Shogo Nishiyama

Miyagi University of Education, Miyagi, Japan

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Publications (72)329.52 Total impact

  • S. Nishiyama, H. Hatano, T. Nagata, M. Tamura
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    ABSTRACT: We present a large-scale view of the magnetic field (MF) in the central 3° × 2° region of our Galaxy. There is a smooth transition of the large-scale MF configuration in this region.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2015; 10(H16):387. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314011569
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    ABSTRACT: NGC3718 is a LINER $L1.9$ galaxy, lying at a distance of about $\sim 17.4$ Mpc away from earth and its similarities with NGC5128 often award it the name "northern Centaurus A". We use high angular resolution ($\sim100$ mas) e-Merlin radio and SUBARU NIR ($\sim170$ mas) data, to take a detailed view of the processes taking place in its central region. In order to preserve some objectivity in our interpretation, we combine our results with literature values and findings from previous studies. Our NIR maps suggest, on one hand, that towards the stellar bulge there are no large scale absorption phenomena caused by the apparent dust lane and, on the other, that there is a significant (local) contribution from hot ($\sim1000$ K) dust to the nuclear NIR emission. The position where this takes place appears to be closer to the offset compact radio emission from our e-Merlin $6$ cm map, lying offset by $\sim4.25$ pc from the center of the underlying stellar bulge. The shape of the radio map suggests the presence of one (or possibly two, forming an X-shape) bipolar structure(s) $\sim1$ ($\sim0.6$) arcsec across, which combined with the balance between the gas and the stellar velocity dispersions and the presence of hard X-ray emission, point towards effects expected by AGN feedback. We also argue that NGC3718 has a "core" in its surface brightness profile, despite the fact that it is a gas-rich galaxy and we discuss its mixed photometric and spectroscopic characteristics. The latter combined with the observed spatial and radio offsets, the relative redshift between the broad and the narrow $H{\mathrm{\alpha}}$ line, the limited star formation activity and AGN feedback, strongly imply the existence of an SMBH recoil. Finally, we discuss a possible interpretation, that could naturally incorporate all these findings into one physically consistent picture.
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425077
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    ABSTRACT: Classical Cepheids are useful tracers of the Galactic young stellar population because their distances and ages can be determined from their period-luminosity and period-age relations. In addition, the radial velocities and chemical abundance of the Cepheids can be derived from spectroscopic observations, providing further insights into the structure and evolution of the Galaxy. Here, we report the radial velocities of classical Cepheids near the Galactic Center, three of which were reported in 2011, the other reported for the first time. The velocities of these Cepheids suggest that the stars orbit within the Nuclear Stellar Disk, a group of stars and interstellar matter occupying a region of 200 pc around the Center, although the three-dimensional velocities cannot be determined until the proper motions are known. According to our simulation, these four Cepheids formed within the Nuclear Stellar Disk like younger stars and stellar clusters therein.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2014; 799(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/46
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    ABSTRACT: We have made near-infrared (JHKs) imaging polarimetry of a bright-rimmed cloud (SFO 74). The polarization vector maps clearly show that the magnetic field in the layer just behind the bright rim is running along the rim, quite different from its ambient magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field just behind the tip rim is almost perpendicular to that of the incident UV radiation, and the magnetic field configuration appears to be symmetric as a whole with respect to the cloud symmetry axis. We estimated the column and number densities in the two regions (just inside and far inside the tip rim), and then derived the magnetic field strength, applying the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. The estimated magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim, ~90 uG, is stronger than that far inside, ~30 uG. This suggests that the magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim is enhanced by the UV radiation induced shock. The shock increases the density within the top layer around the tip, and thus increases the strength of the magnetic field. The magnetic pressure seems to be comparable to the turbulent one just inside the tip rim, implying a significant contribution of the magnetic field to the total internal pressure. The mass-to-flux ratio was estimated to be close to the critical value just inside the tip rim. We speculate that the flat-topped bright rim of SFO 74 could be formed by the magnetic field effect.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2014; 798(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/798/1/60
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    ABSTRACT: Within the central 10 pc of our Galaxy lies a dense cluster of stars, the nuclear star cluster, forming a distinct component of our Galaxy. Nuclear star clusters are common objects and are detected in ∼75% of nearby galaxies. It is, however, not fully understood how nuclear clusters form. Because the Milky Way nuclear star cluster is at a distance of only 8 kpc, we can spatially resolve its stellar populations and kinematics much better than in external galaxies. This makes the Milky Way nuclear star cluster a reference object for understanding the structure and assembly history of all nuclear star clusters.We have obtained an unparalleled data set using the near-infrared long-slit spectrograph ISAAC (VLT) in a novel drift-scan technique to construct an integral-field spectroscopic map of the central ∼10 × 8 pc of our Galaxy. To complement our data set we also observed fields out to a distance of ∼19 pc along the Galactic plane to disentangle the influence of the nuclear stellar disk.From this data set we extract a stellar kinematic map using the CO bandheads and an emission line kinematic map using H2 emission lines. Using the stellar kinematics, we set up a kinematic model for the Milky Way nuclear star cluster to derive its mass and constrain the central Galactic potential. Because the black hole mass in the Milky Way is precisely known, this kinematic data set will also serve as a benchmark for testing black hole mass modeling techniques used in external galaxies.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 10/2014; 9(S303):223-227. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314000611
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    ABSTRACT: WASP-80b is a warm Jupiter transiting a bright late-K dwarf, providing a good opportunity to extend the atmospheric study of hot Jupiters toward the lower temperature regime. We report multi-band, multi-epoch transit observations of WASP-80b by using three ground-based telescopes covering from optical (g', Rc, and Ic bands) to near infrared (NIR; J, H, and Ks bands) wavelengths. We observe five primary transits, each of which in three or four different bands simultaneously, obtaining 17 independent transit light curves. Combining them with previous works, we find that the observed transmission spectrum is largely consistent with both a solar-abundance and thick-cloud atmospheric models at 1.7-$\sigma$ discrepancy level. On the other hand, we find a marginal spectral rise in optical region compared to NIR region at 2.9-$\sigma$ level, which possibly indicates the existence of haze in the atmosphere. We simulate theoretical transmission spectra for a solar-abundance but hazy atmosphere, finding that a model with equilibrium temperature of 600 K can explain the observed data well, having the discrepancy level of 1.0 $\sigma$. We also search for transit timing variations, but find no timing excess larger than 50 s from a linear ephemeris. In addition, we conduct 43-day-long photometric monitoring of the host star in the optical bands, finding no significant variation of the stellar brightness. Combined with the fact that no spot-crossing event is observed in the five transits, our results confirm previous findings that the host star appears quiet as for spot activities, despite the indications of strong chromospheric activities.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 790(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/790/2/108
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    ABSTRACT: We have carried out near-infrared polarimetry toward the boundary of the Central Molecular Zone, in the field of (-1.4 deg $\lesssim l \lesssim$ -0.3 deg and 1.0 deg $\lesssim l \lesssim$ 2.9 deg, $|b|\lesssim$ 0.1 deg), using the near-infrared polarimetric camera SIRPOL on the 1.4 m Infrared Survey Facility telescope. We have selected 112 intrinsically polarized sources on the basis of the estimate of interstellar polarization on Stokes $Q/I-U/I$ planes. The selected sources are brighter than $K_S=14.5$ mag and have polarimetric uncertainty $\delta P<1\,%$. Ten of these distinctive polarized sources are fit well with spectral energy distributions of young stellar objects when using the photometry in the archive of the Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared data. However, many sources have spectral energy distributions of normal stars suffering heavy interstellar extinction; these might be stars behind dark clouds. Due to the small number of distinctive polarized sources and candidates of young stellar object, we cannot judge if there is a decline of them outside the Central Molecular Zone. Many of massive candidates of young stellar object in the literature have only small intrinsic polarization. This might suggest that their masses are 4-15 M$_{{\rm sun}}$, whose intrinsic polarization has been expected to be small.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 06/2014; 213(2). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/213/2/22
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    ABSTRACT: Within the central 10pc of our Galaxy lies a dense nuclear star cluster (NSC), and similar NSCs are found in most nearby galaxies. Studying the structure and kinematics of NSCs reveals the history of mass accretion of galaxy nuclei. Because the Milky Way (MW) NSC is at a distance of only 8kpc, we can spatially resolve the MWNSC on sub-pc scales. This makes the MWNSC a reference object for understanding the formation of all NSCs. We have used the NIR long-slit spectrograph ISAAC (VLT) in a drift-scan to construct an integral-field spectroscopic map of the central 9.5 x 8pc of our Galaxy. We use this data set to extract stellar kinematics both of individual stars and from the unresolved integrated light spectrum. We present a velocity and dispersion map from the integrated light and model these kinematics using kinemetry and axisymmetric Jeans models. We also measure CO bandhead strengths of 1,381 spectra from individual stars. We find kinematic complexity in the NSCs radial velocity map including a misalignment of the kinematic position angle by 9 degree counterclockwise relative to the Galactic plane, and indications for a rotating substructure perpendicular to the Galactic plane at a radius of 20" or 0.8pc. We determine the mass of the NSC within r = 4.2pc to 1.4 x 10^7 Msun. We also show that our kinematic data results in a significant underestimation of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass. The kinematic substructure and position angle misalignment may hint at distinct accretion events. This indicates that the MWNSC grew at least partly by the mergers of massive star clusters. Compared to other NSCs, the MWNSC is on the compact side of the r_eff - M_NSC relation. The underestimation of the SMBH mass might be caused by the kinematic misalignment and a stellar population gradient. But it is also possible that there is a bias in SMBH mass measurements obtained with integrated light.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2014; 570. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423777
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    ABSTRACT: (abridged) In this paper we aim at determining the shape, size, and luminosity/mass of the Milky Way Nuclear Star Cluster (MWNSC). We use Spitzer/IRAC images at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer, where interstellar extinction is at a minimum but the overall emission is still dominated by stars. We correct the 4.5 micrometer image for PAH emission with the help of the IRAC 8.0 micrometer map and for extinction with the help of a [3.6-4.5] colour map. We present an extinction map for the central ~300x200 pc^2 of the Milky Way, as well as a PAH-emission and extinction corrected image of the stellar emission, with a resolution of about 0.2 pc. We find that the MWNSC appears in projection intrinsically point-symmetric, that it is significantly flattened, with its major axis aligned along the Galactic Plane, and that it is centred on the black hole, Sagittarius A*. Its density follows the well known approximate rho~r^{-2}-law at distances of a few parsecs from Sagittarius A*, but may become as steep as rho~r^{-3} at projected radii around 5 pc. We derive a half light radius of 4.2+-0.4 pc, a total luminosity of L_MWNSC=(4.1+-0.4)x10^{7} L_Sun, and a mass of M_{MWNSC}=(2.1+-0.4)x10^{7} M_Sun. The overall properties of the MWNSC agree well with the ones of its extragalactic counterparts, which underlines its role as a template for these objects. Its flattening agrees well with its previously established rotation parallel to Galactic rotation and suggests that it has formed by accretion of material that fell in preferentially along the Galactic Plane. Our findings support the in situ growth scenario for nuclear clusters and emphasize the need to increase the complexity of theoretical models for their formation and for the interaction between their stars and the central black hole in order to include rotation, axisymmetry, and growth in recurrent episodes.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2014; 566. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423481
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of the Galactic center diffuse X-ray emission (GCDX) is still under intense investigation. We have found a clear excess in a longitudinal GCDX profile over a stellar number density profile in the nuclear bulge region, suggesting a significant contribution of diffuse, interstellar hot plasma to the GCDX. We have estimated that contributions of an old stellar population to the GCDX are about 50 % and 20 % in the nuclear stellar disk and nuclear star cluster, respectively. Our near-infrared polarimetric observations show that the GCDX region is permeated by a large scale, toroidal magnetic field. Together with observed magnetic field strengths in nearly energy equipartition, the interstellar hot plasma could be confined by the toroidal magnetic field.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2014; 9(S303). DOI:10.1017/S1743921314001112
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    ABSTRACT: We are carrying out near-infrared spectroscopy of Cepheids in the Galactic nuclear disk. The H-band spectra taken with SUBARU/IRCS indicate that their kinematics are consistent with the rotation of the nuclear disk.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 12/2013; 9(S298). DOI:10.1017/S1743921313006959
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    ABSTRACT: We have carried out adaptive-optics assisted observations at the Subaru telescope, and have found 11 intrinsically polarized sources in the central parsec of our Galaxy. They are selected from 318 point sources with Ks<15.5, and their interstellar polarizations are corrected using a Stokes Q/I - U/I diagram. Considering brightness, near-infrared color excess, and the amount of intrinsic polarization, two of them are good young stellar object (YSO) candidates with an age of ~10^5 yr. If they are genuine YSOs, their existence provides strong constraints on star formation mechanisms in this region. In the remaining sources, two are known as bow-shock sources in the Northern arm. One other is also located in the Northern arm and shows very similar properties, and thus likely to be a so far unknown bow-shock source. The origin of the intrinsic polarization of the other sources is as yet uncertain.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 778(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/778/2/92
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of the Galactic center diffuse X-ray emission (GCDX) is still under intense investigation. In particular, the interpretation of the hot (kT ~ 7 keV) component of the GCDX, characterised by the strong Fe 6.7 keV line emission, has been contentious. If the hot component originates from a truly diffuse interstellar plasma, not a collection of unresolved point sources, such plasma cannot be gravitationally bound, and its regeneration would require a huge amount of energy. Here we show that the spatial distribution of the GCDX does NOT correlate with the number density distribution of an old stellar population traced by near-infrared light, strongly suggesting a significant contribution of the diffuse interstellar plasma. Contributions of the old stellar population to the GCDX are implied to be about 50 % and 20 % in the Nuclear stellar disk and Nuclear star cluster, respectively. For the Nuclear stellar disk, a scale height of 0.32 +- 0.02 deg is obtained for the first time from the stellar number density profiles. We also show the results of the extended near-infrared polarimetric observations in the central 3 deg * 2 deg region of our Galaxy, and confirm that the GCDX region is permeated by a large scale, toroidal magnetic field as previously claimed. Together with observed magnetic field strengths close to energy equipartition, the hot plasma could be magnetically confined, reducing the amount of energy required to sustain it.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2013; 769(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/769/2/L28
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    ABSTRACT: Near-infrared polarimetric imaging observations toward the Galactic center have been carried out to examine the efficiency and wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization. A total area of about 5.7 deg$^2$ is covered in the $J$, $H$, and $K_S$ bands. We examined the polarization efficiency, defined as the ratio of degree of polarization to color excess. The interstellar medium between the Galactic center and us shows the polarization efficiency lower than that in the Galactic disk by a factor of three. Moreover we investigated the spatial variation of the polarization efficiency by comparing it with those of color excess, degree of polarization, and position angle. The spatial variations of color excess and degree of polarization depend on the Galactic latitude, while the polarization efficiency varies independently of the Galactic structure. Position angles are nearly parallel to the Galactic plane, indicating the longitudinal magnetic field configuration between the Galactic center and us. The polarization efficiency anticorrelates with dispersions of position angles. The low polarization efficiency and its spatial variation can be explained by the differences of the magnetic field directions along the line-of-sight. From the lower polarization efficiency, we suggest a higher strength of a random component relative to a uniform component of the magnetic field between the Galactic center and us. We also derived the ratios of degree of polarization $p_H/p_J$ = 0.581 $\pm$ 0.004 and $p_{K_S}/p_H$ = 0.620 $\pm$ 0.002. The power law indices of the wavelength dependence of polarization are $\beta_{JH}$ = 2.08 $\pm$ 0.02 and $\beta_{HK_S}$ = 1.76 $\pm$ 0.01. Therefore the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization exhibits flattening toward longer wavelengths in the range of 1.25$-$2.14 $\micron$. The flattening would be caused by aligned large-size dust grains.
    The Astronomical Journal 03/2013; 145(4). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/145/4/105
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    ABSTRACT: We have determined interstellar extinction law toward the Galactic center (GC) at the wavelength from 1.2 to 8.0 µm, using point sources detected in the IRSF/SIRIUS near-infrared survey and those in the 2MASS and Spitzer/IRAC/GLIMPSE II catalogs. The central region | l | � 3. ◦ 0 and | b | � 1. ◦ 0 has been surveyed in the J, H and KS bands with the IRSF telescope and the SIRIUS camera whose filters are similar to the Mauna Kea Observatories (MKO) near-infrared photometric system. Combined with the GLIMPSE II point source catalog, we made KS versus KS − λ color-magnitude diagrams where λ = 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 µm. The KS magnitudes of bulge red clump stars and the KS − λ colors of red giant branches are used as a tracer of the reddening vector in the color-magnitude diagrams. From these magnitudes and colors, we have obtained the ratios of total to selective extinction AKS /EKS−λ for the four IRAC bands. Combined with Aλ/AKS for the J and H bands derived by Nishiyama et al., we obtain AJ: AH: AKS: A[3.6] : A[4.5] : A[5.8] : A[8.0] = 3.02: 1.73: 1: 0.50: 0.39: 0.36: 0.43 for the line of sight toward the GC. This confirms the
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    ABSTRACT: We have determined the ratios of total to selective extinction directly from observations in the optical V band and near-infrared J band toward the Galactic center. The OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) Galactic bulge fields have been observed with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF telescope, and we obtain AV /EV −J = 1.251 ± 0.014 and AJ/EV −J = 0.225 ±0.007. From these ratios, we have derived AJ/AV = 0.188 ± 0.005; if we combine AJ/AV with the near-infrared extinction ratios obtained by Nishiyama et al. for more reddened fields
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    ABSTRACT: We report the result of our near-infrared survey of short-period variable stars (P<60d) in a field-of-view of 20'x30' towards the Galactic Centre. Forty-five variables are discovered and we classify the variables based on their light curve shapes and other evidence. In addition to 3 classical Cepheids reported previously, we find 16 type II Cepheids, 24 eclipsing binaries, one pulsating star with P=0.265d (RR Lyr or delta Sct) and one Cepheid-like variable whose nature is uncertain. Eclipsing binaries are separated into the foreground objects and those significantly obscured by interstellar extinction. One of the reddened binaries contains an O-type supergiant and its light curve indicates an eccentric orbit. We discuss the nature and distribution of type II Cepheids as well as the distance to the Galactic Centre based on these Cepheids and other distance indicators. The estimates of R0(GC) we obtained based on photometric data agree with previous results obtained with kinematics of objects around the GC. Furthermore, our result gives a support to the reddening law obtained by Nishiyama and collaborators, A(Ks)/E(H-Ks)=1.44, because a different reddening law would result in a rather different distance estimate.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2012; 429(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/sts343
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    Shogo Nishiyama, Rainer Schödel
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. Young, massive stars have been found at projected distances R < 0.5 pc from supermassive black hole, Sgr A* at the center of our Galay. In recent years, increasing evidence has been found for the presence of young, massive stars also at R > 0.5 pc. Our goal in this work is a systematic search for young, massive star candidates throughout the entire region within R ~ 2.5 pc of the black hole. Methods. The main criterion for the photometric identification of young, massive early-type stars is the lack of CO-absorption in the spectra. We used narrow-band imaging with VLT/ISAAC to search for young, massive stars within ~2.5 pc of Sgr A*. Results. We have found 63 early-type star candidates at R < 2.5 pc, with an estimated erroneous identification rate of only about 20%. Considering their K-band magnitudes and interstellar extinction, they are candidates for Wolf-Rayet stars, supergiants, or early O-type stars. Of these, 31 stars are so far unknown young, massive star candidates, all of which lie at R>0.5pc. The surface number density profile of the young, massive star candidates can be well fit by a single power-law, with Gamma = 1.6 +- 0.17 at R < 2.5 pc, which is significantly steeper than that of the late-type giants that make up the bulk of the observable stars in the NSC. Intriguingly, this power-law is consistent with the power-law that describes the surface density of young, massive stars in the same brightness range at R < 0.5 pc. Conclusions. The finding of a significant number of newly identified early-type star candidates at the Galactic center suggests that young, massive stars can be found throughout the entire cluster which may require us to modify existing theories for star formation at the Galactic center. Follow-up studies are needed to improve the existing data and lay the foundations for a unified theory of star formation in the Milky Way's NSC.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2012; 549. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201219773
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    ABSTRACT: We report high precision transit photometry of GJ1214b in JHKs bands taken simultaneously with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m telescope at Sutherland, South Africa. Our MCMC analyses show that the observed planet-to-star radius ratios in JHKs bands are R_{\rm p}/R_{\rm s,J} = 0.11833 \pm 0.00077, R_{\rm p}/R_{\rm s,H} = 0.11522 \pm 0.00079, R_{\rm p}/R_{\rm s,Ks} = 0.11459 \pm 0.00099, respectively. The radius ratios are well consistent with the previous studies by Bean et al. (2011) within 1\sigma, while our result in Ks band is shallower than and inconsistent at 4\sigma\ level with the previous measurements in the same band by Croll et al. (2011). We have no good explanation for this discrepancy at this point. Our overall results support a flat transmission spectrum in the observed bands, which can be explained by a water-dominated atmosphere or an atmosphere with extensive high-altitude clouds or haze. To solve the discrepancy of the radius ratios and to discriminate a definitive atmosphere model for GJ1214b in the future, further transit observations around Ks band would be especially important.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 10/2012; DOI:10.1093/pasj/65.2.27

Publication Stats

751 Citations
329.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Miyagi University of Education
      Miyagi, Japan
    • Tohoku University
      • Graduate School of Science
      Japan
  • 2007–2014
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      • • Astronomy Data Center
      • • Extrasolar Planet Detection Project Office
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2008–2012
    • National Institutes Of Natural Sciences
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2008–2011
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2006–2008
    • Nagoya University
      • Division of Cell Science
      Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan