[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The initial step in retroviral infection involves specific interactions between viral envelope proteins (Env) and specific receptors on the surface of target cells. For many years, little was known about the entry receptors for HTLV-1. During this time, however, functional domains of the HTLV-1 Env were identified by analyzing the effects of neutralizing antibodies and specific mutations in Env on HTLV-1 infectivity. More recent studies have revealed that HTLV-1 infectivity involves interactions with three different molecules: heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), the VEGF-165 receptor Neuropilin 1 (NRP-1) and glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1). Here, we revisit previously published data on the functional domains of Env in regard to the recent knowledge acquired about this multi-receptor complex. We also discuss the similarities and differences between HTLV-1 and other deltaretroviruses in regards to receptor usage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) entry involves the interaction between the surface (SU) subunit of the Env proteins and cellular receptor(s). Previously, our laboratories demonstrated that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), a receptor of VEGF(165), are essential for HTLV-1 entry. Here we investigated whether, as when binding VEGF(165), HSPGs and NRP-1 work in concert during HTLV-1 entry. VEGF(165) binds to the b domain of NRP-1 through both HSPG-dependent and -independent interactions, the latter involving its exon 8. We show that VEGF(165) is a selective competitor of HTLV-1 entry and that HTLV-1 mimics VEGF(165) to recruit HSPGs and NRP-1: (1) the NRP-1 b domain is required for HTLV-1 binding; (2) SU binding to target cells is blocked by the HSPG-binding domain of VEGF(165); (3) the formation of Env/NRP-1 complexes is enhanced by HSPGs; and (4) the HTLV SU contains a motif homologous to VEGF(165) exon 8. This motif directly binds to NRP-1 and is essential for HTLV-1 binding to, internalization into, and infection of CD4(+) T cells and dendritic cells. These findings demonstrate that HSPGs and NRP-1 function as HTLV-1 receptors in a cooperative manner and reveal an unexpected mimicry mechanism that may have major implications in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1) Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans), both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is transmitted through a viral synapse and enters target cells via interaction with the glucose transporter GLUT1. Here, we show that Neuropilin-1 (NRP1), the receptor for semaphorin-3A and VEGF-A165 and a member of the immune synapse, is also a physical and functional partner of HTLV-1 envelope (Env) proteins. HTLV-1 Env and NRP1 complexes are formed in cotransfected cells, and endogenous NRP1 contributes to the binding of HTLV-1 Env to target cells. NRP1 overexpression increases HTLV-1 Env-dependent syncytium formation. Moreover, overexpression of NRP1 increases both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Env-dependent infection, whereas down-regulation of endogenous NRP1 has the opposite effect. Finally, overexpressed GLUT1, NRP1, and Env form ternary complexes in transfected cells, and endogenous NRP1 and GLUT1 colocalize in membrane junctions formed between uninfected and HTLV-1-infected T cells. These data show that NRP1 is involved in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 entry, suggesting that the HTLV receptor has a multicomponent nature.
Journal of Virology 08/2006; 80(14):6844-54. DOI:10.1128/JVI.02719-05 · 4.44 Impact Factor