Santiago Echevarría

Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria, Spain

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Publications (14)26.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (ATV/r) is a potent, well-tolerated, once-daily protease inhibitor (PI). Few data are available on this agent as a treatment simplification option for patients taking other PIs. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of ATV-containing regimens in patients who have simplified their antiretroviral treatment. Methods SIMPATAZ was a multicentre, prospective, noninterventional study in patients who had undetectable HIV RNA on their current PI-containing therapy and who were switched to an ATV/ r-based regimen. Patients underwent a routine physical examination, and data were collected on HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, liver function, lipid parameters, adverse reactions, adherence to treatment and patient satisfaction. Results A total of 183 patients were enrolled in the study and included in the analysis (80% were male, 29% had AIDS, and 52% were coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus). The median baseline CD4 count was 514 cells/mL. Median exposure to previous HIV therapy was 8 years, and 32% of patients had a history of PI failures. Lopinavir boosted with ritonavir was the most frequent PI replaced (62%) and tenofovir1lamivudine /emtricitabine the backbone most used during the study (29%). The study drug was discontinued early by 25 patients (14%), two of whom discontinued as a result of adverse events (Hodgkin lymphoma and vomiting). Two patients died (lung cancer and myocardial infarction). At month 12, 93% of the study population had an undetectable HIV RNA viral load. Hyperbilirubinaemia 43 mg/dL and increased alanine aminotransferase levels4200 IU/L were observed in 38.5% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Median changes from baseline to month 12 in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were �13 mg/dL (�7%; Po0.0001), �19 mg/dL (�13%; Po0.0001) and �7 mg/dL (�6%; P50.021), respectively. Conclusions In a real-world setting, switching from other PIs to ATV/r is a well-tolerated and safe option for improving the lipid profile and for retaining virological resp
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate long-term outcomes in patients maintaining a nevirapine (NVP)-based regimen. Retrospective, multicenter, cohort study including patients currently receiving an NVP regimen that had been started at least 5 years previously. Demographic, clinical, and analytical variables were recorded. Median follow-up was 8.9 (5.7-11.3) years. Baseline characteristics: 74% men, 47 years old, 36% drug users, 40% AIDS, 40% HCV+, 51.4% detectable HIV-1 viral load, CD4 count 395 (4-1,421)/μL, 19% CD4 < 200/μL, 27% ALT grade 1-2, 36% AST grade 1-2. Thirty percent ART-naive, 83%received NVP associated with 2 nucleoside analogues during the study period, and 17% a protease inhibitor. A significant improvement was observed in general health status markers, including hemoglobin, platelets, and albumin, regardless of HCV coinfection. CD4 cell gain was +218 and +322/μL after 6 and 9 years, respectively (+321 and +391 in naive patients). Triglycerides significantly decreased in pretreated patients, whereas the percentage of patients with HDLc < 1.03 mmol/L and LDL-c > 3.37 mmol/L significantly decreased in a subsample with available values. A significant decrease in transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and Fib4 score was observed, mainly in HCV+ and ARV-naive patients. In patients who tolerate NVP therapy, (even those with HCV coinfection), long term benefits may be significant in terms of a progressive improvement in general health status markers and CD4 response, a favorable lipid profile, and good liver tolerability.
    Current HIV research 06/2012; 10(6):513-20. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (ATV/r) is a potent, well-tolerated, once-daily protease inhibitor (PI). Few data are available on this agent as a treatment simplification option for patients taking other PIs. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of ATV-containing regimens in patients who have simplified their antiretroviral treatment. Methods SIMPATAZ was a multicentre, prospective, noninterventional study in patients who had undetectable HIV RNA on their current PI-containing therapy and who were switched to an ATV/r-based regimen. Patients underwent a routine physical examination, and data were collected on HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, liver function, lipid parameters, adverse reactions, adherence to treatment and patient satisfaction. Results A total of 183 patients were enrolled in the study and included in the analysis (80% were male, 29% had AIDS, and 52% were coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus). The median baseline CD4 count was 514 cells/μL. Median exposure to previous HIV therapy was 8 years, and 32% of patients had a history of PI failures. Lopinavir boosted with ritonavir was the most frequent PI replaced (62%) and tenofovir+lamivudine /emtricitabine the backbone most used during the study (29%). The study drug was discontinued early by 25 patients (14%), two of whom discontinued as a result of adverse events (Hodgkin lymphoma and vomiting). Two patients died (lung cancer and myocardial infarction). At month 12, 93% of the study population had an undetectable HIV RNA viral load. Hyperbilirubinaemia >3 mg/dL and increased alanine aminotransferase levels>200 IU/L were observed in 38.5% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Median changes from baseline to month 12 in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were −13 mg/dL (−7%; P<0.0001), −19 mg/dL (−13%; P<0.0001) and −7 mg/dL (−6%; P=0.021), respectively. Conclusions In a real-world setting, switching from other PIs to ATV/r is a well-tolerated and safe option for improving the lipid profile and for retaining virological response in controlled pretreated patients.
    HIV Medicine 10/2010; 11(9):545-553. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (ATV/r) is a potent, well-tolerated, once-daily protease inhibitor (PI). Few data are available on this agent as a treatment simplification option for patients taking other PIs. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of ATV-containing regimens in patients who have simplified their antiretroviral treatment. SIMPATAZ was a multicentre, prospective, noninterventional study in patients who had undetectable HIV RNA on their current PI-containing therapy and who were switched to an ATV/r-based regimen. Patients underwent a routine physical examination, and data were collected on HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, liver function, lipid parameters, adverse reactions, adherence to treatment and patient satisfaction. A total of 183 patients were enrolled in the study and included in the analysis (80% were male, 29% had AIDS, and 52% were coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus). The median baseline CD4 count was 514 cells/μL. Median exposure to previous HIV therapy was 8 years, and 32% of patients had a history of PI failures. Lopinavir boosted with ritonavir was the most frequent PI replaced (62%) and tenofovir+lamivudine /emtricitabine the backbone most used during the study (29%). The study drug was discontinued early by 25 patients (14%), two of whom discontinued as a result of adverse events (Hodgkin lymphoma and vomiting). Two patients died (lung cancer and myocardial infarction). At month 12, 93% of the study population had an undetectable HIV RNA viral load. Hyperbilirubinaemia >3 mg/dL and increased alanine aminotransferase levels>200 IU/L were observed in 38.5% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Median changes from baseline to month 12 in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were -13 mg/dL (-7%; P<0.0001), -19 mg/dL (-13%; P<0.0001) and -7 mg/dL (-6%; P=0.021), respectively. In a real-world setting, switching from other PIs to ATV/r is a well-tolerated and safe option for improving the lipid profile and for retaining virological response in controlled pretreated patients.
    HIV Medicine 03/2010; 11(9):545-53. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2010; 13. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (PGP) is a membrane protein and product of the MDR-1 gene, which acts as an efflux pump for several drugs, such as protease inhibitors (PI) used in HIV. Numerous studies in vitro, in experimental animals, and in patients have analyzed the relationships between PGP and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of antiretroviral agents, with differing conclusions. In addition, studies focusing on the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MDR-1 gene, mainly C3435T in exon 26 and G2677A/G2677T in exon 21, on antiretroviral plasma concentrations, efficacy and adverse effects, have reported varying results, which have been attributed to the influence of other polymorphisms, such as cytochrome P450.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 04/2008; 26(3):150-9. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (PGP) is a membrane protein and product of the MDR-1 gene, which acts as an efflux pump for several drugs, such as protease inhibitors (PI) used in HIV. Numerous studies in vitro, in experimental animals, and in patients have analyzed the relationships between PGP and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of antiretroviral agents, with differing conclusions. In addition, studies focusing on the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MDR-1 gene, mainly C3435T in exon 26 and G2677A/G2677T in exon 21, on antiretroviral plasma concentrations, efficacy and adverse effects, have reported varying results, which have been attributed to the influence of other polymorphisms, such as cytochrome P450.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 03/2008; 26(3):150–159. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy seems to be lower in HCV/HIV-coinfected patients than in HCV-monoinfected individuals. Given that most pivotal trials conducted in coinfected patients have used the combination of pegylated interferon (pegIFN) along with fixed low doses (800 mg/day) of ribavirin (RBV), it is unclear whether HIV itself and/or suboptimal RBV exposure could explain this poorer outcome. Two well-defined end points of early virological response were evaluated in Peginterferon Ribavirina España Coinfección (PRESCO), a multicentre trial in which the combination of pegIFN plus RBV (1000 mg if body weight <75 kg and 1200 mg if >75 kg) was prescribed to coinfected patients. For comparisons, we used unpublished data from early kinetics in two other large trials, one performed in HIV-negative patients [Pegasys International Study Group (PISG)] in which RBV 1000-1200 mg/day was used and another [AIDS Pegasys Ribavirin Coinfection Trial (APRICOT)] in which HIV-positive patients received fixed low RBV doses (800 mg/day). A total of 348 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients from the PRESCO trial were analysed as well as all patients treated with pegIFN plus RBV, who completed 12 weeks of therapy in the comparative studies (435 in PISG and 268 in APRICOT). Negative serum HCV-RNA at week 4 (which has the highest positive predictive value of sustained virological response, SVR) was attained in 33.3%, 31.2% and 13% of treated patients with HCV genotype 1, respectively, in PRESCO, PISG and APRICOT. For HCV genotypes 2/3, responses were 83.7%, 84.2% and 37%, respectively. A decline lower than 2 log(10) at week 12 (which has the highest negative predictive value of SVR) was seen in 25.5%, 19.5% and 37% of HCV genotype-1-infected patients, and in 2.1%, 2.9% and 12% of genotypes-2/3-infected patients, respectively. Prescription of high RBV doses enhances the early virological response to HCV therapy in HCV/HIV-coinfected patients, with results approaching those seen in HCV-monoinfected patients.
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 06/2007; 14(6):387-91. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enfuvirtide is a high-cost, parenterally administered drug commonly used in late phases of HIV infection, when its efficacy may be compromised. To optimize enfuvirtide use, consensus recommendations for this purpose have been formulated by 247 physicians attending patients with HIV infection in Spain. A literature review was performed in which grades of evidence and recommendations were defined according to the origin of the data (randomized clinical trials, non-randomized studies, expert opinion). Twenty-eight local consensus meetings were held between May and September 2005 to discuss the most important aspects related to the use of enfuvirtide, following a pre-established system used in all the meetings. The main conclusions were as follows: a) enfuvirtide use is often excessively delayed and is given to patients with little chance of treatment success; b) enfuvirtide is indicated in patients who require antiretroviral treatment and for whom an optimum treatment with three other fully effective drugs cannot be designed; c) the most important prognostic factor is the availability of at least one other completely active drug; d) there is no infallible method to avoid the development of local reactions, but measures are available to decrease their incidence and severity; and e) patient counseling and training for correct administration of the drug are essential to improve adherence, the repercussions of local reactions and, of course, the efficacy of the treatment.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 03/2007; 25(2):131-42. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enfuvirtide is a high-cost, parenterally administered drug commonly used in late phases of HIV infection, when its efficacy may be compromised. To optimize enfuvirtide use, consensus recommendations for this purpose have been formulated by 247 physicians attending patients with HIV infection in Spain. A literature review was performed in which grades of evidence and recommendations were defined according to the origin of the data (randomized clinical trials, non-randomized studies, expert opinion). Twenty-eight local consensus meetings were held between May and September 2005 to discuss the most important aspects related to the use of enfuvirtide, following a pre-established system used in all the meetings. The main conclusions were as follows: a) enfuvirtide use is often excessively delayed and is given to patients with little chance of treatment success; b) enfuvirtide is indicated in patients who require antiretroviral treatment and for whom an optimum treatment with three other fully effective drugs cannot be designed; c) the most important prognostic factor is the availability of at least one other completely active drug; d) there is no infallible method to avoid the development of local reactions, but measures are available to decrease their incidence and severity; and e) patient counseling and training for correct administration of the drug are essential to improve adherence, the repercussions of local reactions and, of course, the efficacy of the treatment.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 02/2007; 25(2):131–142. · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - INT J ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS. 01/2007; 29.
  • Journal of Hepatology - J HEPATOL. 01/2007; 46.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of a simplification regimen with tenofovir DF (TDF), lamivudine (3TC), and efavirenz (EFV) in HAART-experienced HIV-1-infected subjects with sustained viral suppression. Patients with HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/mL during the previous 6 months and who switched their current twice-daily or three-times-daily HAART to a simplified once-daily regimen of TDF (300 mg), 3TC (300 mg), and EFV (600 mg) were included. 154 patients (70% males, mean age 42 years) were included. Previous HAART included a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen in 55% of the patients and a thymidine analog in 87%. The percentage of patients with viral load <200 copies/mL in the intent-to-treat (ITT) data set was 83% at 6 months and 75% at 12 months (98% and 96%, respectively, in the on-treatment [OT] analysis). Five patients (3%) were identified as virologic failures according to the study protocol. The mean CD4 T-cell count increased significantly 12 months after simplification (from 570 to 632 cells/mm3; p < .01). At 12 months, mean triglyceride levels decreased from 233 to 170 mg/dL (p < .01) and mean cholesterol levels decreased from 205 to 189 mg/dL (p < .01). Thirty-three patients (21%) discontinued the study treatment prior to completing the 12-month follow-up. Simplification to a once-daily regimen containing TDF, 3TC, and EFV is virologically and immunologically effective, well-tolerated, and safe with benefits in the lipid profile in the majority of patients.
    HIV Clinical Trials 01/2007; 8(5):328-36. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) is currently the recommended treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Coinfection with HIV is a negative predictor of response, for reasons not well understood. We examined the virological response at weeks 4 and 12 in 198 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients enrolled in a prospective trial in which PEG-IFN alpha 2a (180 microg per week) and RBV (1000-1200 mg daily) were provided. In an on-treatment analysis, 52.8% of patients achieved undetectable HCV-RNA (<600 IU/ml) at week 4, while 63% and 77.2% of patients had a decline of at least 2 and 1 log10, respectively. At week 12, 73.1% of patients reached undetectable HCV-RNA, and 83.5% and 89% achieved at least a 2- and 1-log10 drop, respectively. More than 85% of HCV genotypes 2/3 cleared HCV-RNA at week 4, a proportion significantly higher when compared with genotypes 1 (33.8%) and 4 (28.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified genotype 3 and RBV exposure (mg/kg of body weight) as independent predictors of virological response at week 12 of therapy. Early virological response rates to PEG-IFN plus RBV in HCV/HIV-coinfected patients seem to be similar to those reported for HCV-monoinfected subjects. The use of suboptimal doses of RBV in most earlier trials might account for the low response rates seen in coinfected patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that RBV exerts a significant independent effect on early virological response. Therefore, strategies aimed at optimizing doses and adherence to RBV might help to improve responses to HCV therapy in coinfected patients.
    Antiviral therapy 02/2005; 10(5):657-62. · 3.07 Impact Factor