S Taguchi

RIKEN, Вако, Saitama, Japan

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Publications (35)102.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Polymerase is a central enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a well-known bacterial biodegradable polyester. In this study, we have established an in vivo assay system to analyze mutational effects of Ralstonia eutropha polymerase (termed PhbC(Re)) on the level of PHB accumulation in recombinant strains of Escherichia coli. This in vitro evolution system consists of a polymerase chain reaction-mediated random mutagenesis and two assay procedures, a plate assay using a PHB-staining dye and a high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay based on the converting reaction from PHB to crotonic acid. The distribution pattern of the PHB accumulation level of the mutant population using 378 clones arbitrarily selected, suggested that the present level of PhbC(Re) is high and well-optimized. It is noteworthy that many of the amino acid substitutions affecting the PHB accumulation occurred in the conserved positions or regions within an 'alpha/beta hydrolase fold' which is commonly found among hydrolytic enzymes. From a good correlation with the level of PHB accumulation, an activity estimation of the PhbC(Re) would be efficiently achieved by monitoring the level of PHB accumulation using the in vivo assay system established here.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 05/2001; 198(1):65-71. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we established for the first time an in vivo monitoring assay system conjugated with random mutagenesis in order to study the structure-function relationship of the antimicrobial peptide, apidaecin [Taguchi et al. (1996) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 4652-4655]. In the present study, this methodology was used to carry out the functional mapping of a second target, thanatin, a 21-residue peptide that exhibits the broadest antimicrobial spectrum so far observed among insect defense peptides [Fehlbaum et al. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 1221-1225]. First, a synthetic gene encoding thanatin was expressed in a fused form with Streptomyces protease inhibitor protein, SSI, under the control of tac promoter in Escherichia coli JM109. Expression of the thanatin-fused protein was found to depend on the concentration of the transcriptional inducer, isopropyl-beta-D-thio-galactopyranoside (IPTG), and to parallel the degree of growth inhibition of the transformant cells. When a PCR random mutation was introduced into the structural gene for thanatin, diminished growth inhibition of the IPTG-induced transformed cells was mostly observed in variants as measured by colony size (plate assay) or optical density (liquid assay) in comparison with the wild-type peptide, possibly depending on the decreased antimicrobial activity of each variant. Next, wild-type thanatin and three variants screened by the in vivo assay, two singly mutated proteins (C11Y and M21R) and one doubly mutated protein (K17R/R20G), were stably overproduced with a fusion partner protein resulting in the efficient formation of inclusion bodies in E. coli BL21(DE3). The products were isolated in large amounts (yield 30%) from the fused protein by successive chemical and enzymatic digestions at the protein fusion linker site. Anti-E. coli JM109 activities, judged by minimum inhibitory concentration, of the purified peptides were in good agreement with those estimated semi-quantitatively by the in vivo assay. Based on the NMR solution structure and molecular dynamics, the structure-function relationship of thanatin is discussed by comparing the functional mapping data obtained here with the previous biochemical data. The functional mapping newly suggests the importance of a hydrogen bonding network formed within the C-terminal loop joining the beta-strands arranged antiparallel to one another that are supposed to be crutial for exhibiting anti-E. coli activity.
    Journal of Biochemistry 12/2000; 128(5):745-54. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The substrate specificity of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) from Streptomyces mobaraensis (formerly categorized Streptoverticillium) was studied using a Streptomyces proteinaceous protease inhibitor, STI2, as a model amine-donor substrate. Chemical modification and mutational analysis to address the substrate requirements for MTG were carried out around the putative reactive site region of STI2 on the basis of the highly refined tertiary structure and the solvent accessibility index of Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor, SSI, a homolog of STI2. The results suggest that the P1 reactive center site (position 70 of STI2) for protease subtilisin BPN' or trypsin may be the prime Lys residue that can be recognized by MTG, when succinylated beta-casein was used as a partner Gln-substrate. It is characteristic in that the same primary enzyme contact region of STI2 is shared by both enzymes, MTG and proteases. For quantitative analysis of the TG reaction, we established an ELISA-based monitoring assay system using an anti-SSI polyclonal antibody highly cross-reactive with STI2. Site-specific STI2 mutants were prepared by an Escherichia coli expression-secretion vector system and subjected to the assay system. We reached several conclusions concerning the nature of the flanking amino acid residues affecting the MTG reactivity of the substrate Lys residue: (i) site-specific mutations from Asn to Lys or Arg at position 69 preceding the amine-donor 70Lys, led to enhanced substrate reactivity; (ii) amino acid replacement at 67Ile with Ser led to higher substrate reactivity, (iii) additive effects were obtained by a combination of the positive mutations at positions 67 and 69 as described above, and (iv) Gly at position 65 might be essential for MTG reaction. Moreover, the substrate specificity of guinea pig liver tissue transglutaminase (GTG) was compared with that of MTG using STI2 and its mutants. In contrast to MTG, replacement of Gly by Asp at position 65 was the most favorable for substrate reactivity. Also, 70Lys appeared not to be a prime amine-donor site for GTG-mediated cross-linking, suggesting a difference in substrate recognition between MTG and GTG.
    Journal of Biochemistry 10/2000; 128(3):415-25. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    S Taguchi, S Komada, H Momose
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    ABSTRACT: To ascertain whether position 131 of a mesophilic protease, subtilisin BPN', is a potential critical site for cold adaptation as screened by evolutionary engineering (S. Taguchi, A. Ozaki, and H. Momose, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:492-495, 1998), a full set of subtilisin BPN' mutants with mutations at position 131 was constructed by site-saturation mutagenesis. All mutated enzymes were measured for specific activity at 10 degrees C by the quantitative titer microplate assay system using polyclonal antibody against subtilisin BPN' and a synthetic chromogenic substrate. All the mutants exhibited proteolytic activities almost the same as or higher than that of the wild-type enzyme, suggesting that position 131 may be important for cold adaptation. In comparison with the wild type, purified mutants G131F, G131R, G131M, and G131W were found to acquire proteolytic activities (k(cat)/K(m)) at 10 degrees C that were 150, 94, 84, and 50% higher, respectively. In particular, for the G131F mutant, temperature dependency in enzyme activity was shown by an increase in k(cat) and a decrease in K(m). All of these amino acid substitution mutants, G131F, G131R, G131M, and G131W, acquired increased proteolytic activities at 10 degrees C for three different synthetic peptide substrates but no increase in caseinolytic activity. Furthermore, they all conferred thermolability on the enzyme to differing extents in terms of the half-life of enzyme inactivation at 60 degrees C. No significant correlation was found between the amino acids preferred for cold adaptation surveyed here and those present at position 131 of subtilisin of psychrophilic cells naturally occurring in cold environments. Based on these findings, position 131 is a contributor in artificial evolution for acquiring a cold-active character and may not be related to physiological requirements for subtilisin-producing cells living in cold environments. Therefore, saturation mutagenesis would be effective in achieving rapid improvement in protein properties via evolutionary engineering.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 05/2000; 66(4):1410-5. · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • S Taguchi, T Ogawa, T Endo, H Momose
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    ABSTRACT: An open reading frame (termed ORF-PR) encoding a metallothionein-like domain-including protein was found upstream of a previously identified Streptomyces chymotrypsin-type protease gene (sam-P20). Promoter and terminator activities of ORF-PR were detected using the promoterless Streptomyces tyrosinase gene as a reporter gene and expression of ORF-PR was supposed to occur before that of sam-P20 gene. Frameshift mutation analysis showed that the ORF-PR product might act as a repressive regulator of the sam-P20 gene.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 01/1999; 62(12):2476-9. · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • S Taguchi, S Yamada, S Kojima, H Momose
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    ABSTRACT: We have been focusing on the potent involvement of the molecular interaction between a protease and a protease inhibitor in the physiological or morphological regulation of Streptomyces cells producing them [Taguchi et al. (1995) J. Bacteriol. 177, 6638-6643; Suzuki et al. (1997) J. Bacteriol. 179, 430-438]. In this study, an extracellular protease, termed SAM-P26, was isolated as a target of endogenous protease inhibitor (SSI) from the culture medium of an SSI non-producing mutant strain derived from Streptomyces albogriseolus S-3253. Complete amino acid sequence determination revealed that SAM-P26 is identical to a protein encoded by the SAM-P20D gene, which was previously found to be located downstream of the gene for SAM-P20, another target protease of SSI. Based on the sequence homology, SAM-P26 was categorized as a member of the chymotrypsin family like SAM-P20. Sequence similarity between SAM-P26 and SAM-P20 was immunologically demonstrated by Western blot analysis using anti-SAM-P20 antiserum. The molecular mass (26 kDa) of SAM-P26 estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was much higher than that calculated from the amino acid sequence of SAM-P26 (18,376.8 Da) and that of the S-pyridylethylated form (18,808.4 Da) of SAM-P26 determined by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight/Mass Spectrometry. Analytical gel-filtration analysis revealed that SAM-P26 exists as a monomer (18.8 kDa) in the native state. The results as to substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity indicated SAM-P26 exhibits chymotrypsin-like activity. For the proteolytic activity, the optimal pH was 10.5 and the optimal temperature was 60 degreesC. The complex formation of SAM-P26 with SSI was confirmed by native-PAGE analysis.
    Journal of Biochemistry 11/1998; 124(4):804-10. · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • S Taguchi, P Bulet, J A Hoffmann
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    ABSTRACT: By combination of size exclusion and reversed-phase chromatography, we have isolated a novel member of insect defensin-type antimicrobial peptides from the entire bodies of bacteria-challenged Formica rufa (hymenoptera, formicidae). The molecular mass of the purified peptide was estimated to be 4120.42 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry. Sequence analysis revealed that this peptide consisted of 40 amino acid residues with six cysteines engaged in the formation of three intramolecular disulfide bridges. This peptide is unique among the arthropod defensins in terms of the presence of asparatic acid and alanine at position 33 and as C-terminal residue, respectively. In addition, this novel defensin from Formica rufa has the particularity to have no C-terminal extension in contrast to those reported for other hymenoptera defensins.
    Biochimie 05/1998; 80(4):343-6. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    S Taguchi, A Ozaki, H Momose
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    ABSTRACT: A cold-adapted protease subtilisin was successfully isolated by evolutionary engineering based on sequential in vitro random mutagenesis and an improved method of screening (H. Kano, S. Taguchi, and H. Momose, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 47:46-51, 1997). The mutant subtilisin, termed m-63, exhibited a catalytic efficiency (expressed as the kcat/Km value) 100% higher than that of the wild type at 10 degrees C when N-succinyl-L-Ala-L-Ala-L-Pro-L-Phe-p-nitroanilide was used as a synthetic substrate. This cold adaptation was achieved with three mutations, Val to Ile at position 72 (V72I), Ala to Thr at position 92 (A92T), and Gly to Asp at position 131 (G131D), and it was found that an increase in substrate affinity (i.e., a decreased Km value) was mostly responsible for the increased activity. Analysis of kinetic parameters revealed that the V72I mutation contributed negatively to the activity but that the other two mutations, A92T and G131D, overcame the negative contribution to confer the 100% increase in activity. Besides suppression of the activity-negative mutation (V72I) by A92T and G131D, suppression of structural stability was observed in measurements of activity retention at 60 degrees C and circular dichroism spectra at 10 degrees C.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 03/1998; 64(2):492-5. · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • S Taguchi, T Ogawa, T Endo, H Momose
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    ABSTRACT: A gene encoding a homolog of the Streptomyces chymotrypsin-like serine protease, SAM-P20, was identified downstream of the sam-p20 gene and designated SAM-P20D. This gene has two tandem Shine Dalgarno sequences and two initiation codons. We have established vector systems with the function of tyrosinase gene-bone melanin pigmentation as a reporter for sam-p20D gene expression in Streptomyces coelicolor in order to identify the promoter and terminator activities. Using this system, the sam-p20D gene was suggested to be transcribed monocistronically.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 06/1997; 61(5):909-13. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously found that proteinaceous protease inhibitors homologous to Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) are widely produced by various Streptomyces species, and we designated them "SSI-like proteins" (Taguchi S, Kikuchi H, Suzuki M, Kojima S, Terabe M, Miura K, Nakase T, Momose H [1993] Appl Environ Microbiol 59:4338-4341). In this study, SSI-like proteins from five strains of the genus Streptoverticillium were purified and sequenced, and molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed on the basis of the determined amino acid sequences together with those determined previously for Streptomyces species. The phylogenetic trees showed that SSI-like proteins from Streptoverticillium species are phylogenetically included in Streptomyces SSI-like proteins but form a monophyletic group as a distinct lineage within the Streptomyces proteins. This provides an alternative phylogenetic framework to the previous one based on partial small ribosomal RNA sequences, and it may indicate that the phylogenetic affiliation of the genus Streptoverticillium should be revised. The phylogenetic trees also suggested that SSI-like proteins possessing arginine or methionine at the P1 site, the major reactive center site toward target proteases, arose multiple times on independent lineages from ancestral proteins possessing lysine at the P1 site. Most of the codon changes at the P1 site inferred to have occurred during the evolution of SSI-like proteins are consistent with those inferred from the extremely high G + C content of Streptomyces genomes. The inferred minimum number of amino acid replacements at the P1 site was nearly equal to the average number for all the variable sites. It thus appears that positive Darwinian selection, which has been postulated to account for accelerated rates of amino acid replacement at the major reaction center site of mammalian protease inhibitors, may not have dictated the evolution of the bacterial SSI-like proteins.
    Journal of Molecular Evolution 06/1997; 44(5):542-51. · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • H Kano, S Taguchi, H Momose
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    ABSTRACT: Artificial cold adaptation of a mesophilic protease, subtilisin BPN' was attempted by means of random mutagenesis of its entire gene coupled with screening of cleared-zone-forming colonies on skim-milk plates at a low temperature. Out of sixty clones screened at 10 degrees C, one mutant enzyme (termed M-15) was found to acquire higher proteolytic activities, specifically dependent on low temperatures ranging from 10 degrees C to 1 degree C, in comparison with those of the wild-type. DNA sequencing analysis revealed that, by this mutation, the 84th amino acid residue, valine, was substituted by isoleucine, which is located 1.5 nm from the center of the catalytic triad in the tertiary structure of subtilisin. By kinetic analysis of the purified enzyme samples, the higher proteolytic activities of M-15 at low temperatures were found to be due to the decrease in the Km value. There was no difference in thermostability between the wild-type and mutant enzymes, when tested by heat treatment. Circular dichroism spectra also showed no difference between them at 10 degrees C, indicating that the mutation of V841 had no effect on the secondary structure of subtilisin.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 02/1997; 47(1):46-51. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously isolated three extracellular endogenous enzymes from a Streptomyces albogriseolus mutant strain which were targets of Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) (S. Taguchi, A. Odaka, Y. Watanabe, and H. Momose, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:180-186, 1995). In the present study, of the three enzymes the largest one, with a molecular mass of 45 kDa (estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), termed SAM-P45, has been characterized in detail. The entire gene encoding SAM-P45 was cloned as an approximately 10-kb fragment from S. albogriseolus S-3253 genomic DNA into an Escherichia coli host by using a shuttle plasmid vector. The amino acid sequence corresponding to the internal region of SAM-P45, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene, revealed high homology, particularly in three regions around the active-site residues (Asp, His, and Ser), with the amino acid sequences of the mature domain of subtilisin-like serine proteases. In order to investigate the enzymatic properties of this protease, recombinant SAM-P45 was overproduced in Streptomyces coelicolor by using a strong SSI gene promoter. Sequence analysis of the SAM-P45 gene and peptide mapping of the purified SAM-P45 suggested that it is synthesized as a large precursor protein containing a large C-terminal prodomain (494 residues) in addition to an N-terminal preprodomain (23 and 172 residues). A high proportion of basic amino acids in the C-terminal prodomain was considered to serve an element interactive with the phospholipid bilayer existing in the C-terminal prodomain, as found in other membrane-anchoring proteases of gram-positive bacteria. It is noteworthy that SAM-P45 was found to prefer basic amino acids to aromatic or aliphatic amino acids in contrast to subtilisin BPN', which has a broad substrate specificity. The hydrolysis by SAM-P45 of the synthetic substrate (N-succinyl-L-Gly-L-Pro-L-Lys-p-nitroanilide) most preferred by this enzyme was inhibited by SSI, chymostatin, and EDTA. The proteolytic activity of SAM-P45 was stimulated by the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. From these findings, we conclude that SAM-P45 interacts with SSI and can be categorized as a novel member of the subtilisin-like serine protease family.
    Journal of Bacteriology 02/1997; 179(2):430-8. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    S Taguchi, A Ozaki, K Nakagawa, H Momose
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    ABSTRACT: Functional mapping was carried out to address the amino acid residues responsible for the activity of the antibacterial peptide apidaecin from the honeybee by an in vivo assay system developed previously. The C-terminal region and many of the proline and arginine residues which are present at high frequency in apidaecin were found to play an important role in its antibacterial activity.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 01/1997; 62(12):4652-5. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genes coding for the protease inhibitors, SSI and API-2c', have been analyzed by comparing DNA macrorestriction patterns of Streptomyces albogriseolus S-3253 and S. griseoincarnatus KTo-250 with those of inhibitor-deficient mutants. The mutants were found to suffer from chromosomal deletions rather than plasmid loss which resulted in the loss of the relevant genes. Hybridization experiments indicated that the ssi homologs in S. lividans and S. coelicolor A3(2) are located near the end of the linear chromosome.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 06/1996; 139(1):37-42. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three new proteinaceous inhibitors of trypsin and subtilisin of the Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI)-like (SIL) protein family were isolated and purified from culture media of Streptomyces strains; SIL5 from S. fradiae, SIL7 from S. ambofaciens and SIL12 from S. hygroscopicus. Their complete amino-acid sequences were determined by sequence analysis of the intact SIL proteins and peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion of S-pyridylethylated proteins. SIL7 showed high sequence similarity to other Arg-possessing SSI-family inhibitors at the P1 site. SIL12 is unique in having a two-residue insertion in the flexible loop region. Based on the amino-acid sequences of these inhibitors and other SSI-family inhibitors whose sequences have already been determined, the phylogenetic relationship of SSI-family inhibitors and Streptomyces strains was considered. Among about 110 amino-acid residues possessed by SSI-family inhibitors, 28 are completely conserved. The contribution of these conserved residues to the function and stability of the inhibitor molecules is discussed on the basis of the results obtained from mutational analysis of SSI and its crystal structure.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/1996; 1292(2):233-40. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • S Taguchi, S Kojima, K Miura, H Momose
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    ABSTRACT: Amino acid sequences of protease inhibitors (Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor-like proteins) widely distributed in Streptomyces were compared to clarify the taxonomic status of three strains of Streptomyces spp., S. coelicolor A3(2), S. lividans 66 and S. coelicolor Müller, which are closely related by conventional taxonomical procedures. The sequence comparison indicated that S. coelicolor A3(2) is distinct from the type strain S. coelicolor Müller, but belongs to the same taxon as S. lividans 66.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 02/1996; 135(2-3):169-73. · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • S Taguchi, T Endo, Y Naoi, H Momose
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    ABSTRACT: A gene encoding a homolog of the chymotrypsin-like serine protease (SAM-P20), which was isolated as the target enzyme of a protease inhibitor (SSI), was cloned from Streptomyces lividans 66. This gene contained an open reading frame of 1065 nucleotides encoding 354 amino acid residues with a putative prepro portion of 157 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cloned gene had significant homology to those of members of Streptomyces extracellular chymotrypsin-like protease family. By Southern blot analysis, it was suggested that protease genes of this type are found at a high frequency in Streptomyces. In this sense, we propose to categorize this protease as a member of the 'SAL' series (SAM-P20-like proteases).
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 08/1995; 59(7):1386-8. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the complete amino acid sequence of a novel subtilisin inhibitor, SIL15, which had been isolated from the culture supernatant of Streptomyces bikiniensis and shown to be a member of the Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI)-like (SIL) protein family, and then identified its reactive site. SIL15 is composed of 113 amino acids and exists as a dimer. Compared with other SSI-family inhibitors, SIL15 was found to be unique in that it possesses a Gln residue at the P1 site of the reactive site and has two-residue insertions in two regions, one in the alpha 1-helix and the other in the flexible loop region near the reactive site. Inhibition of subtilisin BPN' by SIL15 (inhibitor constant, 2.7 x 10(-11) M) was due to the presence of a Gln residue at the P1 site, which was well consistent with the results obtained for P1-site mutants of SSI and turkey ovomucoid domain 3.
    Journal of Biochemistry 04/1995; 117(3):609-13. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    S Taguchi, A Odaka, Y Watanabe, H Momose
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    ABSTRACT: An extracellular serine protease produced by a mutant, M1, derived from Streptomyces albogriseolus S-3253 that no longer produces a protease inhibitor (Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor [SSI]) was isolated. A 20-kDa protein was purified by its affinity for SSI and designated SAM-P20. The amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal region of SAM-P20 revealed high homology with the sequences of Streptomyces griseus proteases A and B, and the gene sequence confirmed the relationships. The sequence also revealed a putative amino acid signal sequence for SAM-P20 that apparently functioned to allow secretion of SAM-P20 from Escherichia coli carrying the recombinant gene. SAM-P20 produced by E. coli cells was shown to be sensitive to SSI inhibition.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 02/1995; 61(1):180-6. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel serine protease inhibitor SIL8, which was isolated from the culture medium of Streptomyces virginiae and shown to be a member of the Streptomyces subtilisin-inhibitor-like (SIL) inhibitor family by sequence analysis of its amino-terminal region [Taguchi, S., Kikuchi, H., Kojima, S., Kumagai, I., Nakase, T., Miura, K. & Momose, H. (1993) Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 57, 522-524], is the first SIL inhibitor demonstrated to show marked inhibitory activity toward alpha-chymotrypsin, in addition to strong inhibitory activity toward subtilisin BPN', a common property of inhibitors of the Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) family. In this study, the complete amino acid sequence of SIL8 was determined from the sequence analysis of peptides obtained by specific cleavage at the reactive site and by enzymic digestion. SIL8 was shown to exist as a dimer protein, each subunit of which was composed of 111 amino acids, and to have less than 50% similarity with other SSI-family inhibitors, indicating its most distant relationship to other members of this family. Insertion of two residues was observed in the flexible loop region of SIL8, and amino acid replacements were found not only on the molecular surface but also in the beta-sheet and hydrophobic core, suggesting that packing rearrangements of the side chains may occur in these regions to maintain the tertiary and quaternary structures. The inhibitor constants Ki obtained using synthetic substrates are 92 pM for subtilisin BPN' and 11 nM for alpha-chymotrypsin. The P1 site was was identified as methionine, which was in good agreement with the substrate specificity of alpha-chymotrypsin. SSI, which also possesses a methionine residue at the P1 site, inhibits alpha-chymotrypsin poorly (inhibitor constant, 4.0 microM). Such a difference in the inhibitory properties of SIL8 and SSI toward alpha-chymotrypsin is discussed on the basis of the structures of the inhibitors.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 12/1994; 226(2):627-32. · 3.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

424 Citations
102.85 Total Impact Points


  • 2001
    • RIKEN
      Вако, Saitama, Japan
  • 1992–2000
    • Tokyo University of Science
      • Department of Biological Science and Technology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1994–1995
    • Gakushuin University
      • Institute for Biomolecular Science
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1989–1993
    • The University of Tokyo
      Tōkyō, Japan