[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroblasts migrate from the subventricular zone along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb (OB). While the migration occurs by movement over other cells, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We have found that ADAM2 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 2) is expressed in migrating RMS neuroblasts and functions in their migration. The brains from ADAM2 knockout (KO) mice showed a smaller OB than that seen in wild-type (WT) mice at postnatal day 0. In addition, the RMS in ADAM2 KO mice appeared thinner and less voluminous in its rostral part and thicker in its caudal part. Estimates of migration in vivo using bromodeoxyuridine labeling revealed that neuroblasts from KO mice show a decreased migration rate compared with those from WT mice. Direct assays of migration by imaging living slices also showed a decreased migration speed and loss of directionality in the KO mice. This phenotype was similar to that seen in RMS containing slices from WT mice exposed to a peptide that mimicked the disintegrin loop of ADAM2. Finally, RMS explants from KO or WT mice that were cultured in Matrigel also revealed striking differences. The cells migrating out of explants from WT mice showed robust cell-cell interactions. In contrast, fewer cells migrated out of explants from ADAM2 KO mice, and those that did were largely dispersed and their migration inhibited. These experiments suggest that ADAM2 contributes to RMS migration, possibly through cell-cell interactions that mediate the rapid migration of the neuroblasts to their endpoint.
European Journal of Neuroscience 05/2008; 27(7):1585-95. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06119.x · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglia rapidly become reactive in response to diverse stimuli and are thought to be prominent participants in the pathophysiology of both acute injury and chronic neurological diseases. However, mature microglial reactions to a focal lesion have not been characterized dynamically in adult vertebrate tissue. Here, we present a detailed analysis of long-distance perilesional microglial migration using time-lapse confocal microscopy in acutely isolated living slices from adult brain-injured mice. Extensive migration of perilesional microglia was apparent by 24 h after injury and peaked at 3 d. Average instantaneous migration speeds of approximately 5 microm/min and peak speeds >10 microm/min were observed. Collective, directed migration toward the lesion edge was not observed as might be expected in the presence of chemoattractive gradients. Rather, migration was autonomous and could be modeled as a random walk. Pharmacological blockade of the cysteine-cysteine chemokine receptor 5 reduced migration velocity and the number of perilesional migratory microglia without affecting directional persistence, suggesting a novel role for chemokines in modulation of discrete migratory parameters. Finally, activated microglia in the denervated hippocampal stratum oriens did not migrate extensively, whereas human immunodeficiency virus-1 tat-activated microglia migrated nearly twice as fast as those at the stab lesion, indicating a nonuniform microglial response to different stimuli. Understanding the characteristics and specific molecular mechanisms underlying microglial migration after neural injury could reveal novel targets for therapeutic strategies for modulating neuroinflammation in human diseases.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 08/2005; 25(30):7040-7. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5171-04.2005 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Subventricular microglia (SVMs) are positioned at the interface of the cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma and may play a role in periventricular inflammatory reactions. However, SVMs have not been previously investigated in detail due to the lack of a specific methodology for their study exclusive of deeper parenchymal microglia.
We have developed and characterized a novel model for the investigation of subventricular microglial reactions in mice using intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of high-dose rhodamine dyes. Dynamic studies using timelapse confocal microscopy in situ complemented the histopathological analysis.
We demonstrate that high-dose ICV rhodamine dye injection resulted in selective uptake by the ependyma and ependymal death within hours. Phagocytosis of ependymal debris by activated SVMs was evident by 1d as demonstrated by the appearance of rhodamine-positive SVMs. In the absence of further manipulation, labelled SVMs remained in the subventricular space. However, these cells exhibited the ability to migrate several hundred microns into the parenchyma towards a deafferentation injury of the hippocampus. This "infiltrative microgliosis" was verified in situ using timelapse confocal microscopy. Finally, supporting the disease relevance of this event, the triad of ependymal cell death, SVM activation, and infiltrative microgliosis was recapitulated by a single ICV injection of HIV-1 tat protein.
Subependymal microglia exhibit robust activation and migration in periventricular inflammatory responses. Further study of this population of microglia may provide insight into neurological diseases with tendencies to involve the ventricular system and periventricular tissues.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 02/2005; 2(1):5. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-2-5 · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rostral migratory stream (RMS) is an extension of the subventricular zone (SVZ) that ends at the center of the olfactory bulb. In rodents, the SVZ and RMS contain the precursor cells for the olfactory interneurons. In development and throughout adult life, these neural precursors leave the SVZ, migrate tangentially along the RMS to the olfactory bulb, from where they then begin to migrate radially to their final destination and differentiate into mature neurons. Live imaging techniques have revealed the nature of RMS migrations at high spatial and temporal resolution. Through the use of genetic and other interventions, the molecular mechanisms controlling the migration are now beginning to emerge. Here we review the nature of the migrations and the putative molecular players.
Current Topics in Developmental Biology 02/2004; 61:135-52. DOI:10.1016/S0070-2153(04)61006-4 · 4.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Precursors of the olfactory interneurons migrate from the subventricular zone via the rostral migratory stream (RMS). To investigate the molecular mechanisms by which RMS cells migrate, we used a slice preparation, which allows the migrating cells to be imaged at very high temporal and spatial resolution in the presence of added inhibitors. Using immunohistochemistry, we first determined that the alpha1-, beta8-, and beta1-integrin subunits and the alpha5- and gamma1-laminin subunits are expressed during embryonic day 16 to the early postnatal stage. During early postnatal days, alpha(v)- and beta6-integrins appeared, and their expression persisted throughout adulthood. The migrating cells also expressed the netrin receptors neogenin and Deleted in Colorectal Carcinoma (DCC). Netrin-1 is expressed in olfactory mitral cells. Anti-integrin antibodies inhibited the production of protrusions as well as cellular translocation. In contrast, anti-DCC antibodies primarily altered the direction of the protrusions; consequently, the migration was no longer unidirectional, and the speed was reduced. Thus, the interaction of DCC, possibly through an interaction with netrin-1, contributes to the direction of migration by regulating the formation of directed protrusions. In contrast, the integrins function in production of protrusions and cellular translocation, with different integrins participating at different developmental stages.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 06/2002; 22(9):3568-79. · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is known to be the most effective growth factor for macrophage and microglial proliferation. In the brain tissue system, M-CSF is mainly produced in astrocytes and microglia, but is not known to occur in neurons. In the present paper, we examined the distribution of neurons expressing M-CSF in the mouse brain by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. We observed M-CSF immunoreactivity in both the cerebellum and the olfactory bulb. These positive cells were found to be Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, and mitral cells in the olfactory bulb. M-CSF mRNA expression was also confirmed to occur in these cells. Purkinje cells of reeler and weaver mutants showed M-CSF expression as seen in wild-type mice; however, those in the staggerer mutant did not. This expression in wild-type mice first appeared at postnatal day 7 and continued stably thereafter. When Purkinje cells were deprived of their climbing fibre innervation by inferior cerebellar pedunculotomy or by transplantation of cerebellar anlagen into the anterior eye chamber, the expression of M-CSF remained unchanged. These data indicate that expression of M-CSF in Purkinje cells is controlled by an intrinsic mechanism and could, therefore, be a new marker of postnatal development in rodent cerebella. The absence of M-CSF expression in the staggerer mutant is possibly due to developmental arrest in the early postnatal period.
The Histochemical Journal 01/2002; 34(1-2):85-95. DOI:10.1023/A:1021308328278
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to clarify whether gross total tumor resection can prolong the survival in adult patients with supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and to clarify what subset of these patients obtains a survival advantage by gross total tumor resection without postoperative neurological deterioration. Eighty-two adult patients with supratentorial GBM were retrospectively reviewed. Overall, the median survival time was 13 months, and the 1- and 2-year survival rates were 53.7% and 14.6%, respectively. In a univariate analysis for survival rate by log-rank test, age (< 40 years), Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score (70-100%) and extent of surgery (gross total resection) were revealed to be significant good prognostic factors. A Cox proportional hazard multivariate regression analysis confirmed that the KPS and extent of surgery were independent, significant good prognostic factors. Nine patients (11%) suffered postoperative neurological deterioration. A topographical GBM staging system (Stages I, II and III) with the integration of tumor location, size and eloquence of adjacent brain based on MRI (for explanation of Stages see text) was originally proposed. In Stage I, gross total resection had a strong tendency toward a better prognostic factor in a univariate analysis and was revealed to be a significant independent good prognostic factor in a multivariate analysis. In also Stage II, the survival of patients who underwent gross total resection was better than that of patients with less than gross total resection, although not significant. In Stage III, there were no patients who underwent gross total tumor resection. Risk probabilities of postoperative neurological deterioration, overall, were 0%, 22.2%, and 20% in Stages I, II, and III, respectively, and those after gross total resection were 0% and 16.7% in Stages I and II, respectively. Although gross total tumor resection is associated with prolongation of the survival time of patients with GBM, the risk of postoperative neurological deficit increases with radical tumor resection. To select an eligible subset of patients that benefit in survival from gross total tumor resection without postoperative risk, the following surgical policy for GBM resection is suggested. GBM in Stage I should be resected as radically as possible. Regarding Stage II, risky surgical resection extending to the area adjacent to the critical zone should be avoided and more meticulous and careful surgical planning is needed than that in Stage I. In Stage III, radical gross total tumor resection is not recommended at present.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 04/2001; 52(2):161-71. DOI:10.1023/A:1010624504311 · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium-elevating protein cross-reacted with anti-human transferrin (TF) was purified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The concentration of TF in CSF after SAH was measured, and the effects of TF on cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were evaluated in order to understand the relationship between TF and cerebral vasospasm. Cisternal CSF samples were collected from 12 patients (seven men and 13 women) with SAH due to the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm, and eight control subjects. The patients were divided into two groups: (1) those presenting no clinical and radiological evidence of vasospasm (the non-vasospasm group; three men and 10 women, mean age 54.7 years), and (2) those presenting evidence of vasospasm (the vasospasm group; four men and three women, mean age 58.3 years). The concentration of TF in CSF was measured using Speriol micro-transferrin measure assay method. Nitrite accumulation in the culture media of SMCs incubated with TF was determined by diazotization method. The mRNA levels of inducible isoform of NOS (iNOS) in SMC incubated with TF were measured by the reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction method. Levels of TF were markedly different in the SAH and the control subjects. In the control group, all subjects had no detectable quantity of TF. In contrast, all patients after SAH had quantifiable TF in their CSF. Moreover, there was a significant difference between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group in TF levels (p < 0.05). In the vasospasm group, the average value was 10.43 +/- 2.8 mg dl-1. In the non-vasospasm group, the average was 3.69 +/- 0.31 mg dl-1. The nitrite content in the culture medium incubated with TF was three times the content of control. TF also induced iNOS mRNA in SMC. This study demonstrated that an elevation of TF concentration in CSF after SAH was detected and iNOS mRNA in SMCs was also induced by TF. This may be involved in some roles of the development of the pathological series of events after SAH, including vasospasm.
Neurological Research 12/2000; 22(8):797-801. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) soluble CD27 (sCD27) as a tumor marker for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in immunocompetent patients. A total of 93 CSF samples were collected from the following four patient groups: the PCNSL group, 13 patients (26 samples) with PCNSL, 12 samples obtained at initial diagnosis, 10 during therapy, four at complete remission; the other brain tumors (OBT) group, 30 patients (30 samples) with other brain tumors; the other neurological diseases (OND) group, 25 (25 samples) with other neurological diseases; the inflammatory neurological diseases (IND) group, 12 patients (12 samples) with inflammatory neurological diseases. sCD27 levels were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The optimal cut-off value was found to be 15 U ml-1. The CSF sCD27 levels were over 15 U ml-1 in 23 of the 26 PCNSL samples and were significantly higher than those in the OBT and OND groups in which all samples were below 15 U ml-1. Elevated CSF sCD27 levels were also observed in 11 of 12 IND samples. In the two PCNSL patients whose CSF sCD27 levels were studied longitudinally, the sCD27 levels correlated very well with remission and relapse of the disease. CSF sCD27 is useful as a tumor marker for PCNSL in immunocompetent patients, and is also useful to evaluate the effect of various types of treatment. Although there was a large cross-reactivity in the CSF sCD27 levels between PCNSL and IND group, white blood cell count in the CSF is helpful to distinguish these two diseases.
Neurological Research 08/2000; 22(5):434-42. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study is designed to determine whether patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have mutations in the phospholipase C-delta 1 (PLC-delta 1) gene, which was identified as a gene responsible for hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Seventy-two cases (31 male and 41 female) with intracranial saccular aneurysms were analyzed. The mean age was 60.1 +/- 11.5 years (mean +/- SD) (range 24-85 years). There were 35 patients (48.6%) with hypertension, 5 (6.9%) with diabetes mellitus, 12 (16.7%) with hyperlipidemia, 8 (11.1%) with ischemic heart disease, and 25 (34.7%) who were active smokers. The location of aneurysm was distributed as follows: 33 (33%) were at anterior cerebral artery, 23 (23%) were at middle cerebral artery, 28 (28%) were at internal carotid artery, and 16 (16%) were at vertebro-basilar artery. Six patients (8.3%) had a family history of intracranial aneurysms. There were 20 patients (27.8%) with multiple aneurysms, and 8 patients (11.1%) with a large or giant aneurysm. The four regions of PLC-delta 1 gene (bases 1099-1271, 1254-1401, 1343-1481, and 1882-2023) where genetic mutations were found in spontaneously hypertensive rats, were screened by PCR-SSCP analysis and their nucleotide sequences of all patients were determined. However, no mutations were detected in all patients. These results suggest that mutations of PLC-delta 1 gene previously implicated in hypertensive factor in rats may not be the case with human patients and therefore may be poorly related with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Neurological Research 07/1999; 21(4):368-72. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 50-year-old female presented with primary intracranial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at the right cerebellopontine angle manifesting as right facial nerve paresis. She had undergone gross total removal of a right cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst 10 years before and had done well until recently. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a heterogeneous tumor with markedly enhanced irregular margin. Subtotal removal of the tumor was achieved. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated SCC. After surgery, she underwent chemotherapy and gamma radiosurgery. She is now well 5 years after the diagnosis of SCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the c-fms proto-oncogene plays a role in the CNS, we examined its expression in mouse brain. We found that c-fms-positive Purkinje cells first appeared in caudal cerebellum at postnatal day 0 (P0) arranged in a parasagittal manner, and most Purkinje cells gradually became positive by P6. This differential expression was not seen from P7 to adulthood, and the parasagittal pattern until P5 was different from those of L7, zebrins, and the integrin beta1 subunit. No neuronal expression of c-fms was found in the other brain regions examined. In both reeler and weaver mutant mice in the adult stage, all Purkinje cells were positive for c-fms as in the wild-type controls; however, the parasagittal bands of c-fms-positive Purkinje cells were observed even in the adult staggerer mutant. To check the neurotrophic effect of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), we immunostained cerebella derived from osteopetrotic mutant mice, that is, those devoid of active M-CSF. We found that the number of calbindin-positive Purkinje cells in a given cerebellum began to decrease substantially during the initial 4-5 weeks of the postnatal period. In addition, cultured Purkinje cells were dependent on M-CSF for their survival. These data suggest that expression of the c-fms gene is intrinsically programmed in the Purkinje cells and never affected by the afferent synaptic input and that neuronal survival of Purkinje cells is dependent on M-CSF after weaning. Therefore, c-fms is considered to be a new developmental marker for Purkinje cells.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 01/1999; 18(24):10481-92. · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with cerebrovascular diseases as a new potent risk factor. The purpose of this study was to investigate an association of the gene polymorphism with intracranial saccural aneurysmal patients. The study population consisted of 83 aneurysmal patients (age range 41-85 years) (the AN group) and 104 matched control subjects (age range 30-81 years) (the Control group). For detection of the ACE gene polymorphism, the standard PCR method was performed by using genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. The PCR products were a 490-bp in the presence of the insertion (I) and a 190-bp fragment in the absence of the insertion (D). The ACE gene polymorphism was classified into three genotypes: I/I genotype (a 490-bp band); D/D genotype (a 190-bp band); or I/D genotype (both a 490-bp and a 190-bp band). The number of subjects with I/I, I/D, and D/D genotypes was 38, 40, and 5 in the AN group and 43, 45, and 16 in the Control group, respectively. The frequency of the D/D genotype in the AN group was significantly lower (5/83 = 0.06) than that in the Control group (16/104 = 0.15) (chi 2 = 4.06; p = 0.044). There was no significant difference between the genotype sof hypertensive patients and normotensive patients in the AN group. Thus, this present study suggests that genetic heterogeneity of the ACE gene may be correlated with the etiology of intracranial aneurysms.
Neurological Research 11/1998; 20(7):607-11. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distribution of neurons expressing integrin alpha1 subunit protein (INTalpha1) was examined in adult mouse tissues of not only the central nervous system, but also the sympathetic ganglia, and the adrenal gland by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. INTalpha1-positive neurons were observed in most tissues examined, and most of them were found to coexpress tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) except for Purkinje cells and hippocampal neurons. Expression of INTalpha1 was also observed in the malpositioned cortical neurons in reeler mutants, and appeared not to be affected by the aberrant cell migration of the reeler cortical neurons. In situ hybridization showed that the expression of INTalpha1 mRNA was correlated with synthesis of the INTalpha1 protein in each case, and this finding indicated that expression of the protein was controlled by transcriptional regulation of the INTalpha1 gene.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology 07/1998; 395(2):161-76. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19980601)395:2<161::AID-CNE2>3.0.CO;2-0 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than ten years have passed since integrin was shown to function in cellular attachment. To date integrin research has been one of major fields in cell biology. Integrin, which functions as an integrator of both extra- and intracellular skeletal molecules, is regarded as one of the essential molecules for cellular signal transduction as well. Thus, integrin appears to be essential and indispensable for many cellular phenomena. Although every type of cell is thought to express a few kinds of integrin molecules, their expression and functional roles in neurons remain to be determined. Both intensive and extensive researches should reveal one by one how integrins are involved in the neural network formation in development, neuronal plasticity and regeneration, higher function of CNS, and also neuronal degeneration in both inflammation and degenerative diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At the premyelinating stage, the Schwann cells of peripheral nerves are able to recognize the axon, to arrange themselves along it in a nonoverlapping manner, and finally to establish a one-to-one cell-axon relationship. The mechanism that regulates these processes is not known in detail. We found the existence of a significant Schwann cell apoptosis in vivo of rat postnatal sciatic nerve, peaking around postnatal day 3. More than 50% of the neonatal Schwann cells cultured in axon-free medium undergo a rapid apoptosis. The apoptosis can be suppressed by addition of survival factors such as Neu differentiation factors or by increasing the adhesion of Schwann cells to substratum. We suggest that in neonatal nerves in vivo, Schwann cells are highly susceptible to apoptosis, but they are saved from death by contact with axons. The dramatic increase in number of Schwann cells between postnatal day 0 and 3 overcomes the number of axons available for them. Consequently the Schwann cells that fail to contact an axon undergo apoptosis. In conclusion, the number of Schwann cells in the developing nerves is regulated by the apoptosis and clearly depends on the survival signals from axons.
Journal of Neurochemistry 06/1997; 68(5):1853-62. · 4.28 Impact Factor