[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children with Crohn's disease grow poorly, and inflammation depresses the response of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to growth hormone. Correcting the inflammation normalises growth velocity; however, removing inflammation cannot be achieved in all children. Our lack of understanding of IGF-1 kinetics has hampered its use, particularly as high IGF-1 concentrations over long periods may predispose to colon cancer. We hypothesised that mathematical modelling of IGF-1 would define dosing regimes that return IGF-1 concentrations into the normal range, without reaching values that risk cancer.
Pharmacokinetic intervention study.
Tertiary paediatric gastroenterology unit.
8 children (M:F; 4:4) entered the study. All completed: 5 South Asian British; 2 White British; 1 African British. Inclusion criteria: Children over 10 years with active Crohn's disease (C reactive protein >10 mg/l or erythrocyte sedimentation rate >25 mm/h) and height velocity <-2 SD score. Exclusion criteria: closed epiphyses; corticosteroids within 3 months; neoplasia or known hypersensitivity to recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-1).
Subcutaneous rhIGF-1 (120 μg/kg) per dose over two admissions: the first as a single dose and the second as twice daily doses over 5 days.
Significant increase in circulating IGF-1.
Incidence of side effects of IGF-1. A mathematical model of circulating IGF-1 (Ac) was developed to include parameters of endogenous synthesis (Ksyn); exogenous uptake (Ka) from the subcutaneous dose (As): and IGF-1 clearance: where dAc/dt=Ksyn - Kout×Ac+Ka×As.
Subcutaneous IGF-1 increased concentrations, which were maintained on twice daily doses. In covariate analysis, disease activity reduced Ksyn (p<0.001). Optimal dosing was derived from least squares regression fitted to a dataset of 384 Crohn's patients, with model parameters assigned by simulation.
By using age, weight and disease activity scaling in IGF-1 dosing, over 95% of children will have normalised IGF-1 concentrations below +2.5 SDs of the normal population mean, a level not associated with cancer risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present UK criterion standard for assessing children with suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is upper endoscopy, ileocolonoscopy, and barium follow-through (BaFT). Significant doses of radiation, unpalatable contrast, and volume intolerance are involved with BaFT. Practice in investigating Crohn disease (CD) is changing with the increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of the present study was to compare BaFT and a new abdominal MRI protocol in a paediatric IBD population.
All consecutive patients with a new diagnosis of IBD or requiring reassessment from September 2008 to December 2010 were investigated with both abdominal MRI and BaFT in accordance with a specific local paediatric IBD protocol. The studies were reported by nonblinded radiologists with an interest in gastrointestinal imaging. The reports were compared in conjunction with case note review.
Eighty-seven patients underwent both BaFT and MRI abdomen. Thirty-one percent of patients had additional pathology on MRI, not seen on the BaFT. Sixty-seven percent of patients (n=59) had an MRI finding equivalent to BaFT. Using histology as a criterion standard for detecting terminal ileal disease, BaFT had a sensitivity and specificity of 76% and 67%, and MRI had a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 95%, respectively.
This is the largest series of small bowel MRI in a paediatric population. MRI reports were at least equivalent to BaFT. MRI had higher sensitivity and, particularly, specificity in detecting terminal ileal pathology. These findings suggest that MRI should become the criterion standard investigation in children with IBD in centres with appropriate expertise, with zero radiation exposure being highly advantageous.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 06/2012; 54(6):758-62. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesised that nonadherence to thiopurines is more common in adolescents than in adults with inflammatory bowel disease.
We sought factors associated with thiopurine nonadherence defined by thiopurine metabolite levels.
Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that adolescents (odds ratio [OR] 4.6 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-11.5]; P < 0.01) compared with adults, patients with Crohn disease (OR 3.3 [CI 1.1-10.5] P = 0.04) compared with ulcerative colitis, and patients living in more socially deprived areas (OR 1.03 [CI 1.0-1.1] P = 0.02) were more likely to be nonadherent to thiopurines.
Adolescents are more frequently nonadherent than adults: prospective studies are required to determine the reasons for nonadherence in adolescents.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 12/2011; 54(5):685-9. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are more likely to have Crohn's disease (CD) than ulcerative colitis (UC) and their disease tends to be more extensive and severe than in adults. We hypothesized that the prevalence of anemia would therefore be greater in children and adolescents than in adults attending IBD outpatient clinics.
Using the WHO age-adjusted definitions of anemia we assessed the prevalence, severity, type, and response to treatment of anemia in patients attending pediatric, adolescent, and adult IBD clinics at our hospital.
The prevalence of anemia was 70% (41/59) in children, 42% (24/54) in adolescents, and 40% (49/124) in adults (P < 0.01). Overall, children (88% [36/41]) and adolescents (83% [20/24]) were more often iron-deficient than adults (55% [27/49]) (P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression showed that both active disease (odds ratio [OR], 4.7 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5, 8.8) and attending the pediatric clinic (OR 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6, 8.4) but not the adolescent clinic predicted iron deficiency anemia. Fewer iron-deficient children (13% [5/36]) than adolescents (30% [6/20]) or adults (48% [13/27]) had been given oral iron (P < 0.05); none had received intravenous iron compared with 30% (6/20) adolescents and 41% (11/27) adults (P < 0.0001).
Anemia is even more common in children than in older IBD patients. Oral iron was given to half of adolescents and adults but, despite similar tolerance and efficacy, only a quarter of children with iron-deficient anemia. Reasons for the apparent underutilization of iron therapy include a perceived lack of benefit and concerns about side effects, including worsening of IBD activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) send processes between epithelial cells into the gut lumen to sample pathogens. Noninvasive enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) colonize the gut using a type three secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into epithelial cells. We hypothesized that EPEC might also inject proteins into DC processes to dampen immune recognition. Using a T3SS-linked fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based system we show that EPEC injects effectors into in vitro grown human myeloid DCs. Injected cells emit a blue signal due to cleavage of the green fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based substrate CCF2/AM by β-lactamase. When cultured with a mutant EPEC unable to translocate effector proteins, myeloid DCs show rapid activation of NF-κB, secrete large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and increase expression of CD80, CD83, and CD86, whereas wild-type EPEC barely elicits cytokine production and shuts off nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. By deleting effector protein genes, we identified NleE as being critical for this effect. Expression of NleE in HeLa cells completely prevented nuclear p65 accumulation in response to IL1-β, and luciferase production in an NF-κB reporter cell line. DCs cocultured with wild-type EPEC or NleE-complemented strains were less potent at inducing MLR. EPEC was also able to inject effectors into DCs sending processes through model gut epithelium in a transwell system and into Peyer's patch myeloid DCs. Thus, EPEC translocate effectors into human DCs to dampen the inflammatory response elicited by its own pathogen-associated molecular patterns.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2010; 185(7):4118-27. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is recognized to produce toxins A-E and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 associated with food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome. Enterotoxins G and I co-exist in the same S aureus strains (staphylococcal enterotoxin G and staphylococcal enterotoxin I) and are implicated in scarlet fever and toxic shock. We report these enterotoxins as causative agents of 2 cases of neonatal intractable diarrhea with enteropathy.
We used a note review for this study. Stool culture, multiplex polymerase chain reaction for enterotoxin, duodenal biopsy specimens for H&E, periodic acid-Schiff staining, and electron microscopy were used.
Infant 1 had diarrhea from age 2 weeks and was referred at age 5 weeks with weight less than the 0.4th percentile. Infant 2 was referred at age 7 weeks with 4 weeks' of diarrhea, weight less than the 0.4th percentile. Both infants were severely malnourished. Elemental feeds were not tolerated and total parenteral nutrition was required. S aureus producing staphylococcal enterotoxin G and staphylococcal enterotoxin I was isolated in stools from both infants. Clinical improvement occurred after intravenous flucloxacillin and parenteral nutrition. Histology showed subtotal villous atrophy (H&E) with abnormal brush border (periodic acid-Schiff). Electron microscopy showed severe microvilli destruction, dilated mitochondria, and lysosomes containing cellular debris. Repeat histology was normal in infant 2, age 3 months, off parenteral nutrition, showed return to normal. Currently, both infants are 2 years of age and are thriving on a normal diet.
Staphylococcal enterotoxin G- and I-induced enteropathy is a life-threatening condition, causing reversible disruption of enterocyte ultrastructure that responds well to supportive treatment with flucloxacillin and parenteral nutrition This condition should be a differential diagnosis of neonatal early onset diarrhea.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 02/2008; 6(2):251-4. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary fat is an important source of nutrition. Here we identify eight mutations in SARA2 that are associated with three severe disorders of fat malabsorption. The Sar1 family of proteins initiates the intracellular transport of proteins in COPII (coat protein)-coated vesicles. Our data suggest that chylomicrons, which vastly exceed the size of typical COPII vesicles, are selectively recruited by the COPII machinery for transport through the secretory pathways of the cell.