S P Jain

Ochsner, New Orleans, LA, United States

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Publications (14)87.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The safety and efficacy of endoluminal stenting in treating atherosclerotic vertebral artery disease was evaluated in 38 vessels in 32 patients. Indications for revascularization included diplopia (n = 4), blurred vision (n = 4), dizziness (n = 23), transient ischemic attacks (n = 4), drop attack (n = 1), gait disturbance (n = 1), headache (n = 2), and asymptomatic critical stenosis (n = 1). Success (< 20% residual diameter stenosis, without stroke or death) was achieved in all 32 patients (100%). One patient experienced a transient ischemic attack (TIA) 1 hr after the procedure. At follow-up (mean, 10.6 months), all patients (100%) were alive and 31/32 (97%) were asymptomatic. One patient (3%) had in-stent restenosis at 3.5 months and underwent successful balloon angioplasty. Endoluminal stenting of vertebral artery lesions is safe, effective, and durable as evidenced by the low recurrence rate. Primary stent placement is an attractive option for atherosclerotic vertebral artery stenotic lesions. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 2001;54:1-5.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 09/2001; 54(1):1-5. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The outcome of patients with diabetes after myocardial infarction (MI) has traditionally been worse than in their nondiabetic counterparts before and during the thrombolytic therapy era. Whether the fate of patients with diabetes might improve with mechanical intervention, particularly with primary stenting, has not previously been studied. We compared the angiographic and clinical outcome of 76 nondiabetic patients (aged 61 +/- 14 years; 66% male) and 28 patients with diabetes (aged 65 +/- 12 years; 64% male) consecutively treated with primary stenting for acute MI. Coronary Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 3 flow was restored in 96% of diabetic and 97% of nondiabetic patients. Angiographic results after stent deployment were similar in the 2 groups. At 1-month follow-up, all patients in both groups were alive. Patients with diabetes had a much higher incidence of stent thrombosis (18% vs 1%; P =.003), which accounted for the majority of the major cardiac events at 1 month (21% vs 4%; P =.009). At a mean follow-up of 315 +/- 13 days, 99% of nondiabetic and 89% of patients with diabetes were alive (P =.04). Overall freedom from a major cardiac event (death, MI, target vessel revascularization) at 315 +/- 13 day follow-up was 88% for nondiabetics and 54% for patients with diabetes (P =.0003). By multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus was the most important predictor for development of 1-month (RR 9.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-30) and late major cardiovascular events (RR 8.39; 95% confidence interval, 2.93-24). Primary stenting in acute MI is highly effective in restoring immediate TIMI 3 coronary flow in nondiabetic patients and patients with diabetes. This procedure may improve benefit in terms of mortality rate to both groups, particularly in patients with diabetes, compared with previous reports with thrombolytic therapy. Nevertheless, stent thrombosis and major cardiovascular events at 1 month and late follow-up are more frequent in patients with diabetes.
    American Heart Journal 10/1999; 138(3 Pt 1):446-55. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine if a hypercoagulable state that may persist for several months after an acute myocardial infarction may contribute to an increased incidence of stent thrombosis. Primary stenting was performed in 104 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction using 147 coronary stents. Twenty-eight patients (27%) were diabetic and 55 patients (53%) were smokers. A single stent was placed in 63%, two stents in 33%, and more than two stents in 4% of the patients. Procedural success was obtained in 97% of the patients. All stents were deployed using high-pressure balloon inflation. The reference vessel diameter and minimal lumen diameter after stent deployment were 3.30 +/- 0.42 and 3.23 +/- 0.42 mm, respectively. Six patients (5.7%) developed stent thrombosis within 1 month after the procedure complicated by reinfarction in five of the six patients. At 1-month follow-up, all patients remained alive. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of stent thrombosis were diabetes mellitus (relative risk [RR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8, 25.1), tobacco use (RR 4.5; 95% CI 1.3, 24.5), number of stents: 1 vs. > 1 (RR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1, 15.9), minimal lumen diameter poststent placement (RR 0.03; 95% CI 0.0002, 0.74), and duration of chest pain before intervention (RR 1.1; 95% CI 1.01, 1.25). Stent thrombosis had not been associated with diabetes mellitus and tobacco use previously but is in agreement with the enhanced platelet aggregability, coagulation factor abnormalities, and impaired fibrinolysis characteristic of these patients.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 08/1999; 47(4):415-22. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute angiographic success, in-hospital complications and long-term outcome after intracoronary stenting in patients with cardiac allograft vasculopathy. The application of conventional interventional modalities to treat discrete lesions in patients with cardiac allograft vasculopathy is associated with higher procedural morbidity, mortality and higher restenosis compared to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Elective coronary stenting has been shown to lower restenosis rates and improve long-term outcome in selected patients with native coronary artery disease; however, its safety and efficacy in reducing restenosis in patients with cardiac allograft vasculopathy is unknown. Ten patients with 19 discrete lesions in a major coronary artery without diffuse distal disease underwent intracoronary stenting using Palmaz-Schatz stents. The average stent size was 3.4 mm, and the stent/artery ratio was 0.99+/-0.07. Eight of ten (80%) patients received antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus ticlopidine) only. Procedural success was 100% with no in-hospital stent thrombosis, Q-wave myocardial infarction or death. Minimal luminal diameter increased from 0.83+/-0.38 mm to 3.23+/-0.49 mm after stenting. Diameter stenosis decreased from 74.91+/-11.52% to 5.90+/-4.09% after stenting. Follow-up angiography was performed in 8 of 10 (80%) patients and 16 of 19 (84%) lesions. Target lesion revascularization was required in 2 of 10 (20%) patients and 3 of 16 (19%) lesions. Allograft survival was 7 of 10 (70%) at the end of 22+/-11 months follow-up. Intracoronary stenting can be performed safely with excellent angiographic success in selected patients with cardiac allograft vasculopathy. The restenosis rate appears to be low despite the aggressive nature of the disease. A multicenter study with a larger number of patients is required to assess its efficacy in reducing restenosis and improving allograft survival.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/1998; 32(6):1636-40. · 14.09 Impact Factor
  • Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/1998; 31:63-64.
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    ABSTRACT: With this study, we sought to examine the heterogeneity of cardiac allograft vasculopathy in vivo using coronary angioscopy as an adjunct to intravascular ultrasound, and we evaluated the clinical relations of immunologic and nonimmunologic risk factors with the different forms of cardiac allograft vasculopathy detected angioscopically. Intravascular ultrasound detects vascular intimal proliferation accurately but is limited in its ability to delineate morphologic characteristics. Coronary angioscopy can evaluate intimal surface morphology by direct visualization and can differentiate pathologically distinct forms of plaque topography on the basis of color and contour. We studied 107 consecutive heart transplant recipients with intravascular ultrasound and angioscopy at the time of their annual angiogram, and we assessed the relation of nonimmunologic and immunologic risk factors to the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy distinguished angioscopically into a pigmented (yellow) or nonpigmented (white) intimal thickening. We further evaluated the clinical differences in cardiac events among these two forms of angioscopically heterogeneous forms of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Significant clinical predictors of nonpigmented intimal thickening were advanced donor age and lower mean cyclosporine levels, whereas hyperlipidemia, cumulative prednisone dose and time since transplantation correlated with pigmented intimal hyperplasia. In addition, comparisons between the two angioscopic groups revealed increased intimal thickening, serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, acute allograft rejection and time since transplantation in the group with pigmented intimal thickening (p < 0.05). With regard to cardiac events, nonpigmented plaque was more frequently found in the sudden death group (53% vs. 20%, p = 0.05), whereas the nonsudden cardiac event group had a significantly higher prevalence of pigmented plaque (80% vs. 47%, p = 0.07). These findings indicate that cardiac allograft vasculopathy is a heterogeneous disease with varied morphologic expressions with different clinical implications. Furthermore, this investigation provides insight into the cohesive, yet diverse influences of various factors, particularly immunosuppression, in these forms of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 05/1997; 29(6):1339-44. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of angiographically identified intracoronary thrombus has been variably associated with complications after coronary angioplasty. Angiography has been shown to be less sensitive than angioscopy for detecting subtle details of intracoronary morphology, such as intracoronary thrombi. The clinical importance of thrombi detectable by angioscopy but not by angiography is not known. Percutaneous coronary angioscopy was performed in 122 patients undergoing conventional coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA) at six medical centers. Unstable angina was present in 95 patients (78%) and stable angina in 27 (22%). Therapy was not guided by angioscopic findings, and no patient received thrombolytic therapy as an adjunct to angioplasty. Coronary thrombi were identified in 74 target lesions (61%) by angioscopy versus only 24 (20%) by angiography. A major in-hospital complication (death, myocardial infarction, or emergency bypass surgery) occurred in 10 of 74 patients (14%) with angioscopic intracoronary thrombus, compared with only 1 of 48 patients (2%) without thrombi (P = .03). In-hospital recurrent ischemia (recurrent angina, repeat PTCA, or abrupt occlusion) occurred in 19 of 74 patients (26%) with angioscopic intracoronary thrombi versus only 5 of 48 (10%) without thrombi (P = .03). Relative risk analysis demonstrated that angioscopic thrombus was strongly associated with adverse outcomes (either a major complication or a recurrent ischemic event) after PTCA (relative risk, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.28 to 7.60; P = .01) and that angiographic thrombi were not associated with these complications (relative risk, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.36 to 2.00; P = .91). The presence of intracoronary thrombus associated with coronary stenoses is significantly underestimated by angiography. Angioscopic intracoronary thrombi, the majority of which were not detected by angiography, are associated with an increased incidence of adverse outcomes after coronary angioplasty.
    Circulation 02/1996; 93(2):253-8. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study used angioscopy to determine the specific cause of vessel occlusion after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and compared the angiographic and angioscopic lesion morphologies in this setting. Occlusion of a dilated coronary artery is the major cause of morbidity and mortality after coronary angioplasty. Attempts to reopen occluded vessels are either empirically guided or directed by angiography, which has inherent limitations. Angioscopy, the in vivo direct visualization of the endovascular surface, is potentially a more accurate means of identifying the cause of vessel occlusion after angioplasty. Percutaneous coronary angioscopy was performed in 17 patients (17 vessels) after angiographic confirmation of postangioplasty vessel occlusion. Angioscopy demonstrated the primary cause of the postangioplasty occlusion to be dissection in 14 patients (82%) and intracoronary thrombi in 3 (18%). Compared with angioscopy, angiography was significantly less accurate in identifying the specific cause of the occlusion and correctly identified the cause of vessel occlusion in only 5 (29%) of 17 patients (p < 0.001), including 4 (29%) of 14 deep dissections and 1 (33%) of 3 occlusive thrombi. Angioscopy specifically identified the cause of occlusion in every patient, with coronary dissection the predominant cause of abrupt occlusion after coronary angioplasty. However, angiography was unable to identify a specific cause for vessel occlusion in the majority of our patients. Angioscopy may therefore prove useful in selecting specific treatment strategies for patients with abrupt occlusion after angioplasty, such as stent placement, atherectomy, repeat dilation or thrombolysis.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/1995; 25(7):1681-4. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genesis of cardiac allograft vasculopathy has been linked to nonimmunologic endothelial injury. Studies evaluating the role of nonimmunologic risk factors have thus far been limited to angiographic assessment. Intravascular ultrasound can detect cardiac allograft vasculopathy before it becomes angiographically evident. To assess the influence of nonimmunologic risk factors in the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, we studied 101 consecutive cardiac transplant recipients who underwent intracoronary ultrasound imaging during routine, annual coronary angiography. Based on the severity of intimal thickening, patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 = minimal, mild, or moderate intimal thickness; and group 2 = severe intimal thickness. Cardiac transplant recipients with severe intimal thickness had higher levels of total cholesterol (267 +/- 70 vs 227 +/- 41 mg/dl, p = 0.0008), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (187 +/- 47 vs 139 +/- 31 mg/dl, p = 0.0001), and triglycerides (237 +/- 75 vs 182 +/- 88 mg/dl, p = 0.0004), a higher percentage of weight gain (12 +/- 4% vs 8 +/- 5%, p = 0.0001), a larger body mass index (30 +/- 4 vs 25 +/- 3, p = 0.0001), and older donor age (27 +/- 5 vs 23 +/- 7 years, p = 0.005) than recipients with mild or moderate intimal thickness. Multiple regression analysis established that total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride levels, obesity indexes, donor age, and years following cardiac transplantation (p < 0.01) were independent predictors of the severity of intimal thickening, and thus the severity of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    The American Journal of Cardiology 11/1994; 74(10):1042-6. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite advances in catheter-based interventional techniques, restenosis remains a major complication of angioplasty. Recently, intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS) has provided new insight into plaque composition and geometric distribution inside the vessel. To investigate if IVUS-defined parameters can predict restenosis in patients after coronary angioplasty, we performed IVUS in 33 patients (33 lesions) after balloon angioplasty (n = 25) or directional atherectomy (n = 8). Qualitative analysis included assessment of plaque composition, plaque eccentricity, plaque fracture, and presence of dissection. In addition, minimal luminal diameter, percent diameter stenosis, percent area stenosis, plaque burden, and elastic recoil were quantitatively analyzed. Follow-up data were obtained 1, 2, and 6 months after angioplasty and were available for 30 patients. Angiographic restenosis occurred in 11 patients (group 1), and no restenosis occurred in 19 patients (group 2) by clinical (n = 10) or angiographic (n = 9) assessment. Plaque fracture was noted in 30% of group 1 patients and 74% of group 2 patients (p = 0.04). Major dissections were more frequent in group I than in group II (78% vs 10%, p = 0.009). Of the quantitative parameters analyzed, plaque burden was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (0.50 +/- 0.05 vs 0.34 +/- 0.05, p = 0.0001). In 78% of the patients with plaque burden of > 0.40, restenosis developed. Thus, of the various parameters analyzed, the absence of plaque fracture, the existence of a major dissection, and greater plaque burden were associated with increased incidence of restenosis. Our results indicate that IVUS can identify a subset of patients in whom restenosis is likely to develop. Information about the morphologic features of the atheroma and its composition may be used to modify the interventional strategy and thus optimize lumen size and possibly reduce the chance of restenosis.
    American Heart Journal 10/1994; 128(4):664-73. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angioplasty of coronary saphenous vein grafts has been associated with less favorable results than in native coronary arteries owing to a higher acute complication rate and an increased incidence of restenosis. We placed 16 nonarticulated balloon expandable stainless steel "biliary" stents at the sites of 13 stenotic or occluded aortocoronary saphenous vein graft lesions in 11 patients. All of the lesions were stented successfully. There were no instances of stent thrombosis or stent embolism. The percent diameter stenosis was reduced from 85.5 +/- 14.1% to 3.5 +/- 4.4% (p < .001), and the minimal lumen diameter of the lesion increased from 0.7 +/- 0.7 mm at baseline to 3.7 +/- 0.2 mm (p < .001) after stent placement. We conclude that this noncoronary stent appears to be safe and effective for treating saphenous vein coronary bypass grafts. The high procedural success rate and excellent angiographic results are very encouraging, while the restenosis rates remain to be determined.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis 10/1993; 30(2):91-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous coronary angioscopy and intravascular ultrasound are sensitive intravascular imaging methods for detecting early changes in coronary morphology in cardiac transplant recipients. To compare the 2 imaging modalities, 29 consecutive cardiac transplant recipients underwent percutaneous coronary angioscopy and intravascular ultrasound during annual coronary angiography. Surface morphology, presence of plaque, and percent area stenosis were determined with each procedure. Percutaneous coronary angioscopy was more sensitive in detecting the presence of plaque and stenosis than was coronary angiography (plaque: 79 vs 10% [p < 0.001]; and stenosis: 24 vs 3% [p < 0.01]). Intravascular ultrasound was also more sensitive in detecting plaque (76 vs 10%; p < 0.001) and stenosis (45 vs 3%; p < 0.001) than was coronary angiography. Although both angioscopy and ultrasound identified atherosclerotic plaque, only percutaneous coronary angioscopy could show luminal surface morphology and pigmentation of the plaque. Conversely, ultrasound could detect calcification and presence of intimal thickening, and was more accurate in assessing the severity of stenosis (45 vs 24%; p < 0.01). In conclusion, percutaneous coronary angioscopy and intravascular ultrasound, in conjunction, provide information not only regarding the appearance of the luminal surface, but also quantitative information regarding the structure and extent of the disease in the coronary artery wall.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 10/1993; 72(11):805-9. · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • S P Jain, C J White, H O Ventura
    American Heart Journal 09/1993; 126(2):453-6. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is one of the most common obstacles to the long-term survival of heart transplant recipients. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been used as a palliative treatment for discrete lesions caused by this disease, but it is often complicated by restenosis. This report describes two cases in which directional coronary atherectomy was used to treat the discrete lesions and explores the possible advantages of this intervention in lieu of the traditional approach. Our results suggest that directional coronary atherectomy is a feasible alternative to conventional balloon angioplasty.
    The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 12(5):819-23. · 5.11 Impact Factor