[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of topotecan administered as a 30-min intravenous (i.v.) infusion over 5 days in combination with a 1-h i.v. infusion of ifosfamide (IF) for 3 consecutive days every 3 weeks. Patients with advanced malignancies refractory to standard therapy were entered into the study. The starting dose of topotecan was 0.4 mg x m(-2) day(-1) x 5 days. Ifosfamide was administered at a fixed dose of 1.2 g x m(-2) day(-1) x 3 days. In all, 36 patients received 144 treatment courses. Owing to toxicities, the schedule of topotecan administration was reduced from 5 to 3 days. The MTD was reached at topotecan 1.2 mg x m(-2) day(-1) x 3 days with IF 1.2 g x m(-2) day(-1) x 3 days. Haematological toxicities were dose limiting. Neutropenia was the major toxicity. Thrombocytopenia and anaemia were rare. Nonhaematological toxicities were relatively mild. Partial responses were documented in three patients with ovarian cancer dosed below the MTD. Topotecan and IF did not appear to interact pharmacokinetically. The relationships between the exposure to topotecan lactone and total topotecan, and the decrease in absolute neutrophil count and the decrease in thrombocytes, were described with sigmoidal-E(max) models. The combination of 1.0 mg m(-2) day(-1) topotecan administered as a 30-min i.v. infusion daily times three with 1.2 g x m(-2) day(-1) IF administered as a 1-h i.v. infusion daily times three every 3 weeks was feasible. However, the combination schedule of topotecan and IF did result in considerable haematological toxicity and in conjunction with previously reported pronounced nonhaematological toxicities and treatment related deaths, it may be concluded that this is not a favourable combination.
British Journal of Cancer 07/2004; 90(12):2268-77. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rapid, sensitive, and specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of irinotecan (CPT-11) and its active metabolite SN-38 in human plasma is described. The analytes are quantified as the totals of their carboxylate and lactone form. The sample pretreatment consisted of a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile-methanol (1:1, v/v), after which CPT-11 and SN-38 were quantitatively converted to their carboxylate form by adding 0.01 mol/L sodium tetraborate (pH, 9). Chromatography was carried out on a Zorbax SB-C18 column with fluorescence detection. The method has been validated, and stability tests under various clinically relevant conditions have been performed. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5.0 ng/mL for CPT-11 and 0.5 ng/mL for SN-38. Standard concentration ranges were linear between 5 and 1,500 ng/mL for CPT-11 and between 0.5 and 100 ng/mL for SN-38. This assay is simple, rapid, and very useful for therapeutic monitoring of CPT-11 and SN-38.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 03/2003; 25(1):120-4. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymeric drug conjugates are a new and experimental class of drug delivery systems with pharmacokinetic promises. The antineoplastic drug camptothecin was linked to a water-soluble polymeric backbone (MAG-CPT) and administrated as a 30 min infusion over 3 consecutive days every 4 weeks to patients with malignant solid tumours. The objectives of our study were to determine the maximal tolerated dose, the dose-limiting toxicities, and the plasma and urine pharmacokinetics of MAG-CPT, and to document anti-tumour activity. The starting dose was 17 mg m-2 day-1. Sixteen patients received 39 courses at seven dose levels. Maximal tolerated dose was at 68 mg m-2 day-1 and dose-limiting toxicities consisted of cumulative bladder toxicity. MAG-CPT and free camptothecin were accumulated during days 1–3 and considerable amounts of MAG-CPT could still be retrieved in plasma and urine after 4–5 weeks. The half-lives of bound and free camptothecin were equal indicating that the kinetics of free camptothecin were release rate dependent. In summary, the pharmacokinetics of camptothecin were dramatically changed, showing controlled prolonged exposure of camptothecin. Haematological toxicity was relatively mild, but serious bladder toxicity was encountered which is typical for camptothecin and was found dose limiting.Keywords: polymer, camptothecin, pharmacokinetics, MAG-CPT, controlled release, drug conjugate
British Journal of Cancer 09/2002; 87(6):608-614. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-performance liquid chromatography assay is described for the determination of the investigational anti-cancer drug 9-nitrocamptothecin (9-NC) and its metabolite 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC) as the total of their lactone and carboxylate forms. The sample pre-treatment consisted of a deproteinisation step and a quantitative acid-catalyzed conversion of all 9-NC and 9-AC into their lactone forms and a subsequent solid-phase extraction. Redissolved extracts were analyzed on a Prodigy analytical column, using a mixture of methanol-phosphate buffer (pH 2.5). Detection was concomitantly performed with UV for 9-NC and fluorimetrically for 9-AC. The lower limit of quantifications were 10 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml for the determination of 9-NC and 9-AC, respectively, using 500 microl of plasma. The presented method was successfully applied to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.
Journal of Chromatography B 09/2002; 775(2):231-7. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A selective HPLC assay is described for the determination of free and total (free plus polymer-bound) camptothecin (CPT) in human plasma after administration of the anti-tumor drug MAG-CPT (polymer bound camptothecin). Total CPT levels were determined after hydrolysis and free CPT was extracted from acidified plasma using Oasis solid-phase extraction material. Extracts were analyzed on a Zorbax SB-C8 analytical column, using a mixture of acetonitrile-25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 4.0) as the eluent. Detection was performed fluorimetrically. Concentrations of polymer-bound CPT were calculated by subtraction of free from total CPT. The lower limits of quantitation of the methods were 100 ng/ml for total and 1.0 ng/ml for free CPT using 50 microl and 250 microl plasma, respectively. Special attention was paid to the stability of the analytes. The presented method was successfully applied in a clinical pharmacokinetic study in our institute.
Journal of chromatography. B, Biomedical sciences and applications 12/2001; 763(1-2):173-83.