Susumu Higuchi

National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Йокосука, Kanagawa, Japan

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Publications (298)1285.78 Total impact

  • S. Higuchi · S. Matsushita · T. Matsui
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. Methods: The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. Results: High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). Conclusions: The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL-C levels.
    PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(8):e0133460. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0133460 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Piccolo (PCLO) inhibits methamphetamine-induced neuropharmacological effects via modulation of dopamine (DA) uptake and regulation of the transport of synaptic vesicles in neuronal cells. Clinical studies have recently suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13438494 in the intron 24 of the PCLO gene is associated with psychiatric disorder, in the meta-analysis of GWAS. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to evaluate the possible role of the PCLO SNP in the mechanisms of uptake of monoamines. To characterize rs13438494 in the PCLO gene, we constructed plasmids carrying either the C or A allele of the SNP and transiently transfected them into SH-SY5Y cells to analyze genetic effects on the splicing of PCLO mRNA. The C and A allele constructs produced different composition of the transcripts, indicating that the intronic SNP does affect the splicing pattern. We also transfected DA and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) transporters into cells and analyzed their uptakes to elucidate the association to psychiatric disorders. In the cells transfected with the C allele, both the DA and 5-HT uptake were enhanced compared to the A allele. We also conducted a clinical study, in order to clarify the genetic associations. PCLO rs13438494 exhibits a relationship with the symptoms of drug dependence or related parameters, such as the age of first exposure to methamphetamine, eating disorders, tobacco dependence and fentanyl requirement. Our findings suggest that rs13438494 is associated with drug abuse and contributes to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders via modulation of neurotransmitter turnover.
    Current Molecular Medicine 05/2015; 15(3):265-274. DOI:10.2174/1566524015666150330145722 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To refine estimates of the burden of alcohol-related oesophageal cancer in Japan. We searched PubMed for published reviews and original studies on alcohol intake, aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms, and risk for oesophageal cancer in Japan, published before 2014. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses, including subgroup analyses by aldehyde dehydrogenase variants. We estimated deaths and loss of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from oesophageal cancer using exposure distributions for alcohol based on age, sex and relative risks per unit of exposure. We identified 14 relevant studies. Three cohort studies and four case-control studies had dose-response data. Evidence from cohort studies showed that people who consumed the equivalent of 100 g/day of pure alcohol had an 11.71 fold, (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.67-51.32) risk of oesophageal cancer compared to those who never consumed alcohol. Evidence from case-control studies showed that the increase in risk was 33.11 fold (95% CI: 8.15-134.43) in the population at large. The difference by study design is explained by the 159 fold (95% CI: 27.2-938.2) risk among those with an inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme variant. Applying these dose-response estimates to the national profile of alcohol intake yielded 5279 oesophageal cancer deaths and 102 988 DALYs lost - almost double the estimates produced by the most recent global burden of disease exercise. Use of global dose-response data results in an underestimate of the burden of disease from oesophageal cancer in Japan. Where possible, national burden of disease studies should use results from the population concerned.
    Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 05/2015; 93(5):329-338C. DOI:10.2471/BLT.14.142141 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: No nationally representative survey of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) among adolescents has ever been performed in Japan. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the prevalence of IBS among Japanese adolescents and the factors associated with it. The items related to the diagnostic criteria for IBS based on the Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders was included in a cross-sectional nationwide survey of 'alcohol consumption and smoking habits among junior and senior high school students'. The participating schools were sampled from among all junior and senior high schools in Japan using the cluster sampling method, and self-administered questionnaires were sent to the selected schools by mail. Among 99,416 questionnaires that were collected, data from 98,411 valid responses were analyzed. The results showed that the prevalence of IBS was 18.6%. Although no sex difference was observed in the overall prevalence of IBS, the prevalence of diarrhea-predominant IBS was higher among boys than among girls, and the prevalence of constipation-predominant IBS was higher among girls than among boys. The prevalence of IBS increased with progression of the school grade, and there were the significant relationships between IBS and sleep-phase delay and insomnia symptoms. IBS was also significantly associated with poor mental health status. These results indicate that IBS is common among junior and senior high school students, and associated with lifestyle and mental health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 04/2015; 30(9). DOI:10.1111/jgh.12974 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coping skills training (CST) and cue exposure treatment (CET) have yielded favorable outcomes when used to treat alcoholics. We conducted 6-week inpatient programs that consisted of 9 CST group sessions (n = 117) during 2005-2009 and 9 CST group sessions plus 4 CET group sessions (n = 49) during 2009-2011 and subsequent 1-year letter therapy for Japanese alcoholic men who had relapsed and been readmitted after standard cognitive-behavioral inpatient therapy. When patients received a letter containing encouraging words every 2 weeks, they were asked to reread their CST and CET records and to respond to the letter by marking drinking days on a calendar and naming the skills on a list of the 9 CST themes and CET that were useful for maintaining abstinence during that 2-week period. The estimated percentages of achievement of 30 or fewer drinking days during the one year of letter therapy were 36.1 - 45.8%. 'Non-smoking', '2nd admission', and 'After age-limit job retirement' were significant factors in achieving good outcomes. The 'usefulness' responses for 'Increasing pleasant activities', 'CET', 'Anger management', ' Managing negative thinking', 'Problem solving', and ' Seemingly irrelevant decisions' as percentages of overall responses to the letters were significantly higher, in order of decreasing percentages, in the achiever group than in the non-achiever group, but the differences between the groups in ' Managing urges to drink', ' Drink refusal skills', ' Planning for emergencies', and ' Receiving criticism about drinking' were not significant. The odds ratios for achievement of 30 or fewer drinking days during the 1-year period increased significantly by 1.15 -1.31 fold per 10% increment in the 'usefulness' ratio for 'Increasing pleasant activities'. The difference in percentage achievement between the group treated by CST alone and the group treated by CST plus CET was not significant. In conclusion, some coping skills were more useful for relapse prevention than others in this study population, and addition of CET to CST and subsequent letter therapy did not improve outcomes.
    Nihon Arukōru Yakubutsu Igakkai zasshi = Japanese journal of alcohol studies & drug dependence 04/2015; 50(2):88-103.
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    ABSTRACT: Alcoholics have a high prevalence of nicotine dependence, and smoking is a major contributor to their high mortality. Three weeks after admission to an addiction center in Japan, 193 alcoholic men who were participating in an 11-week concurrent inpatient smoking cessation and alcohol abstinence programs filled out an anonymous self-report questionnaire regarding smoking and drinking, and 6 months after the completion of the programs, 83 patients were asked to respond to a mailed questionnaire about their smoking and drinking status. Of the 193 subjects, 73.3% were current smokers, but many were highly motivated in regard to both smoking cessation and alcohol abstinence. The subjects' scores on a 0 to 10 point scale for rating motivation and confidence in regard to smoking cessation and smoking urge were significantly correlated with each other and with their scores for motivation and confidence in regard to alcohol abstinence and drinking urge. Three weeks after admission, varenicline treatment was well-tolerated, and the varenicline group had a high rate of smoking cessation than the smoker group not treated with varenicline (67.7% vs. 44.6%, p = 0.012). Forty-six (55.4%) of the 83 subjects who were mailed the questionnaire responded, and the drinking category was 'totally abstinent' in 35 subjects (42.2%), and 'mostly abstinent' in another 4 subjects (4.8%). Seventeen (20.5%) of the 83 subjects were non-smokers before treatment, but after treatment, 23 (50.0%) of the 46 responders and 20 (51.3%) of the 'totally or mostly abstinent' 39 responders were total or almost non-smokers. The response rate of 'totally or mostly abstinent' was higher among the 17 non-smokers before treatment than among the 66 smokers before treatment (70.6% vs. 40.9%, p = 0.033), and the age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the response of 'totally or mostly abstinent' was 3.30 (1.03-10.56) for the non-smokers before treatment (vs. the smokers before treatment). In conclusion, smoking status had a great impact on the drinking status of treatment-seeking alcoholic men, and smoking cessation should be recommended to smoking alcoholics.
    Nihon Arukōru Yakubutsu Igakkai zasshi = Japanese journal of alcohol studies & drug dependence 12/2014; 49(6):381-90.
  • Sachio Matsushita · Susumu Higuchi
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    ABSTRACT: The level of response to alcohol, which reflects individual differences in sensitivity to the pharmacologic effects of alcohol, is considered to be an important endophenotype of alcohol use disorder (AUD). By comparing monozygotic and dizygotic twins, the heritability of the level of response to alcohol has been estimated to be 60%. Many genes have been implicated as potential contributors toward heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and AUD through a low level of response to alcohol, each with a small effect. Identified are genes for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, serotonin transporter, opioid receptor, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, but the most well-characterized genes that have a strong impact on the level of response to alcohol are those for alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. Although two genetic variations in alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which have been the most intensively studied, exist almost exclusively in Asian populations, studies on the effect of genetic variations in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes on the response to alcohol are gradually expanding in non-Asian populations. In this chapter, we focus on genetic studies in humans. After analyzing the overall influence of genetic factors on the response to alcohol, we explore individual genes that may influence the response to alcohol. Lastly, we review studies examining the effects of genetic variations in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes on the level of response to alcohol.
    Handbook of Clinical Neurology 10/2014; 125C:617-627. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-62619-6.00036-7
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    Y Yumoto · S Matsushita · S Higuchi
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. In Japan, in-patient treatment hospitals for alcohol dependence (AD) are located throughout the country. However, comprehensive studies regarding predictors of treatment outcomes after discharge have not been conducted sufficiently. Therefore, we analyzed data obtained from the Japan Collaborative Clinical Study on Alcohol Dependence (JCSA) to examine this issue. Method. Fifty-four hospitals throughout Japan participated in the JCSA. In each hospital, surveys on the clinical characteristics and treatment of as many as 25 patients who were consecutively hospitalized within the fixed study period were conducted. The patients were followed up for 6 months after discharge, and the predictors of treatment outcome were assessed. Result. A total of 853 patients with AD (females, 16%) were enrolled. The rate of abstinence among the subjects was 39.7%. Male patients who lived together with someone, who were married, or who had completed the program, had higher rates of abstinence. The regression analysis indicated associations between abstinence after discharge and marital status, history of previous hospitalization, completion of the treatment program, and a depression episode after discharge. Conclusion. We identified predictors of inpatient outcomes after treatment for AD using a prospective study design. These findings could contribute to improving the quality of treatment for AD.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 09/2014; 49 Suppl 1(suppl 1):i7. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu052.22
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    R Minobe · S Matsushita · S Higuchi
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. To elucidate risk factors of suicidal behavior among patients with alcohol dependence (AD), we examined various clinical factors in Japanese AD patients using data from the Japan Collaborative Clinical Study on Alcohol Dependence (JCSA). Methods. Fifty-four hospitals throughout Japan participated in the study. The clinical symptoms and inpatient and outpatient treatment for each patient were monitored, and the 6-month outcomes after discharge from the hospitals were also assessed. Results. Eight hundred and fifty-three patients with AD were enrolled. Patients whose duration of observation after discharge was longer than 180 days were selected, and 648 patients were included in the analysis. About 16% of the AD patients had experienced suicidal ideation at some time, and 9% of them had attempted suicide. Lifetime depression, violence during intoxication, and number of previous hospitalizations were associated with a history of suicidal attempts. Suicidal ideation and depression after discharge were associated with poor treatment outcomes among patients with AD. Conclusion. This study identified clinical characteristics and factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts among Japanese patients with AD. These findings are expected to contribute to the development of preventive measures against suicidal behavior in AD patients.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 09/2014; 49 Suppl 1(suppl 1):i49. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu053.57
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    ABSTRACT: Since the prevalence of alcohol use disorders is high among cases of drunk driving (DD), it is said that treatment interventions should be directed at preventing DD. The National Police Agency introduced a specialized two-day lecture program including Brief Intervention (BI) for drivers whose licenses had been revoked at four out of 47 prefectures in 2010. Once the driving license was revoked, he/she was compelled to attend a two-day lecture before retaking the driver's license examination. Before the new program was introduced, all of the traffic offenders attended the same lecture regardless of the reason for the revocation of their drivers' licenses. In this presentation, we compare the efficacy between the new and previous programs. In 2010, 10,745 traffic offenders participated in the lecture (681 were in the new program, while 10,064 were in the conventional program). We compared the rate of traffic offences within a year of attending the program between the two groups. The prevalence of arrests for DD and other traffic offenses in the subjects of the new program were 0% and 15.6%, respectively, while the corresponding figures for participants of the conventional program were 0.54% and 20.9%. These results suggest that BI had deterrent effects against repetition of all traffic offenses including DD, and that the treatment program should be adopted to deter DD.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 09/2014; 49 Suppl 1(suppl 1):i18-i19. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu052.83
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    ABSTRACT: Although alcohol-related dementia occurs under ethanol intoxication with coexisting nutritional deficiency, the culprit lesions for cognitive decline of alcoholics remain fully unexplored. After consecutively recruited 113 alcoholics (54.6 ± 6.5 years old) was divided into an alcoholic with cognitive decline group (ALD, n = 58) and cognitively normal alcoholic group (ALN, n = 55), VBM for automatic detection of gray matter and SPM software for the analysis were used to make two sets of comparisons, one between a normal control group (n = 60) and the ALN, and the other between the ALN and ALD. The ALD was older with a longer duration of alcohol dependence and had a lower BMI than the ALN. The gray matter volume of the alcoholics was lower than that of the controls and it was negatively correlated with age. The ALN had more enlarged sylvian/longitudinal fissures and third/lateral ventricles, and a more atrophic in the frontal/temporal lobes and cerebellum than the control group. Parahippocampal/hippocampal atrophy was specific to ALD and atrophy of the thalamus and enlargement of the third ventricle were more severe in the ALD group than in the ALN group. The parahippocampal and hippocampal cortices may play a crucial role in the retention of short-memory in alcoholics.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 09/2014; 49 Suppl 1(4):i58. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu054.25
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. It is known that patients with alcohol dependence frequently have comorbid psychiatric diseases and the profile of the comorbidities varies among countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities using semi-structured interview in Japanese alcoholics. Methods. This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center. The subjects were 258 alcoholic patients admitted to Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center and 355 healthy controls. The diagnosis of alcohol dependence and other psychiatric disorders was assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA). Results. The prevalence of the history of major depression was significantly higher in alcoholics (21.2% in male, 44.6% in female) than in controls (10.0% in male, 13.6% in female). The prevalence of nicotine dependence was 40.2% in male alcoholics and 37.8% in female alcoholics. In addition, the occurrence of comorbid panic disorder and/or agoraphobia was higher in female alcoholic group (24.3%) than in male alcoholic group (4.3%). Conclusion. These results suggest that the psychiatric disorders which are likely to coexist with alcohol dependence are major depression and nicotine dependence in Japanese patients. In addition, the prevalence of panic disorder or agoraphobia was relatively high in female alcoholics.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 09/2014; 49 Suppl 1(suppl 1):i57. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu054.22
  • S Mihara · H Nakayama · H Sakuma · Y Osaki · Y Kaneita · S Higuchi
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    ABSTRACT: Back ground. The number of people with Internet addiction (IA) in Japan is assumed to have rapidly increased, but the actual conditions have not been unknown. Below we report the changes of estimated prevalence of IA among the adult population of Japan based on the results of the two nationwide surveys we conducted leave five years interval. Methods. Our first survey was conducted in 2008, and the subjects were 7,500 men and women. Our second survey was conducted in 2013, and the subjects were 7,052 people. Both of the two survey, the subjects were selected from the entire adult population of Japan by stratified two-stage random sampling. In addition to the Japanese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), tests to assess other addictions and questions on socio-familial background were included in the survey. Results. In the first survey, 51% of the replied that they used the Internet, and 20% scored 40 or higher on the IAT. We estimated the number of adullts with IA tendency was 2.7million in Japan. Problem users were more prevalent in the younger generation and tended to have a higher education level. The second survey revealed a much higher prevalence of IA than the first survey.We estimated the number of adullts with IA tendency was 4.21million in Japan. Conclusion. The results of our two surveys of IA in Japan suggested that problems associated with IA have already become serious, and the development and implementation of strategies to prevent and control problems associated with IA is an urgent task.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 09/2014; 49 Suppl 1(suppl 1):i51. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu053.64
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. In Japan, volunteer fire departments (VFDs), which are fire departments composed of volunteers who fight fires and provide other related emergency services for a local jurisdiction, have been organized, especially in rural areas. During the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, VFDs in disaster areas engaged in various activities to aid disaster victims. The aim of this study was to elucidate changes of alcohol use among VFD members. Method. We sent self-administered questionnaires to 1044 VFD members. The questionnaire included Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [AUDIT] and questions regarding changes in each member's drinking habits after the earthquake. Result. Overall, 683 (65.4%) members responded to our survey. The percentage of VFD members who scored ten or above on the AUDIT was higher among members with experiences losing families and/or friends (33.7%) compared with those without such experiences (22.5%) (P < 0.0049) Conclusion. The survey suggest that experiences of human loss influence dinking behavior. In addition to this first survey, we will present the result of the second survey which was conducted in 2013.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 09/2014; 49 Suppl 1(suppl 1):i55. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu054.10
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Despite the potentially severe reactions, some individuals with inactive ALDH2 go on to become alcoholics. We compared the characteristics of such alcoholics with those carrying active ALDH2, and attempted to identify risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Methods. The subjects were male alcoholics with inactive ALDH2, male alcoholics with active ALDH2, female alcoholics with both inactive and active ALDH2 and healthy males and females as the control groups. To identify the risk factors, we assessed the psychological characteristics, significant life-events and coping skills. In this study, we focused on coping skills and compared the results among five groups. Results. Male alcoholics with inactive ALDH2 and female alcoholics were recognized as possessing particularly poor coping skills. Comparing these five groups, it was revealed that in terms of exhibiting maladaptive coping skills, the five groups could be listed in the following descending order; female alcoholics, male alcoholics with inactive ALDH2, male alcoholics with active ALDH2, female controls, and male controls. Conclusion. This study identified poor coping skills as one of the risk factors for the onset of AUDs and indicates gender differences in the risk factors for the development of alcohol dependence.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 09/2014; 49 Suppl 1(suppl 1):i42. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu053.23
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is influenced by the culture of each society, the policy of the medical systems, and the difference in clinical characteristics of the patients. In Japan, a hospitalized treatment for comparably longer (2-3 months) period is more likely to be selected. Japanese alcoholic patients tend to develop AUD later in their life and comorbid antisocial personality disorder and polydrug addiction exist less frequently compared to Western countries. Japanese therapists have developed several unique treatment programs such as Naikan therapy and Morita therapy, which are inspired by Buddhism and Zen meditation. Danshukai, a self-help group of AUD, was established in Japan based on AA, but there are some differences between Danshukai and AA. The comparison of such differences between Japan and other countries would make clear the effect of the cultural aspects on the treatment of AUD. We would like to present the unique Japanese treatment of AUD and discuss the influence of the culture, which would lead to increase the outcome of the treatment of AUD among different cultural societies.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 09/2014; 49 Suppl 1(suppl 1):i16. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu052.70
  • A Yoshimura · Y Komoto · S Higuchi
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    ABSTRACT: We registered 193 alcohol-dependent patients who visited our hospital. The six ICD-10 criteria items for alcohol dependence were checked at the time of the first visit in each case. The correlations of the checked items among the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria were then examined statistically. Furthermore, we investigated the relation between each criteria item and biochemical blood markers. Three diagnostic items in the ICD-10, (A) strong desire, (B) difficulties in controlling alcohol intake, and (E) progressive neglect of alternative pleasures or interests, were strongly correlated with each other and were thought to form the core symptoms of alcohol dependence. Two major diagnostic items, (C) physiological withdrawal state, and (D) evidence of tolerance, were not as strongly related to the former three items and seemed to be derivatives of the core symptoms. Conventional biochemical markers, such as γ-GT and MCV, which indicate a large quantity of drinking, were not associated with the ICD-10 diagnostic items. Three diagnostic items in the ICD-10, (A), (B), and E), were strongly related to each other and were considered to be the core symptoms of alcohol dependence. The core symptoms might be adapted for other forms of substance-use dependence and behavioral addiction.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 09/2014; 49 Suppl 1(suppl 1):i49. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu053.58
  • H Nakayama · S Mihara · H Sakuma · D Kitamura · S Higuchi
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    ABSTRACT: Internet technologies have made rapid progress, bringing convenience to our daily life. On the other hand, Internet overuse (IOU) and Internet addiction (IA) have reportedly become serious health and social problems across the globe. Recently Internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM5. Many surveys have reported that many IOU & IA patients have contracted other mental disorders and exhibit some psychiatric and physical symptoms (e.g., weight loss, reduced ability to exercise, nutrition disorder). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders (CMD) with IUD & IA. Because CMD breaks the usual rhythm of the activities of daily living of IOU & IA patients (e.g., eating meals and sleeping), and prevents the affected patients from participating in social activities (e.g., going to schools or work, participating in sports or other hobbies), CMD causes exacerbation of all IOU & IA symptoms. It has been reported that effecting a cure of some aspects of CMD often leads to the relief of IOU & IA. The diagnosis and the treatment of CMD are therefore very important.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 09/2014; 49 Suppl 1(suppl 1):i10. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu052.39
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) show adverse reactions after ethanol intake, which is known to suppress the occurrence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), nonetheless, some individuals with inactive ALDH2 do become alcoholics. It has been suggested that these individuals may carry factors facilitating the development of AUDs. In this series of studies, we attempted to identify the risk factors for AUDs, and to replicate the validity of existing factors, using the unique characteristics of alcoholics with inactive ALDH2 or the AIA model. The subjects were hospitalized male alcoholics with inactive ALDH2 (N = 91), male alcoholics with active ALDH2 (N= 81), and 201 age-matched healthy males. To examine the risk factors, we assessed the psychological characteristics of the study participants, and compared the results among the three groups. Among 15 known self-reported questionnaires, we employed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) for this study. TCI is a 230-item self-reporting questionnaire used to assess the following four temperament dimensions: Harm avoidance (HA), Novelty seeking (NS), Reward dependence (RD), and Persistence (P); in addition, it is also useful to measure the following three character dimensions: Self-directedness (SD), Cooperativeness (C), and self-transcendence (ST). The score for HA was higher, while the scores for P, SD and C were lower in the alcoholics than in the control subjects. These results suggest that these personality characteristics may play a role in facilitating the development of AUDs.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 09/2014; 49 Suppl 1(suppl 1):i40. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu053.9

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  • 1991–2015
    • National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center
      Йокосука, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2011
    • King's College London
      • Institute of Psychiatry
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2010
    • Tohoku University
      • • Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer
      • • Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC)
      • • Department of Neurology
      Miyagi, Japan
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1996–2009
    • Keio University
      • • Department of Neuropsychiatry
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Integrative Medical Biology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2006
    • Niigata University
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
  • 2005
    • Okayama University
      • Department of Neurology
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 2004–2005
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1994–2003
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2001–2002
    • University of Tsukuba
      • Institute of Community Medicine
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2000
    • Tottori University
      TTJ, Tottori, Japan
  • 1997
    • Osaka Saiseikai Nakatsu Hospital
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1991–1996
    • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
      Maryland, United States
  • 1992
    • CSR, Incorporated
      Arlington, Virginia, United States
  • 1987
    • Japan Clinical Research Support Unit
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan