-->G on nucleotide 72, upstream from the initiation codon of the PKLR gene, in four Portuguese PK-deficient patients. This new regulatory mutation occurs within the most proximal of the four GATA motifs (GATA-A element) in the R-type promoter region. In two patients who were homozygous for this mutation, a semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was used to evaluate the amount of R-PK mRNA transcript in the reticulocytes. The mRNA level was about five times lower than in normal controls, demonstrating that the PKLR gene transcription is severely affected, most probably because the -72A-->G point mutation disables the binding of the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 to the GATA-A element. Supporting these data, the two patients homozygous for the -72A-->G mutation had severe haemolytic anaemia and were transfusion dependent until splenectomy. Two other patients who were compound heterozygous for this mutation and the previously described missense mutation 1456C-->T had a mild condition.
    British Journal of Haematology 10/2000; 110(4):993-7. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic polymorphism of AMY2 was studied in the population of S. Tomé and Príncipe (West Africa) using agarose gel electrophoresis. AMY2 frequencies are reported for the first time in a subSaharian population. The gene frequencies found were: AMY2*1=0.948, AMY2*3=0.052 (N=173).
    International Journal of Anthropology 09/1999; 14(4):255-258.

Publication Stats

316 Citations
65.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2013
    • University of Coimbra
      • • Departamento de Ciências da Vida
      • • Departamento de Neurologia
      Coimbra, Distrito de Coimbra, Portugal
  • 2007
    • Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (IGC)
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 1997–1999
    • University of the Azores
      • Departamento de Biologia
      PDL, Azores, Portugal