S Nakamura

CSU Mentor, Long Beach, California, United States

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Publications (863)2370.53 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The performance of InxGa1−xN-based m -plane LEDs and laser diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on bulk GaN substrates is currently limited by lower indium uptake and inhomogeneous linewidth broadening in the blue spectrum compared to semipolar planes and c -plane. Linewidth broadening is partially attributed to inhomogeneous indium composition that is associated with template morphology. We investigate the morphological evolution of homoepitaxial GaN growth on bulk m -plane substrates in three co-loaded miscut orientations: nominally on-axis, 1° in the – c- direction (– c-miscut), and 1° in the a-direction (a-miscut). Atomic force microscopy reveals four-sided pyramidal hillocks for on-axis growth with faces inclined toward the [112¯0]a-axis (a-faces) and the [0001] c-axis (c-faces). The a-faces exhibit steps oriented in an a+c direction with longer terrace widths than the c-face steps. The –c-miscut template growth sometimes forms diagonal striations, characterized by regions with stable a+c step direction. The a-miscut template growth exhibits meandering steps oriented in the a±c directions that bunch to form diagonal striations. These results reveal that c-direction steps are unstable compared to a±c directions. We further demonstrate that m-plane GaN substrates with combined a+c miscut lead to narrower InxGa1−xN photoluminescence emission spectra in blue with enhanced indium incorporation.
    Journal of Crystal Growth 10/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Photoelectrochemical (PEC) band gap selective undercut etching is discussed as an alternative technique to chemical-mechanical polishing and laser-lift off for substrate removal for III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). A top-down PEC etch is also described, which offers the ability to epitaxially define an etch-stop layer, thereby achieving a high degree of cavity length control. The temperature-dependent lasing characteristics of m-plane VCSELs fabricated using PEC etching techniques are analyzed. Measurements of multiple VCSELs from the same wafer yielded lasing emission polarized along the a-direction with a polarization ratio of 100%, indicating that the entire array was uniformly polarized.
    Applied Physics Letters 08/2014; 105(3):031111-031111-5. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pim-2 kinase is over-expressed in myeloma (MM) cells to enhance their growth and survival, and regarded as a novel therapeutic target in MM. However, the impact of Pim-2 inhibition on bone disease in MM remains unknown. We demonstrated here that Pim-2 expression was also up-regulated in bone marrow stromal cells and MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells in the presence of cytokines known as the inhibitors of osteoblastogenesis in MM, including IL-3, IL-7, TNF-α, TGF-β, and activin A, as well as MM cell conditioned media. The enforced expression of Pim-2 abrogated in vitro osteoblastogenesis by BMP-2, which suggested Pim-2 as a negative regulator for osteoblastogenesis. Treatment with Pim-2 siRNA as well as the Pim inhibitor SMI-16a successfully restored osteoblastogenesis suppressed by all the above inhibitory factors and MM cells. The SMI-16a treatment potentiated BMP-2-mediated anabolic signaling while suppressing TGF-β signaling. Furthermore, treatment with the newly synthesized thiazolidine-2,4-dione congener, 12a-OH, as well as its prototypic SMI-16a effectively prevented bone destruction while suppressing MM tumor growth in MM animal models. Thus, Pim-2 may play a pivotal role in tumor progression and bone loss in MM, and Pim-2 inhibition may become an important therapeutic strategy to target the MM cell-bone marrow interaction.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 02 May 2014; doi:10.1038/leu.2014.147.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 05/2014; · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    Leukemia 05/2014; · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Very high polarization degree of 0.98, considerably larger than theoretical predictions, has been measured in (202¯1¯) In0.24Ga0.76N/GaN quantum well by low temperature photoluminescence. With increasing temperature, the polarization degree decreases due to thermal population of the excited valence band level. This effect suggests an accurate method to determine the interlevel energy, which, for the studied well, is 32 meV. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements set radiative recombination times between 2 and 12 ns for temperatures from 3 to 300 K. Nonradiative recombination was found to be slow, over 2 ns at 300 K, taking place via traps with activation energy of 0.19 eV.
    Applied Physics Letters 03/2014; 104(11):111113-111113-4. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dark triangle defects (DTDs) are common nonradiative defects in semipolar $(20bar{2}1)$ oriented green quantum wells (QWs), commonly used in green laser diodes (LDs). We show that DTDs do not appear “as-grown,” and DTD size depends strongly on post-QW-growth annealing time and temperature. Using low temperature p-GaN, we prevent catastrophic QW damage and directly compare LDs with GaN and AlGaN containing barriers. The GaN barrier LD exhibited a lasing wavelength of 511 nm, reduced operating voltage, and the lowest threshold current density, likely due to enhanced optical confinement factor and the elimination of very low growth temperature AlGaN in the active region.
    IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 01/2014; 26(1):43-46. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on a bulk (0001) substrate with high-performance broadband optical coatings to improve light absorption. A front-side anti-reflective coating and a back-side dichroic mirror were designed to minimize front surface reflections across a broad spectral range and maximize rear surface reflections only in the spectral range absorbed by the InGaN, making the cells suitable for multijunction solar cell integration. Application of optical coatings increased the peak external quantum efficiency by 56% (relative) and conversion efficiency by 37.5% (relative) under 1 sun AM0 equivalent illumination.
    Applied Physics Letters 01/2014; 104(16):163902-163902-4. · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • S. P. DenBaars, James Speck, S. Nakamura
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    ABSTRACT: LEDs fabricated from gallium nitride have lead to the realization of high-efficiency white solid-state lighting. At UCSB’s Solid State Lighting and Energy Center we have fabricated advanced GaN white LEDs structures which exhibit luminous efficacy greater than 170 lm/Watt, and external quantum efficiencies higher than 50%. This has helped enabled LEDs lighting to compete with traditional lighting technologies such as incandescent and CFL. A review of the energy savings potential of LED based lighting compared to traditional technologies will be addressed. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that in 2030 the energy savings from LED lighting in the U.S. alone would amount to over $250 billion in energy savings.
    Asia Communications and Photonics Conference; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: This randomized, multicenter study compared the efficacy of docetaxel with or without capecitabine following fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC) therapy in operable breast cancer and investigated the role of Ki67 as a predictive biomarker. Patients were randomized to 4 cycles of docetaxel/capecitabine (docetaxel: 75 mg/m(2) on day 1; capecitabine: 1,650 mg/m(2) on days 1-14 every 3 weeks) or docetaxel alone (75 mg/m(2) on day 1 every 3 weeks) after completion of 4 cycles of FEC (5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m(2), epirubicin 100 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m(2) on day 1 every 3 weeks). The primary endpoint was the pathological complete response (pCR) rate. Predictive factor analysis was conducted using clinicopathological markers, including hormone receptors and Ki67 labeling index (Ki67LI). A total of 477 patients were randomized; the overall response in the docetaxel/capecitabine and docetaxel groups was 88.3 and 87.4 %, respectively. There were no significant differences in the pCR rate (docetaxel/capecitabine: 23 %; docetaxel: 24 %; p = 0.748), disease-free survival, or overall survival. However, patients with mid-range Ki67LI (10-20 %) showed a trend towards improved pCR rate with docetaxel/capecitabine compared to docetaxel alone. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed pre-treatment Ki67LI (odds ratio 1.031; 95 % CI 1.014-1.048; p = 0.0004) to be a significant predictor of pCR in this neoadjuvant treatment setting. Docetaxel/capecitabine (after 4 cycles of FEC) did not generate significant improvement in pCR compared to docetaxel alone. However, exploratory analyses suggested that assessment of pre-treatment Ki67LI may be a useful tool in the identification of responders to preoperative docetaxel/capecitabine in early-stage breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 10/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes (LDs) on semipolar (2021) GaN substrates with peak output powers and external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) that are comparable to state-of-the-art commercial c-plane devices. Ridge waveguide LDs were fabricated on (2021) GaN substrates using InGaN waveguiding layers and GaN cladding layers. The devices lased at 454 nm at room temperature. We measured an output power of 2.15 W, an EQE of 39%, and a differential quantum efficiency of 49% from a single facet with a pulsed drive current (current density) of 2.02 A (28.1 kA/cm2).
    Applied Physics Letters 10/2013; 103(15):1112-. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report enhanced performance of InGaN solar cells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition through optimization of the annealing of the epitaxial wafer before device fabrication. We varied the annealing environment gas mixtures as well as temperatures to obtain the optimized annealing condition. It was found that the major improvement of the nitride solar cell efficiency after annealing is in the increase of the V oc. In addition, annealing at the reasonably moderate temperature of 550°C in O2 environment results in the highest-efficiency InGaN solar cell devices compared with devices annealed at different temperatures and in different gas environments.
    Journal of Electronic Materials 10/2013; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:For patients with breast cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy, residual tumour burden in lymph nodes is the strongest prognostic factor. However, conventional pathological examination has limitations that hinder the accurate and reproducible measurement. The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is a novel molecular method for detecting nodal metastasis. In this prospective multicentre trial, we assessed the performance of the OSNA assay in detecting nodal metastasis after chemotherapy.Methods:In total, 302 lymph nodes from 80 breast cancer patients who underwent axillary dissection after chemotherapy were analysed. Each node was cut into two or four slices. One piece or alternate pieces were evaluated by pathology, and the other(s) were examined using the OSNA assay. The results of the two methods were compared. Stromal fibrosis, histiocytic aggregates, and degenerated cancer cells were regarded as chemotherapy-induced histological changes.Results:The overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the OSNA assay compared with the reference pathology were 91.1%, 88.3%, and 91.7%, respectively. Of the 302 lymph nodes, 66 (21.9%) exhibited chemotherapy-induced histology. For these nodes, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 90.9%, 88.9%, and 93.3%, respectively.Conclusion:The OSNA assay can detect the residual tumour burden as accurately as conventional pathology, although chemotherapy-induced histological changes are present.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 3 September 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.503 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate intersuband InGaN/(Al)GaN quantum well infrared photodetectors grown on a free standing non-polar m-plane GaN substrate. The devices are grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and exhibit TM-polarized photocurrent at peak wavelengths of 7.5 and 9.3 μm at temperature of 14 K. Based on the experimental data of intersubband and interband transition energies and 8-band k · p Schrödinger-Poisson solver calculations, we were able to estimate the conduction band offset to valence band offset discontinuity ratio (ΔEc:ΔEv) of 57:43 for In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN and 55:45, for In0.095GA0.905N/Al0.07Ga0.93N non-polar m-plane multi-quantum well structures.
    Applied Physics Letters 07/2013; 103(2). · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GaN crystals were grown on hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) GaN seed crystals with non-polar surface orientations varying between on-axis m-plane and a-plane using the basic ammonothermal method. Three different surface morphology regimes were observed with the surface features including mounds, slate-like morphologies, and pyramidal ‘spikes’ composed of (0001) and non-polar microfacets. A macroscopic off-orientation of the non-steady-state surface and newly appearing steady-state growth surfaces towards [0001¯] by approximately 1° was observed with geometric constraints suggesting an off-orientation of the observed {10–10} microfacets towards [0001¯] by approximately 1° or greater.
    Journal of Crystal Growth 04/2013; 368:67–71. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scanning near-field and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy were applied to study potential fluctuations and photoexcited carrier dynamics in single m-plane InGaN quantum well structures. The far- and near-field spectra were found to have contributions from transitions to the first and second hole levels in the extended states, and transitions in the localized states. Correlations between parameters of the near-field spectra confirmed that extended state luminescence was prevailing. The localized states, which were found to be separated from the extended states by ∼10 meV barriers, were attributed to regions of a higher In content.
    Applied Physics Letters 03/2013; 102(10). · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the morphological evolution of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on nominally on-axis and intentionally misoriented free-standing m-plane GaN substrates. Large variations in p-n junction depth (±175nm) were observed for LEDs grown on nominally on-axis substrates, while negligible variations in junction depth (±20 nm) were observed for LEDs grown on intentionally misoriented substrates. The surfaces of LEDs grown on the nominally on-axis substrates were characterized by the presence of a high density of pyramidal hillocks [Hirai et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191906 (2007)], while the surfaces of the LEDs grown on the intentionally misoriented substrates were relatively smooth and free of pyramidal hillocks. Detailed measurements indicated that the variations in junction depth observed for LEDs grown on nominally on-axis substrates were related to an evolution in the shape of individual pyramidal hillocks during the growth of the LEDs. These results indicate that growing LEDs on intentionally misoriented substrates is an effective way to eliminate the pyramidal hillocks and variations in junction depth associated with growth on nominally on-axis substrates.
    Journal of Applied Physics 02/2013; 113(6). · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD), a major neurological disease, is characterised by a marked loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Patients with PD frequently show chewing and swallowing dysfunctions, but little is known about the characteristics of their stomatognathic functions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of PD on jaw muscle fibre and functions. PD model rats were made by means of the injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum of 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats. Five weeks after the injection, a radio-telemetric device was implanted to record muscle activity continuously from the superficial masseter and anterior belly of digastric muscles. Muscle activity was recorded for 3 days and was evaluated by the total duration of muscle activity per day (duty time). After recording the muscle activities, jaw muscles were isolated for immunohistochemical and PCR analyses. In PD model rats, the following findings of the digastrics muscles verify that compared to the control group: (i) the higher duty time exceeding 5% of the peak activity level, (ii) the higher expression of the mRNA of myosin heavy chain type I, and (iii) the tendency for fast to slow fibre-type transition. With respect to the masseter muscle, there were no significant differences in all analyses. In conclusion, PD leads to the changes in the jaw behaviours, resulting in a PD-specific chewing and swallowing dysfunctions.
    Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 01/2013; · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has revolutionized the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BiPN) is a serious complication that compromises clinical outcome. If patients with a risk of developing BiPN could be predicted, physicians might prefer weekly, reduced-dose, or subcutaneous approaches. To seek biomarkers for BiPN, we conducted a multicenter prospective study using a simple and unique system. Multiple myeloma patients received twice-weekly or weekly 1.3 mg/m(2) bortezomib intravenously, and a 2-ml sample of whole blood was obtained before treatment and 2-3 days and 1-3 weeks after the first dose. Induction of gene expression was then quantified by real-time PCR. Of a total of 64 enrolled patients, 53 patient samples qualified for mRNA analysis. The BiPN grade was associated with phytohemagglutinin-induced IL2, IFNG and TNFSF2, as well as with lipopolysaccharide-induced IL6 levels. More importantly, of the 19 patients showing a 3-fold increase in phytohemagglutinin-induced IL2, 14 did not suffer from BiPN (73.7% prediction), whereas of the 34 patients with a <3-fold increase, 23 experienced BiPN (67.6% prediction). Therefore, we concluded that pretreatment of phytohemagglutinin-induced IL2 mRNA levels in whole blood serve as a promising biomarker for predicting BiPN, and this finding warrants validation in a larger study.
    Blood Cancer Journal 01/2013; 3:e150. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comparative analysis was performed on 2021 and 2021 semipolar light emitting diodes using atom probe tomography. The quantification of 3D Indium distribution in the single quantum well (SQW) active region in these devices revealed a higher Indium incorporation in the 2021 GaN light emitting diode SQW consistent with the predicted polarization influenced energy landscape in the well. On the basis of the statistical analysis performed, the Indium distribution can be considered homogeneous—with any compositional variations attributed to random statistical fluctuations arising during the growth of these structures.
    Applied Physics Letters 01/2013; 102(25):251104-251104-4. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of intentional p-GaN surface roughening on the performance of c-plane InGaN/GaN solar cells was investigated. Surface roughness was introduced by growing the p-GaN at a relatively high rate and low temperature which resulted in a faceted surface with a high density of V-defects. Increasing the surface roughness led to a 69.4% increase in short circuit current density. Similar surface roughening techniques should also be applicable for increasing the extraction efficiency of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes.
    Applied Physics Letters 01/2013; 103(24):241104-241104-4. · 3.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

14k Citations
2,370.53 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2014
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
    • University of Oslo
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
    • Universität Bremen
      • Institut für Festkörperphysik (IFP)
      Bremen, Bremen, Germany
    • Linköping University
      • Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM)
      Linköping, Östergötland, Sweden
  • 2000–2014
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      • • Department of Materials Engineering
      Santa Barbara, California, United States
    • Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • School of Materials Science
      Ishikawa, Okinawa-ken, Japan
    • Nippon Veterinary and Animal Science University
      • Department of Veterinary Pathology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2013
    • National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
    • Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2009–2013
    • St. Luke's International Hospital
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Hyogo College of Medicine
      • Department of Gastroenterology
      Nishinomiya, Hyogo-ken, Japan
    • Osaka Prefecture University
      • Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology
      Sakai, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2011
    • Showa University
      Shinagawa, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1984–2011
    • Kyoto University
      • • Department of Breast Surgery
      • • Department of Neurology
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 2010
    • Institute for Environmental Sciences
      Ōmisawa, Aomori Prefecture, Japan
  • 2001–2010
    • The University of Tokushima
      • Department of Clinical Neuroscience
      Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan
    • Kurashiki Central Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Kurasiki, Okayama, Japan
    • Chiba University
      • Department of Radiology
      Chiba-shi, Chiba-ken, Japan
    • Akita University
      Akita, Akita, Japan
    • Hokkaido University
      • Department of Internal Medicine II
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
    • Fukui National College Of Technology
      Hukui, Fukui, Japan
    • Otsuka Pharmaceutical Group
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2000–2010
    • Dokkyo Medical University
      • Department of Anatomic and Diagnostic Pathology
      Tochigi, Tochigi-ken, Japan
  • 1991–2010
    • Tohoku University
      • • Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM)
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Pathology
      Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, Japan
    • Japan Women's University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1997–2009
    • University of Tsukuba
      • Applied Physics
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
    • Akita University Hospital
      Akita, Akita, Japan
    • National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • Niigata University
      • Department of Physics
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
  • 1991–2009
    • Hiroshima University
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • School of Medicine
      Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima-ken, Japan
  • 2008
    • The Corporation for Production and Research of Laboratory Primates
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2005–2008
    • Nagoya University
      • Clinical Laboratory
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • Gunma Prefectural Cancer Center
      Maebashi, Gunma Prefecture, Japan
  • 1999–2008
    • Aichi Medical University
      • Department of Pathology
    • Tokyo Women's Medical University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      • Department of Information Physiology
      Miura, Kanagawa-ken, Japan
    • University of the Ryukyus
      • First Department of Internal Medicine
      Okinawa, Okinawa-ken, Japan
  • 2007
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      • Electronics and Photonics Research Institute
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • Toranomon Hospital
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1991–2007
    • Aichi Cancer Center
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2002–2006
    • Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Nagoya City University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • Kanagawa University
      • Faculty of Engineering
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2003
    • Fujita Health University
      • Department of Oral and Maxillo-facial Surgery
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 1988–2003
    • Osaka City University
      • • Department of Gastroenterology
      • • Third Department of Internal Medicine
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2000–2001
    • Sophia University
      • Division of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1998–2001
    • Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • Gifu Prefectural Tajimi Hospital
      Gihu, Gifu, Japan
    • Waseda University
      • Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1995–2001
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Faculty and Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sceince
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • Higashi-Matsudo Municipal Hospital
      Matsudo, Chiba, Japan
    • Bio-Dynamics Research Institute
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1992–2001
    • Tokyo Institute of Technology
      • • Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology
      • • Department of Bioengineering
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • Ja Hiroshima General Hospital
      Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan
  • 1997–1999
    • Juntendo University
      • Department of Neurology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1992–1999
    • Yokohama City University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Dermatology (YCUH)
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1996–1997
    • Toyama University
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
    • Nagasaki University Hospital
      Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan
    • Tenri Yorozu Hospital
      Тэнри, Nara, Japan
    • National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry
      • Department of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology
      Кодаиры, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1994–1995
    • Okayama University
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 1993
    • North Internal Medicine
      Bartlett, Tennessee, United States
    • Tokyo University of Technology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Japan BCG Laboratory
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1985–1987
    • Kanazawa University
      • School of Medicine
      Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
  • 1986
    • Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan