Shogo Nishiyama

Tohoku University, Japan

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Publications (60)312.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: WASP-80b is a warm Jupiter transiting a bright late-K dwarf, providing a good opportunity to extend the atmospheric study of hot Jupiters toward the lower temperature regime. We report multi-band, multi-epoch transit observations of WASP-80b by using three ground-based telescopes covering from optical (g', Rc, and Ic bands) to near infrared (NIR; J, H, and Ks bands) wavelengths. We observe five primary transits, each of which in three or four different bands simultaneously, obtaining 17 independent transit light curves. Combining them with previous works, we find that the observed transmission spectrum is largely consistent with both a solar-abundance and thick-cloud atmospheric models at 1.7-$\sigma$ discrepancy level. On the other hand, we find a marginal spectral rise in optical region compared to NIR region at 2.9-$\sigma$ level, which possibly indicates the existence of haze in the atmosphere. We simulate theoretical transmission spectra for a solar-abundance but hazy atmosphere, finding that a model with equilibrium temperature of 600 K can explain the observed data well, having the discrepancy level of 1.0 $\sigma$. We also search for transit timing variations, but find no timing excess larger than 50 s from a linear ephemeris. In addition, we conduct 43-day-long photometric monitoring of the host star in the optical bands, finding no significant variation of the stellar brightness. Combined with the fact that no spot-crossing event is observed in the five transits, our results confirm previous findings that the host star appears quiet as for spot activities, despite the indications of strong chromospheric activities.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 790(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have carried out near-infrared polarimetry toward the boundary of the Central Molecular Zone, in the field of (-1.4 deg $\lesssim l \lesssim$ -0.3 deg and 1.0 deg $\lesssim l \lesssim$ 2.9 deg, $|b|\lesssim$ 0.1 deg), using the near-infrared polarimetric camera SIRPOL on the 1.4 m Infrared Survey Facility telescope. We have selected 112 intrinsically polarized sources on the basis of the estimate of interstellar polarization on Stokes $Q/I-U/I$ planes. The selected sources are brighter than $K_S=14.5$ mag and have polarimetric uncertainty $\delta P<1\,%$. Ten of these distinctive polarized sources are fit well with spectral energy distributions of young stellar objects when using the photometry in the archive of the Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared data. However, many sources have spectral energy distributions of normal stars suffering heavy interstellar extinction; these might be stars behind dark clouds. Due to the small number of distinctive polarized sources and candidates of young stellar object, we cannot judge if there is a decline of them outside the Central Molecular Zone. Many of massive candidates of young stellar object in the literature have only small intrinsic polarization. This might suggest that their masses are 4-15 M$_{{\rm sun}}$, whose intrinsic polarization has been expected to be small.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 06/2014; 213(2). · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of the Galactic center diffuse X-ray emission (GCDX) is still under intense investigation. We have found a clear excess in a longitudinal GCDX profile over a stellar number density profile in the nuclear bulge region, suggesting a significant contribution of diffuse, interstellar hot plasma to the GCDX. We have estimated that contributions of an old stellar population to the GCDX are about 50 % and 20 % in the nuclear stellar disk and nuclear star cluster, respectively. Our near-infrared polarimetric observations show that the GCDX region is permeated by a large scale, toroidal magnetic field. Together with observed magnetic field strengths in nearly energy equipartition, the interstellar hot plasma could be confined by the toroidal magnetic field.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We are carrying out near-infrared spectroscopy of Cepheids in the Galactic nuclear disk. The H-band spectra taken with SUBARU/IRCS indicate that their kinematics are consistent with the rotation of the nuclear disk.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We have carried out adaptive-optics assisted observations at the Subaru telescope, and have found 11 intrinsically polarized sources in the central parsec of our Galaxy. They are selected from 318 point sources with Ks<15.5, and their interstellar polarizations are corrected using a Stokes Q/I - U/I diagram. Considering brightness, near-infrared color excess, and the amount of intrinsic polarization, two of them are good young stellar object (YSO) candidates with an age of ~10^5 yr. If they are genuine YSOs, their existence provides strong constraints on star formation mechanisms in this region. In the remaining sources, two are known as bow-shock sources in the Northern arm. One other is also located in the Northern arm and shows very similar properties, and thus likely to be a so far unknown bow-shock source. The origin of the intrinsic polarization of the other sources is as yet uncertain.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 778(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of the Galactic center diffuse X-ray emission (GCDX) is still under intense investigation. In particular, the interpretation of the hot (kT ~ 7 keV) component of the GCDX, characterised by the strong Fe 6.7 keV line emission, has been contentious. If the hot component originates from a truly diffuse interstellar plasma, not a collection of unresolved point sources, such plasma cannot be gravitationally bound, and its regeneration would require a huge amount of energy. Here we show that the spatial distribution of the GCDX does NOT correlate with the number density distribution of an old stellar population traced by near-infrared light, strongly suggesting a significant contribution of the diffuse interstellar plasma. Contributions of the old stellar population to the GCDX are implied to be about 50 % and 20 % in the Nuclear stellar disk and Nuclear star cluster, respectively. For the Nuclear stellar disk, a scale height of 0.32 +- 0.02 deg is obtained for the first time from the stellar number density profiles. We also show the results of the extended near-infrared polarimetric observations in the central 3 deg * 2 deg region of our Galaxy, and confirm that the GCDX region is permeated by a large scale, toroidal magnetic field as previously claimed. Together with observed magnetic field strengths close to energy equipartition, the hot plasma could be magnetically confined, reducing the amount of energy required to sustain it.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2013; 769(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Near-infrared polarimetric imaging observations toward the Galactic center have been carried out to examine the efficiency and wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization. A total area of about 5.7 deg$^2$ is covered in the $J$, $H$, and $K_S$ bands. We examined the polarization efficiency, defined as the ratio of degree of polarization to color excess. The interstellar medium between the Galactic center and us shows the polarization efficiency lower than that in the Galactic disk by a factor of three. Moreover we investigated the spatial variation of the polarization efficiency by comparing it with those of color excess, degree of polarization, and position angle. The spatial variations of color excess and degree of polarization depend on the Galactic latitude, while the polarization efficiency varies independently of the Galactic structure. Position angles are nearly parallel to the Galactic plane, indicating the longitudinal magnetic field configuration between the Galactic center and us. The polarization efficiency anticorrelates with dispersions of position angles. The low polarization efficiency and its spatial variation can be explained by the differences of the magnetic field directions along the line-of-sight. From the lower polarization efficiency, we suggest a higher strength of a random component relative to a uniform component of the magnetic field between the Galactic center and us. We also derived the ratios of degree of polarization $p_H/p_J$ = 0.581 $\pm$ 0.004 and $p_{K_S}/p_H$ = 0.620 $\pm$ 0.002. The power law indices of the wavelength dependence of polarization are $\beta_{JH}$ = 2.08 $\pm$ 0.02 and $\beta_{HK_S}$ = 1.76 $\pm$ 0.01. Therefore the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization exhibits flattening toward longer wavelengths in the range of 1.25$-$2.14 $\micron$. The flattening would be caused by aligned large-size dust grains.
    The Astronomical Journal 03/2013; 145(4). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the result of our near-infrared survey of short-period variable stars (P<60d) in a field-of-view of 20'x30' towards the Galactic Centre. Forty-five variables are discovered and we classify the variables based on their light curve shapes and other evidence. In addition to 3 classical Cepheids reported previously, we find 16 type II Cepheids, 24 eclipsing binaries, one pulsating star with P=0.265d (RR Lyr or delta Sct) and one Cepheid-like variable whose nature is uncertain. Eclipsing binaries are separated into the foreground objects and those significantly obscured by interstellar extinction. One of the reddened binaries contains an O-type supergiant and its light curve indicates an eccentric orbit. We discuss the nature and distribution of type II Cepheids as well as the distance to the Galactic Centre based on these Cepheids and other distance indicators. The estimates of R0(GC) we obtained based on photometric data agree with previous results obtained with kinematics of objects around the GC. Furthermore, our result gives a support to the reddening law obtained by Nishiyama and collaborators, A(Ks)/E(H-Ks)=1.44, because a different reddening law would result in a rather different distance estimate.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2012; 429(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Shogo Nishiyama, Rainer Schödel
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. Young, massive stars have been found at projected distances R < 0.5 pc from supermassive black hole, Sgr A* at the center of our Galay. In recent years, increasing evidence has been found for the presence of young, massive stars also at R > 0.5 pc. Our goal in this work is a systematic search for young, massive star candidates throughout the entire region within R ~ 2.5 pc of the black hole. Methods. The main criterion for the photometric identification of young, massive early-type stars is the lack of CO-absorption in the spectra. We used narrow-band imaging with VLT/ISAAC to search for young, massive stars within ~2.5 pc of Sgr A*. Results. We have found 63 early-type star candidates at R < 2.5 pc, with an estimated erroneous identification rate of only about 20%. Considering their K-band magnitudes and interstellar extinction, they are candidates for Wolf-Rayet stars, supergiants, or early O-type stars. Of these, 31 stars are so far unknown young, massive star candidates, all of which lie at R>0.5pc. The surface number density profile of the young, massive star candidates can be well fit by a single power-law, with Gamma = 1.6 +- 0.17 at R < 2.5 pc, which is significantly steeper than that of the late-type giants that make up the bulk of the observable stars in the NSC. Intriguingly, this power-law is consistent with the power-law that describes the surface density of young, massive stars in the same brightness range at R < 0.5 pc. Conclusions. The finding of a significant number of newly identified early-type star candidates at the Galactic center suggests that young, massive stars can be found throughout the entire cluster which may require us to modify existing theories for star formation at the Galactic center. Follow-up studies are needed to improve the existing data and lay the foundations for a unified theory of star formation in the Milky Way's NSC.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report high precision transit photometry of GJ1214b in JHKs bands taken simultaneously with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m telescope at Sutherland, South Africa. Our MCMC analyses show that the observed planet-to-star radius ratios in JHKs bands are R_{\rm p}/R_{\rm s,J} = 0.11833 \pm 0.00077, R_{\rm p}/R_{\rm s,H} = 0.11522 \pm 0.00079, R_{\rm p}/R_{\rm s,Ks} = 0.11459 \pm 0.00099, respectively. The radius ratios are well consistent with the previous studies by Bean et al. (2011) within 1\sigma, while our result in Ks band is shallower than and inconsistent at 4\sigma\ level with the previous measurements in the same band by Croll et al. (2011). We have no good explanation for this discrepancy at this point. Our overall results support a flat transmission spectrum in the observed bands, which can be explained by a water-dominated atmosphere or an atmosphere with extensive high-altitude clouds or haze. To solve the discrepancy of the radius ratios and to discriminate a definitive atmosphere model for GJ1214b in the future, further transit observations around Ks band would be especially important.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 10/2012; · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microlensing detections of cool planets are important for the construction of an unbiased sample to estimate the frequency of planets beyond the snow line, which is where giant planets are thought to form according to the core accretion theory of planet formation. In this paper, we report the discovery of a giant planet detected from the analysis of the light curve of a high-magnification microlensing event MOA 2010-BLG-477. The measured planet-star mass ratio is q = (2.181 ± 0.004) × 10-3 and the projected separation is s = 1.1228 ± 0.0006 in units of the Einstein radius. The angular Einstein radius is unusually large θE = 1.38 ± 0.11 mas. Combining this measurement with constraints on the "microlens parallax" and the lens flux, we can only limit the host mass to the range 0.13 < M/M ⊙ < 1.0. In this particular case, the strong degeneracy between microlensing parallax and planet orbital motion prevents us from measuring more accurate host and planet masses. However, we find that adding Bayesian priors from two effects (Galactic model and Keplerian orbit) each independently favors the upper end of this mass range, yielding star and planet masses of M * = 0.67+0.33 - 0.13 M ⊙ and mp = 1.5+0.8 - 0.3 M JUP at a distance of D = 2.3 ± 0.6 kpc, and with a semi-major axis of a = 2+3 - 1 AU. Finally, we show that the lens mass can be determined from future high-resolution near-IR adaptive optics observations independently from two effects, photometric and astrometric.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2012; 754(1):73. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear bulge is a region with a radius of about 200 parsecs around the centre of the Milky Way. It contains stars with ages ranging from a few million years to over a billion years, yet its star-formation history and the triggering process for star formation remain to be resolved. Recently, episodic star formation, powered by changes in the gas content, has been suggested. Classical Cepheid variable stars have pulsation periods that decrease with increasing age, so it is possible to probe the star-formation history on the basis of the distribution of their periods. Here we report the presence of three classical Cepheids in the nuclear bulge with pulsation periods of approximately 20 days, within 40 parsecs (projected distance) of the central black hole. No Cepheids with longer or shorter periods were found. We infer that there was a period about 25 million years ago, and possibly lasting until recently, in which star formation increased relative to the period of 30-70 million years ago.
    Nature 08/2011; 477(7363):188-90. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The innermost tens of parsecs of our Galaxy are characterized by the presence of molecular cloud complexes surrounding Sgr A*, the radiative counterpart of the supermassive black hole (~4 × 106 M ☉) at the Galactic center. We seek to distinguish the different physical mechanisms that dominate the molecular clouds at the Galactic center, with special emphasis on the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also want to study the energy flow and model the variable emission of Sgr A*. Our study is based on NIR and submillimeter (sub-mm) observations. Using sub-mm maps, we describe the complex morphology of the molecular clouds and the circumnuclear disk, along with their masses (of order 105-106 M ☉), and derive also the temperature and spectral index maps of the regions under study. We conclude that the average temperature of the dust is 14 ± 4 K. The spectral index map shows that the 20 and 50 km s–1 clouds are dominated by dust emission. Comparatively, in the CND and its surroundings the spectral indices decrease toward Sgr A* and range between about 1 and –0.6. These values are mostly explained with a combination of dust, synchrotron, and free-free emission in different ratios. The presence of non-thermal emission also accounts for the apparent low temperatures derived in these areas, indicating their unreliability. The Sgr A* light curves show significant flux density excursions in both the NIR and sub-mm domains. We have defined a classification system to account for the NIR variability of Sgr A*. Also, we have modeled on the NIR/sub-mm events. From our modeling results we can infer a sub-mm emission delay with respect to the NIR; we argue that the delay is due to the adiabatic expansion of the synchrotron source components.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2011; 738(2):158. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of CO ($J=3-2$) and HCO$^+$ ($J=4-3$) mapping observations toward a nearby embedded cluster, Serpens South, using the ASTE 10 m telescope. Our CO ($J=3-2$) map reveals that many outflows are crowded in the dense cluster-forming clump that can be recognized as a HCO$^+$ clump with a size of $\sim$ 0.2 pc and mass of $\sim$ 80 M$_\odot$. The clump contains several subfragments with sizes of $\sim$ 0.05 pc. By comparing the CO ($J=3-2$) map with the 1.1 mm dust continuum image taken by AzTEC on ASTE, we find that the spatial extents of the outflow lobes are sometimes anti-correlated with the distribution of the dense gas and some of the outflow lobes apparently collide with the dense gas. The total outflow mass, momentum, and energy are estimated at 0.6 $M_\odot$, 8 $M_\odot$ km s$^{-1}$, and 64 $M_\odot$ km$^2$ s$^{-2}$, respectively. The energy injection rate due to the outflows is comparable to the turbulence dissipation rate in the clump, implying that the protostellar outflows can maintain the supersonic turbulence in this region. The total outflow energy seems only about 10 percent the clump gravitational energy. We conclude that the current outflow activity is not enough to destroy the whole cluster-forming clump, and therefore star formation is likely to continue for several or many local dynamical times.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2011; 737(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our goal is to investigate and understand the physical processes behind the variability associated with the NIR flaring emission from Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We found a correlation between the modulations of the observed flux density light curves and changes in polarimetric data. Correlations between intensity and polarimetric parameters of the observed light curves as well as a comparison of predicted and observed light curve features through a panttern recognition algorithm resulted in the detection of a signature of orbiting matter under the influence of strong gravity. This pattern is detected statistically significant against randomly polarized red noise.
    05/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: XSS J12270–4859 (J12270) is an enigmatic source of unknown nature. Previous studies revealed that the source has unusual X-ray temporal characteristics, including repetitive short-term flares followed by spectral hardening, non-periodic dips, and dichotomy in activity; i.e. intervals filled with flares and those without. Together with a power-law X-ray spectrum, it is suggested to be a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). In order to better understand the object, we present the results of our near-infrared (NIR) photometry and linear polarimetry observations as well as X-ray spectroscopy observations, which overlap with each other partially in time, taken respectively with the InfraRed Survey Facility (IRSF) and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We detected several simultaneous NIR and X-ray flares for the first time. No significant NIR polarization was obtained. We assembled data taken with IRSF, RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, and other missions in the literature and compared the flare profile and the spectral energy distribution (SED) with some representative high-energy sources. Based on some similarities of the repetitive NIR and X-ray flaring characteristics and the broad SED, we argue that J12270 is reminiscent of microquasars with a synchrotron jet, which is at a very low luminosity state of ≈10 −4 Eddington luminosity for a stellar mass black hole or neutron star at a reference distance of 1 kpc.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 04/2011; 63. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Serpens South embedded cluster, which is located at the constricted part in a long filamentary infrared dark cloud, is believed to be in very early stage of cluster formation. We present results of near-infrared (JHKs) polarization observations toward the filamentary cloud. Our polarization measurements of near-infrared point sources indicate a well-ordered global magnetic field that is perpendicular to the main filament, implying that the magnetic field is likely to have controlled the formation of the main filament. On the other hand, the sub-filaments, which converge on the central part of the cluster, tend to run along the magnetic field. The global magnetic field appears to be curved in the southern part of the main filament. Such morphology is consistent with the idea that the global magnetic field is distorted by gravitational contraction along the main filament toward the northern part that contains larger mass. Applying the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method, the magnetic field strength is roughly estimated to be a few x 100 microgauss, suggesting that the filamentary cloud is close to magnetically critical as a whole.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2011; 734. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The results of near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of a substellar companion (SR12 C), with a possible planetary mass, of a binary T Tauri star (SR12 AB) in the ρ Ophiuchi star-forming region are presented. The object is separated by ~87, corresponding to ~1100 AU at 125 pc, and has an H-band brightness of 15.2 mag and infrared spectra suggesting a spectral type of M9.0 ± 0.5. It is confirmed that SR12 C is physically related to the ρ Ophiuchi star-forming region from its common proper motion with SR12 AB and its youth is confirmed by a gravity-sensitive spectral feature. Furthermore, based on the number of known members of the ρ Ophiuchi star-forming region in the area in which SR12 AB exists, the probability of a chance alignment is ~1% and it is therefore likely that SR12 C is physically associated with SR12 AB. The mass of SR12 C is estimated by comparing its estimated luminosity and assumed age with the theoretical age-luminosity relation. SR12 C is identified as an extremely low-mass (0.013 ± 0.007 M ☉) object, but its separation from its parent star is the widest among planetary-mass companion (PMC) candidates imaged to date. In addition, SR12 C is the first PMC candidate directly imaged around a binary star. This discovery suggests that PMCs form via multiple star formation processes including disk gravitational instability and cloud core fragmentation.
    The Astronomical Journal 03/2011; 141(4):119. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a large-scale view of the magnetic field (MF) in the central 2° × 2° region of our Galaxy. The polarization of point sources has been measured in the J, H, and KS bands using the near-infrared polarimetric camera SIRPOL on the 1.4 m Infrared Survey Facility telescope. Comparing the Stokes parameters between high extinction stars and relatively low extinction ones, we obtain polarization originating from magnetically aligned dust grains in the central few hundred parsecs of our Galaxy. We find that near the Galactic plane, the MF is almost parallel to the Galactic plane (i.e., toroidal configuration), but at high Galactic latitudes (b >04) the field is nearly perpendicular to the plane (i.e., poloidal configuration). This is the first detection of a smooth transition of the large-scale MF configuration in this region.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 09/2010; 722(1):L23. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We made deep near-infrared (JHKs) imaging polarimetry toward the Serpens cloud core, which is a nearby, active cluster forming region. The polarization vector maps show that the near-infrared reflection light in this region mainly originates from SVS 2 and SVS 20, and enable us to detect 24 small infrared reflection nebulae associated with young stellar objects. Polarization measurements of near-infrared point sources indicate an hourglass-shaped magnetic field, of which the symmetry axis is nearly perpendicular to the elongation of the C18O (J = 1-0) or submillimeter continuum emission. The bright part of C18O (J = 1-0), submillimeter continuum cores as well as many Class 0/I objects are located just toward the constriction region of the hourglass-shaped magnetic field. Applying the Chandrasekhar and Fermi method and taking into account the recent study on the signal integration effect for the dispersion component of the magnetic field, the magnetic field strength was estimated to be ~100 μG, suggesting that the ambient region of the Serpens cloud core is moderately magnetically supercritical. This suggests that the Serpens cloud core first contracted along the magnetic field as an elongated cloud, which is perpendicular to the magnetic field, and that the central part then contracted across the magnetic field due to the high density in the central region of the cloud core, where star formation is actively continuing. Comparison of this magnetic field with previous observations of molecular gas and large-scale outflows suggests a possibility that the cloud dynamics are controlled by the magnetic field, protostellar outflows, and gravitational inflows. Furthermore, the outflow energy injection rate appears to be larger than the dissipation rate of the turbulent energy in this cloud, indicating that the outflows are the main source of turbulence and that the magnetic field plays an important role both in allowing the outflow energy to escape from the central region of the cloud core and enabling the gravitational inflows from the ambient region to the central region. These characteristics appear to be in good agreement with the outflow-driven turbulence model and imply the importance of the magnetic field to continuous star formation in the center region of the cluster forming region.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2010; 716(1):299. · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

438 Citations
312.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Tohoku University
      • Graduate School of Science
      Japan
  • 2006–2014
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      • Extrasolar Planet Detection Project Office
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2011
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Astronomy
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2008–2011
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2008–2009
    • National Institutes Of Natural Sciences
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2006–2007
    • Nagoya University
      • Division of Cell Science
      Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan