S. R. Rosen

University of Leicester, Leiscester, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (113)256 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The VY Scl system (anti-dwarf nova) V751 Cyg is examined following a claim of a super-soft spectrum in the optical low state. Methods: A serendipitous XMM-Newton X-ray observation and, 21 months later, Swift X-ray and UV observations, have provided the best such data on this source so far. These optical high-state datasets are used to study the flux and spectral variability of V751 Cyg. Results: Both the XMM-Newton and Swift data show evidence for modulation of the X-rays for the first time at the known 3.467 hr orbital period of V751 Cyg. In two Swift observations, taken ten days apart, the mean X-ray flux remained unchanged, while the UV source brightened by half a magnitude. The X-ray spectrum was not super-soft during the optical high state, but rather due to multi-temperature optically thin emission, with significant (10^{21-22} cm^-2) absorption, which was higher in the observation by Swift than that of XMM-Newton. The X-ray flux is harder at orbital minimum, suggesting that the modulation is related to absorption, perhaps linked to the azimuthally asymmetric wind absorption seen previously in H-alpha.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are obscured by large amounts of absorbing material that makes them invisible at many wavelengths. X-rays, given their penetrating power, provide the most secure way for finding these AGN. The XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalog is the largest catalog of X-ray sources ever produced; it contains about half a million detections. These sources are mostly AGN. We have derived X-ray spectral fits for very many 3XMM-DR4 sources ($\gtrsim$ 114 000 observations, corresponding to $\sim$ 77 000 unique sources), which contain more than 50 source photons per detector. Here, we use a subsample of $\simeq$ 1000 AGN in the footprint of the SDSS area (covering 120 deg$^2$) with available spectroscopic redshifts. We searched for highly obscured AGN by applying an automated selection technique based on X-ray spectral analysis that is capable of efficiently selecting AGN. The selection is based on the presence of either a) flat rest-frame spectra; b) flat observed spectra; c) an absorption turnover, indicative of a high rest-frame column density; or d) an Fe K$\alpha$ line with an equivalent width > 500 eV. We found 81 highly obscured candidate sources. Subsequent detailed manual spectral fits revealed that 28 of them are heavily absorbed by column densities higher than 10$^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$. Of these 28 AGN, 15 are candidate Compton-thick AGN on the basis of either a high column density, consistent within the 90% confidence level with N$_{\rm H}$ $>$10$^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$, or a large equivalent width (>500 eV) of the Fe K$\alpha$ line. Another six are associated with near-Compton-thick AGN with column densities of $\sim$ 5$\times$10$^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$. A combination of selection criteria a) and c) for low-quality spectra, and a) and d) for medium- to high-quality spectra, pinpoint highly absorbed AGN with an efficiency of 80%.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The XMM-Newton spectral-fit database is an ongoing ESA funded project aimed to construct a catalogue of spectral-fitting results for all the sources within the XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue for which spectral data products have been pipeline-extracted (~ 120,000 X-ray source detections). The fundamental goal of this project is to provide the astronomical community with a tool to construct large and representative samples of X-ray sources by allowing source selection according to spectral properties.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 02/2014; 9(S304).
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    ABSTRACT: Tables 8-33 list the X-ray sources detected in the 26 different fields observed in this study, with their X-ray parameters and optical and infrared counterparts. (27 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Many different classes of X-ray sources contribute to the Galactic landscape at high energies. Although the nature of the most luminous X-ray emitters is now fairly well understood, the population of low-to-medium X-ray luminosity (Lx = 10^27-10^34 erg/s) sources remains much less studied, our knowledge being mostly based on the observation of local members. The advent of wide field and high sensitivity X-ray telescopes such as XMM-Newton now offers the opportunity to observe this low-to-medium Lx population at large distances. We report on the results of a Galactic plane survey conducted by the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC). Beyond its astrophysical goals, this survey aims at gathering a representative sample of identified X-ray sources at low latitude that can be used later on to statistically identify the rest of the serendipitous sources discovered in the Milky Way. The survey is based on 26 XMM-Newton observations, obtained at |b| < 20 deg, distributed over a large range in Galactic longitudes and covering a summed area of 4 deg2. The flux limit of our survey is 2 x 10-15 erg/cm^2/s in the soft (0.5 - 2 keV) band and 1 x 10^-14 erg/cm^2/s in the hard (2 - 12 keV) band. We detect a total of 1319 individual X-ray sources. Using optical follow-up observations supplemented by cross-correlation with a large range of multi-wavelength archival catalogues we identify 316 X-ray sources. This constitutes the largest group of spectroscopically identified low latitude X-ray sources at this flux level. The majority of the identified X-ray sources are active coronae with spectral types in the range A - M at maximum distances of ~ 1 kpc. The number of identified active stars increases towards late spectral types, reaching a maximum at K. (abridged)
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This programme is aimed at obtaining one of the largest X-ray selected samples of identified active galactic nuclei to date in order to characterise such a population at intermediate fluxes, where most of the Universe's accretion power originates. We present the XMM-Newton Wide Angle Survey (XWAS), a new catalogue of almost a thousand X-ray sources spectroscopically identified through optical observations. A sample of X-ray sources detected in 68 XMM-Newton pointed observations was selected for optical multi-fibre spectroscopy. Optical counterparts and corresponding photometry of the X-ray sources were obtained from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey. Candidates for spectroscopy were initially selected with magnitudes down to R~21, with preference for X-ray sources having a flux F(0.5-4.5 keV) >10^-14 erg s^-1 cm^-2. Optical spectroscopic observations performed at the Anglo Australian Telescope Two Degree Field were analysed, and the derived spectra were classified based on optical emission lines. We have identified through optical spectroscopy 940 X-ray sources over ~11.8 deg^2 of the sky. Source populations in our sample can be summarised as 65% broad line active galactic nuclei (BLAGN), 16% narrow emission line galaxies (NELGs), 6% absorption line galaxies (ALGs) and 13% stars. An active nucleus is likely to be present also in the large majority of the X-ray sources spectroscopically classified as NELGs or ALGs. Sources lie in high-galactic latitude (|b| > 20 deg) XMM-Newton fields mainly in the southern hemisphere. Due to the large parameter space in redshift (0 < z < 4.25) and flux (10^-15 < F(0.5-4.5 keV) < 10^-12 erg s^-1 cm^-2) covered by the XWAS this work provides an excellent resource to further study subsamples and particular cases. The overall properties of the extragalactic objects are presented in this paper.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The XMM-Newton Serendipitous Ultraviolet Source Survey (XMM-SUSS) is a catalogue of ultraviolet (UV) sources detected serendipitously by the Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) on-board the XMM-Newton observatory. The catalogue contains ultraviolet-detected sources collected from 2,417 XMM-OM observations in 1-6 broad band UV and optical filters, made between 24 February 2000 and 29 March 2007. The primary contents of the catalogue are source positions, magnitudes and fluxes in 1 to 6 passbands, and these are accompanied by profile diagnostics and variability statistics. The XMM-SUSS is populated by 753,578 UV source detections above a 3 sigma signal-to-noise threshold limit which relate to 624,049 unique objects. Taking account of substantial overlaps between observations, the net sky area covered is 29-54 square degrees, depending on UV filter. The magnitude distributions peak at 20.2, 20.9 and 21.2 in UVW2, UVM2 and UVW1 respectively. More than 10 per cent of sources have been visited more than once using the same filter during XMM-Newton operation, and > 20 per cent of sources are observed more than once per filter during an individual visit. Consequently, the scope for science based on temporal source variability on timescales of hours to years is broad. By comparison with other astrophysical catalogues we test the accuracy of the source measurements and define the nature of the serendipitous UV XMM-OM source sample. The distributions of source colours in the UV and optical filters are shown together with the expected loci of stars and galaxies, and indicate that sources which are detected in multiple UV bands are predominantly star-forming galaxies and stars of type G or earlier.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2012; 426(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe here a new full 2-D parameterization of the PSFs of the three XMM-Newton EPIC telescopes as a function of instrument, energy, off-axis angle and azimuthal angle, covering the whole field-of-view of the three EPIC detectors. It models the general PSF envelopes, the primary and secondary spokes, their radial dependencies, and the large-scale azimuthal variations. This PSF model has been constructed via the stacking and centering of a large number of bright, but not significantly piled-up point sources from the full field-of-view of each EPIC detector, and azimuthally filtering the resultant PSF envelopes to form the spoke structures and the gross azimuthal shapes observed. This PSF model is available for use within the XMM-Newton Science Analysis System via the usage of Current Calibration Files XRTi_XPSF_0011.CCF and later versions. Initial source-searching tests showed substantial reductions in the numbers of spurious sources being detected in the wings of bright point sources. Furthermore, we have uncovered a systematic error in the previous PSF system, affecting the entire mission to date, whereby returned source RA and Dec values are seen to vary sinusoidally about the true position (amplitude ~0.8") with source azimuthal position. The new PSF system is now available and is seen as a major improvement with regard to the detection of spurious sources. The new PSF also largely removes the discovered astrometry error and is seen to improve the positional accuracy of EPIC. The modular nature of the PSF system allows for further refinements in the future.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2011; 534. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) is one of three instruments onboard the Swift observatory. The photometric calibration has been published, and this paper follows up with details on other aspects of the calibration including a measurement of the point spread function with an assessment of the orbital variation and the effect on photometry. A correction for large-scale variations in sensitivity over the field of view is described, as well as a model of the coincidence loss which is used to assess the coincidence correction in extended regions. We have provided a correction for the detector distortion and measured the resulting internal astrometric accuracy of the UVOT, also giving the absolute accuracy with respect to the International Celestial Reference System. We have compiled statistics on the background count rates, and discuss the sources of the background, including instrumental scattered light. In each case, we describe any impact on UVOT measurements, whether any correction is applied in the standard pipeline data processing or whether further steps are recommended.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2010; 406(3):1687 - 1700. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Virtual Observatory functionality has been used extensively to determine the properties and test the accuracy of the XMM-Newton serendipitous ultraviolet source sample against objects within the Sloan optical and GALEX UV data archives. We report on the successes and perceived limitations of this process.
    07/2009;
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    03/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We present observations of GRB 050318 by the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift observatory. The data are the first detections of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow decay by the UVOT instrument, launched specifically to open a new window on these transient sources. We showcase UVOT's ability to provide multicolor photometry and the advantages of combining UVOT data with simultaneous and contemporaneous observations from the high-energy detectors on the Swift spacecraft. Multiple filters covering 1800-6000 Å reveal a red source with a spectral slope steeper than the simultaneous X-ray continuum. Spectral fits indicate that the UVOT colors are consistent with dust extinction by systems at z = 1.2037 and 1.4436, redshifts where absorption systems have been preidentified. However, the data can be most easily reproduced with models containing a foreground system of neutral gas redshifted by z = 2.8 ± 0.3. For both of the above scenarios, spectral and decay slopes are, for the most part, consistent with fireball expansion into a uniform medium, provided a cooling break occurs between the energy ranges of the UVOT and Swift's X-ray instrumentation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 635(2):1187. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The UVOT telescope on the Swift observatory has detected optical afterglow emission from GRB 050319. The flux declined with a power-law slope of α = -0.57 between the start of observations some 230 s after the burst onset (90 s after the burst trigger) until it faded below the sensitivity threshold of the instrument after ~5 × 104 s. There is no evidence for the rapidly declining component in the early light curve that is seen at the same time in the X-ray band. The afterglow is not detected in UVOT shortward of the B band, suggesting a redshift of about 3.5. The optical V-band emission lies on the extension of the X-ray spectrum, with an optical-to-X-ray slope of β = -0.8. The relatively flat decay rate of the burst suggests that the central engine continues to inject energy into the fireball for as long as a few × 104 s after the burst.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 639(1):311. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present ultraviolet and optical light curves in six broadband filters and grism spectra obtained by Swift's Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope for the Type Ia supernova SN 2005am. The data were collected beginning about 4 days before the B-band maximum, with excellent coverage of the rapid decline phase and later observations extending out to 69 days after the peak. The optical and near-UV light curve match well those of SN 1992A. The other UV observations constitute the first set of light curves shorter than 2500 Å and allow us to compare the light curve evolution in three UV bands. One interesting feature is that the decay in the intermediate UVM2 band is shallower than in the filters on either side and may result from the bump in the interstellar extinction curve. The UV behavior of this and other low-redshift supernovae can be used to constrain theories of progenitor evolution or to interpret optical light curves of high-redshift supernovae. Using Swift's X-Ray Telescope, we also report the upper limit to SN 2005am's X-ray luminosity to be 6 × 1039 ergs s-1 in the 0.3-10 keV. This result is derived from 58 ks of exposure time spread out over 7 weeks beginning 4 days before the B-band maximum.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 635(2):1192. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pointed observations with XMM-Newton provide the basis for creating catalogues of X-ray sources detected serendipitously in each field. This paper describes the creation and characteristics of the 2XMM catalogue. The 2XMM catalogue has been compiled from a new processing of the XMM-Newton EPIC camera data. The main features of the processing pipeline are described in detail. The catalogue, the largest ever made at X-ray wavelengths, contains 246897 detections drawn from 3491 public XMM-Newton observations over a 7-year interval, which relate to 191870 unique sources. The catalogue fields cover a sky area of more than 500deg2. The non-overlapping sky are a is ~360deg2 (~1% of the sky) as many regions of the sky are observed more than once by XMM-Newton. The catalogue probes a large sky area at the flux limit where the bulk of the objects that contribute to the X-ray background lie and provides a major resource for generating large, well-defined X-ray selected source samples, studying the X-ray source population and identifying rare object types. The main characteristics of the catalogue are presented, including its photometric and astrometric properties The 2XMMi catalogue is available as Cat. in VizieR. (4 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 09/2008; 349:30339.
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    ABSTRACT: The 2XMM catalog, the world's largest catalog of X-ray sources, was published in August 2007 by the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC). All observations using XMM-Newton which had been released to the public domain by May 2007 were processed using the latest data analysis software and calibration. Spectra and time-series are available for the brighter sources.
    08/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Pointed observations with XMM-Newton provide the basis for creating catalogues of X-ray sources detected serendipitously in each field. This paper describes the creation and characteristics of the 2XMM catalogue. Methods: The 2XMM catalogue has been compiled from a new processing of the XMM-Newton EPIC camera data. The main features of the processing pipeline are described in detail. Results: The catalogue, the largest ever made at X-ray wavelengths, contains 246,897 detections drawn from 3491 public XMM-Newton observations over a 7-year interval, which relate to 191,870 unique sources. The catalogue fields cover a sky area of more than 500 sq.deg. The non-overlapping sky area is ~360 sq.deg. (~1% of the sky) as many regions of the sky are observed more than once by XMM-Newton. The catalogue probes a large sky area at the flux limit where the bulk of the objects that contribute to the X-ray background lie and provides a major resource for generating large, well-defined X-ray selected source samples, studying the X-ray source population and identifying rare object types. The main characteristics of the catalogue are presented, including its photometric and astrometric properties . Comment: 27 pages (plus 8 pages appendices), 15 figures. Minor changes following referee's comments; now accepted for publication in A & A. Note that this paper "V", not paper "VI" in the series. Previous posting was incorrect in this regard
    07/2008;
  • 07/2008;
  • 07/2008;
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    H. Ziaeepour, S. Rosen
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    ABSTRACT: Observations of present and future X-ray telescopes include a large number of ipitous sources of unknown types. They are a rich source of knowledge about X-ray dominated astronomical objects, their distribution, and their evolution. The large number of these sources does not permit their individual spectroscopical follow-up and classification. Here we use Chandra Multi-Wavelength public data to investigate a number of statistical algorithms for classification of X-ray sources with optical imaging follow-up. We show that up to statistical uncertainties, each class of X-ray sources has specific photometric characteristics that can be used for its classification. We assess the relative and absolute performance of classification methods and measured features by comparing the behaviour of physical quantities for statistically classified objects with what is obtained from spectroscopy. We find that among methods we have studied, multi-dimensional probability distribution is the best for both classifying source type and redshift, but it needs a sufficiently large input (learning) data set. In absence of such data, a mixture of various methods can give a better final result.We discuss some of potential applications of the statistical classification and the enhancement of information obtained in this way. We also assess the effect of classification methods and input data set on the astronomical conclusions such as distribution and properties of X-ray selected sources. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
    Astronomische Nachrichten 12/2007; 329(1):84 - 105. · 1.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

627 Citations
256.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2014
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2010
    • University College London
      • Department of Space and Climate Physics
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      University Park, MD, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Wyoming
      Laramie, Wyoming, United States
  • 1992
    • Planetary Science Institute
      Tucson, Arizona, United States