G Garavelli

University of Padova, Padua, Veneto, Italy

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Publications (24)47.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Glomerular hyperfiltration predicts development of nephropathy in hypertension but the factors responsible for increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are not well known. Aim of this study was to examine which clinical variables influence GFR in the early stage of hypertension. Participants were 1,106 young-to-middle-age hypertensive adults with creatinine clearance >60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BPs) were measured and the difference between clinic and 24-h systolic BP was defined as the white-coat effect (WCE). In 606 participants, 24-h urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine were also measured. Glomerular hyperfiltration, defined as a GFR ≥150 ml/min/1.73 m(2), was present in 201 subjects. Patients' mean age was 33.1 ± 8.5 years and office BP was 146 ± 10.5/94 ± 5.0 mm Hg. In multivariable linear regression, significant predictors of GFR were younger age (P < 0.0001), male gender (P < 0.0001), 24-h systolic BP (P = 0.0001), body mass (P < 0.0001), WCE (P = 0.02), log-epinephrine (P = 0.01), and coffee use (P < 0.01). In a logistic model, independent predictors of glomerular hyperfiltration were obesity (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 6.1, 3.8-9.8), male gender (2.9, 1.8-4.9), age <33 years (2.1, 1.5-3.1), ambulatory hypertension (2.0, 1.4-3.0), WCE >15 mm Hg (1.6, 1.1-2.3), heavy coffee use (2.0, 1.1-3.8), and epinephrine >25 mcg/24 h (1.9, 1.2-3.1). The novel finding of this study is that hyper-reactivity to stress, as determined by urinary epinephrine level and WCE, and coffee use contribute to determining glomerular hyperfiltration in the early stage of hypertension. Our data may help to identify a subset of patients with glomerular hyperfiltration, who may be at increased risk of chronic kidney disease and may benefit from antihypertensive treatment.
    American Journal of Hypertension 06/2012; 25(9):1011-6. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We did a prospective study to investigate whether clinic heart rate (HR) and 24-h ambulatory HR were independent predictors of subsequent increase in body weight (BW) in young subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension. The study was conducted in 1,008 subjects from the Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording Venetia Study (HARVEST) followed for an average of 7 years. Ambulatory HR was obtained in 701 subjects. Data were adjusted for lifestyle factors and several confounders. During the follow-up BW increased by 2.1 ± 7.2 kg in the whole cohort. Both baseline clinic HR (P = 0.007) and 24-h HR (P = 0.013) were independent predictors of BMI at study end. In addition, changes in HR during the follow-up either measured in the clinic (P = 0.036) or with 24-h recording (P = 0.009) were independent associates of final BMI. In a multivariable Cox regression, baseline BMI (P < 0.001), male gender (P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (BP) (P = 0.01), baseline clinic HR (P = 0.02), and follow-up changes in clinic HR (P < 0.001) were independent predictors of overweight (Ov) or obesity (Ob) at the end of the follow-up. Follow-up changes in ambulatory HR (P = 0.01) were also independent predictors of Ov or Ob. However, when both clinic and ambulatory HRs were included in the same Cox model, only baseline clinic HR and its change during the follow-up were independent predictors of outcome. In conclusion, baseline clinic HR and HR changes during the follow-up are independent predictors of BW gain in young persons screened for stage 1 hypertension suggesting that sympathetic nervous system activity may play a role in the development of Ob in hypertension.
    Obesity 03/2011; 19(3):618-23. · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hypertension - J HYPERTENSION. 01/2010; 28.
  • Journal of Hypertension - J HYPERTENSION. 01/2010; 28.
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of hypertension (HT) subtypes in young-to-middle-age subjects is unclear. We did a prospective study in 1,141 participants aged 18-45 years from the HARVEST study screened for stage 1 HT, and 101 nonhypertensive subjects of control during a median follow-up of 72.9 months. At baseline, 13.8% of the subjects were classified as having isolated systolic HT (ISH), 24.8% as having isolated diastolic HT (IDH), and 61.4% as having systolic-diastolic HT (SDH). All hypertensive groups developed sustained HT (clinic blood pressure > or =140/90 mm Hg from two consecutive visits occurring at least after > or =6 months of observation) more frequently than nonhypertensive subjects (P < 0.001 for all) with adjusted odds ratio of 5.2 (95%CI 2.9-9.2) among the SDH subjects, 2.6 (95%CI 1.5-4.5) among the IDH subjects, and 2.2 (95%CI 1.2-4.5) among the ISH subjects. When the definition of HT was based on ambulatory blood pressure (mean daytime blood pressure > or =135/85 mm Hg, n = 798), odds ratios were 5.1 (95%CI 3.1-8.2), 5.6 (95%CI 3.2-9.8), and 3.3 (95%CI 1.7-6.3), respectively. In the fully adjusted logistic model, the risk of ambulatory HT was smaller for the ISH than the IDH (P = 0.049) or SDH (P = 0.053) individuals. The present results indicate that young-to-middle-age subjects with ISH have a smaller risk of developing ambulatory HT than either subjects with SDH or IDH. Whether antihypertensive treatment can be postponed for long periods of time in young subjects with mild elevations of clinic systolic BP and low global cardiovascular risk should be examined in further studies.
    American Journal of Hypertension 03/2009; 22(5):531-7. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The longitudinal relationship between coffee use and hypertension is not well known. Aim. We did a prospective study to investigate if there is a temporal relationship between coffee consumption and development of sustained hypertension. We assessed 1107 white subjects with elevated blood pressure who were followed up for 6.4 years. Coffee intake and other life-style factors were ascertained from regularly administered questionnaires. Incident physician-diagnosed hypertension was the outcome measure. During the follow-up, 561 subjects developed sustained hypertension, whereas 546 subjects did not meet the criteria for treatment. Coffee drinkers developed sustained hypertension more frequently than abstainers (53.1% versus 43.9%, P = 0.007). The incidence of hypertension did not differ between moderate and heavy coffee drinkers. Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that sustained hypertension was developed more frequently by coffee drinkers compared with nondrinkers (P<0.001). The adjusted relative risk of hypertension was greater in both categories of coffee drinking than in abstainers (hazard ratio, 95% confidence limit (CL) = 1.24, 1.06-1.44). The risk of hypertension associated with coffee drinking increased gradually with increasing level of alcohol use (adjusted P for interaction = 0.005). In subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension a nonlinear association was found between coffee consumption and development of sustained hypertension.
    Annals of Medicine 01/2007; 39(7):545-53. · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Factors related to the development of microalbuminuria in hypertension are not well known. We did a prospective study to investigate whether glomerular hyperfiltration precedes the development of microalbuminuria in hypertension. We assessed 502 never-treated subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension without microalbuminuria at baseline and followed up for 7.8 years. Creatinine clearance was measured at entry. Urinary albumin and ambulatory blood pressure were measured at entry and during the follow-up until subjects developed sustained hypertension needing antihypertensive treatment. Subjects with hyperfiltration (creatinine clearance >150 ml/min/1.73 m2, top quintile of the distribution) were younger and heavier than the rest of the group and had a greater follow-up increase in urinary albumin than subjects with normal filtration (P<0.001). In multivariable linear regression, creatinine clearance adjusted for confounders was a strong independent predictor of final urinary albumin (P<0.001). In multivariable Cox regression, patients with hyperfiltration had an adjusted hazard ratio for the development of microalbuminuria based on at least one positive measurement of 4.0 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1-7.4, P<0.001) and an adjusted hazard ratio for the development of microalbuminuria based on two consecutive positive measurements of 4.4 (95% CI, 2.1-9.2, P<0.001), as compared with patients with normal filtration. Age, female gender, and 24 h systolic blood pressure were other significant predictors of microalbuminuria. In conclusion, stage 1 hypertensive subjects with glomerular hyperfiltration are at increased risk of developing microalbuminuria. Early intervention with medical therapy may be beneficial in these subjects even if their blood pressure falls below normal limits during follow-up.
    Kidney International 09/2006; 70(3):578-84. · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention 01/2005; 12(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Resting heart rate has been shown to predict the development of hypertension in general population studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between heart rate and long-term changes in heart rate with changes in blood pressure in a cohort of young subjects with mild hypertension.The study was carried out in 1095 subjects who took part in the multicenter HARVEST study. Subjects 18 to 45 years old with diastolic blood pressure (BP) from 90 to 99 mm Hg and/or systolic BP between 140 and 159 mm Hg, who never took antihypertensive therapy, were enrolled. Ambulatory 24h BP was measured at baseline. Urinary epinephrine and nor-epinephrine were measured at entry from 24h urine collections (n=713) and were 25±38 mcg/24h and 91±80 mcg/24h, respectively. Subjects were seen every six months for clinic BP and heart rate assessment to determine which subjects reached the end-point (need for drug therapy according to current guidelines).Clinic BP at entry was 146±11/94±5 mmHg, and clinic heart rate was 75±10 bpm. During a mean follow-up of 78±32 months, BP declined by 2.3±13.9/0.6±9.3 mmHg, and heart rate decreased by 3.0±10.8 bpm. In the subjects divided into tertiles of changes in heart rate, BP decreased by 6.6±13.5/2.9±9.1 mmHg in the bottom heart rate tertile (-14.4 bpm) and increased by 2.3±13.9/1.0±9.6 mmHg in the top tertile (+8.5 bpm). In a multivariable Cox regression analysis, significant predictors of changes in systolic BP were age (p=0.000), baseline heart rate (p=0.000), changes of heart rate over time (p=0.000), clinic systolic BP (p=0.000, negative association), 24h systolic BP (p=0.000), BMI (p=0.003), and gender (p=0.04). A similar model was obtained for changes in diastolic BP. Urinary catecholamines did not predict changes in BP in any model.These findings indicate that besides the resting heart rate also the changes in heart rate over time are predictive of development of more severe hypertension in young subjects with mildly elevated BP levels.
    American Journal of Hypertension - AMER J HYPERTENS. 01/2005; 18(5).
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of home blood pressure (BP) measurement, the type of devices and accuracy in a large sample of hypertensive patients referred to hospital outpatient hypertension clinics. Eight hundred and fifty-five consecutive treated hypertensive patients who attended six specialized centers during a period of 4 months were included. They underwent the following procedures: (i) detailed medical interview by a structured questionnaire; (ii) physical examination; (iii) standard 12-lead electrocardiogram; (iv) BP measurements taken by a validated mercury sphygmomanometer and patient's devices. A total of 640 (74.7%) of 855 patients were regularly performing home BP measurement. These patients were on average younger than those not practising it (58 vs 60 years, p<0.01); men were more numerous than women (58 vs 44%, p=0.03) and had higher educational level. Electronic arm-cuff instruments were the most frequently used devices (58%) followed by wrist devices (19%) and mercury or aneroid sphygmomanometers (23%). Significant correlations were found between BPs measured by validated mercury sphygmomanometers and patients' devices [r=0.85, p<0.0001 for systolic BP (SBP) and r=0.78, p<0.0001 for diastolic BP (DBP)]. Differences 5 mmHg in SBP or DBP were found in 50 and 60% of patients, respectively. Our findings indicate that: (i) home BP measurement is performed by a majority of treated hypertensives seen in specialized centers; (ii) male gender, age and educational level seem to influence the adoption of home BP monitoring; (iii) electronic arm-cuff devices are the most used instruments; (iv) a notable fraction of patient's devices do not meet the accuracy criteria recommended by US Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation.
    Blood Pressure 01/2005; 14(4):251-6. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Positive family history of hypertension (FH+) is thought to be a risk factor for future development of hypertension (HT) in normotensive subjects. Little is known on whether FH+ is a risk factor for progression of HT in subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure (BP). Therefore, we studied the predictive value of FH+ for the development of established HT in a cohort of young borderline to mild hypertensives.The study was carried out in 787 subjects (560 males) who took part in the multicenter HARVEST study. Subjects 18 to 45 years old with stage 1 HT, who never took antihypertensive therapy, were enrolled. End point was defined as a BP requiring antihypertensive therapy according to BHS guidelines. In all subjects, ambulatory BP monitoring was performed at baseline and during follow-up. Data were adjusted for age, gender, BMI, lifestyle factors at baseline and changes in these variables over time. Mean follow-up duration was 70±2 months.At baseline, FH+ subjects (n=463), had slightly higher office BP (146.2±0.5/94.5±0.3 vs 144.9±0.6/93.7±0.4 mmHg, p=.09/.055, respectively) and ambulatory 24h BP (131.9±0.5/82.3±0.4 vs 129.8±0.6/81.4±0.5 mmHg, p=0.012/ns, respectively) in comparison with FH- subjects (n=324). The prevalence of white coat HT, defined as ambulatory daytime BP
    American Journal of Hypertension - AMER J HYPERTENS. 01/2003; 16(5).
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic approach to recently diagnosed hypertensive patients by primary care physicians in Italy and to find out whether general practitioners manage these patients according to 1999 WHO/ISH guideline recommendations. In total, 228 consecutive patients (117 men and 111 women, mean age 51+/-12 years) with recently diagnosed hypertension (<2 years) referred for the first time to six outpatient hypertension centres throughout Italy were included in the study. The primary care physicians' approach was evaluated during the specialist visit by a specific questionnaire containing detailed questions about diagnostic work-up and treatment made at the time of the first diagnosis of hypertension. At the study visit, 71% of the patients were on treatment with antihypertensive drugs and 18.7% of them had blood pressure (BP) values lower than 140/90 mmHg. A complete clinical and laboratory evaluation according to the minimum work-up suggested by the guidelines had been carried out in only 10% of the patients. A full physical examination had been performed in 60% of the patients, electrocardiogram in 54%, serum total cholesterol in 53%, glucose in 49%, creatinine in 49%, urine analysis in 46%, potassium in 42%, and fundus oculi in 19%. Additional investigations such as ambulatory BP monitoring, echocardiogram, carotid ultrasonogram, and microalbuminuria had been carried out in a minority of patients (21, 18, 9, and 3%, respectively). The impact on hypertension guidelines on patients' management in everyday primary care practice appears marginal. Thus, our findings indicate that the majority of general practitioners manage hypertensive patients according to a simple BP-based approach rather than a more integrated approach based on global risk stratification.
    Journal of Human Hypertension 11/2002; 16(10):699-703. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been claimed that diastolic dysfunction is the earliest cardiac abnormality in hypertension, preceding the development of left ventricular (LV) structural abnormalities. To detect early signs of hypertensive cardiac involvement 722 subjects (533 men and 189 women), 18-45 years old, with stage I hypertension, were studied by M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. Blood pressure was measured by 24-h ambulatory monitoring. Ninety-five normotensive individuals of similar age and gender distributions were studied as controls. Significant, though modest, changes of LV mass and geometry were found in the participants in comparison with the normotensive controls. The increment was +10.4 g/m2 for LV mass index, +1.8 mm for LV wall thickness, and +0.032 for relative wall thickness. A slight increase in atrial filling peak velocity was found in the hypertensive subjects at Doppler analysis of transmitral flow, but the ratio of early to atrial velocity of LV diastolic filling did not differ between the two groups. In multiple regression analyses, which included age, body mass index, heart rate, smoking, and physical activity, 24-h mean blood pressure emerged as a significant predictor of LV mass index (men, P = .003; women, P = .04) and wall thickness (men, P = .03; women, P = .004) in the hypertensive subjects, whereas no index of diastolic filling was significantly associated with ambulatory blood pressure in either gender. The present data indicate that changes in LV anatomy are the earliest signs of hypertensive cardiac involvement. Left ventricular filling is affected only marginally in the initial phase of hypertension.
    American Journal of Hypertension 02/1998; 11(2):147-54. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of alcohol consumption to target organ involvement and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in a population of young borderline to mild hypertensive subjects. Participants were 793 male subjects, aged 18-45 years, from the HARVEST Study. The analysis was performed in three age-matched groups with similar body mass index. Casual and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, routine biochemistry, echocardiography, and albumin excretion rate were measured. The men were divided into three groups: 1) nondrinkers, 2) drinkers of < 50 g/day, and 3) drinkers of > or = 50 g/day. Office systolic BP was not significantly different among the three groups, whereas 24-h and daytime BPs increased progressively from the first to the third group (group 1 v 3; P = .01 for 24-h systolic BP and P = .02 for daytime systolic BP). These differences remained significant even after adjusting for smoking. Left ventricular mass index, interventricular septum thickness, and wall thickness increased progressively from group 1 to group 3; this difference also remained significant after adjusting for smoking and 24-h BPs. The albumin excretion rate was much higher in group 3 than in group 1 (P = .003), but when 24-h BP was added to the model the difference was no longer significant. These results indicate that alcohol has a detrimental effect on the heart and the kidney. Alcohol's effect on LV wall thickness appears to be direct, whereas its action on albumin excretion rate seems to be mediated mainly by its effect on BP.
    American Journal of Hypertension 02/1998; 11(2):230-4. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been claimed that diastolic dysfunction is the earliest cardiac abnormality in hypertension, preceding the development of left ventricular (LV) structural abnormalities. To detect early signs of hypertensive cardiac involvement 722 subjects (533 men and 189 women), 18–45 years old, with stage I hypertension, were studied by M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. Blood pressure was measured by 24-h ambulatory monitoring. Ninety-five normotensive individuals of similar age and gender distributions were studied as controls. Significant, though modest, changes of LV mass and geometry were found in the participants in comparison with the normotensive controls. The increment was +10.4 g/m2 for LV mass index, +1.8 mm for LV wall thickness, and +0.032 for relative wall thickness. A slight increase in atrial filling peak velocity was found in the hypertensive subjects at Doppler analysis of transmitral flow, but the ratio of early to atrial velocity of LV diastolic filling did not differ between the two groups. In multiple regression analyses, which included age, body mass index, heart rate, smoking, and physical activity, 24-h mean blood pressure emerged as a significant predictor of LV mass index (men, P = .003; women, P = .04) and wall thickness (men, P = .03; women, P = .004) in the hypertensive subjects, whereas no index of diastolic filling was significantly associated with ambulatory blood pressure in either gender. The present data indicate that changes in LV anatomy are the earliest signs of hypertensive cardiac involvement. Left ventricular filling is affected only marginally in the initial phase of hypertension.
    American Journal of Hypertension - AMER J HYPERTENS. 01/1998; 11(2):147-154.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of alcohol consumption to target organ involvement and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in a population of young borderline to mild hypertensive subjects. Participants were 793 male subjects, aged 18–45 years, from the HARVEST Study. The analysis was performed in three age-matched groups with similar body mass index. Casual and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, routine biochemistry, echocardiography, and albumin excretion rate were measured. The men were divided into three groups: 1) nondrinkers, 2) drinkers of < 50 g/day, and 3) drinkers of ≥ 50 g/day. Office systolic BP was not significantly different among the three groups, whereas 24-h and daytime BPs increased progressively from the first to the third group (group 1 v 3; P = .01 for 24-h systolic BP and P = .02 for daytime systolic BP). These differences remained significant even after adjusting for smoking. Left ventricular mass index, interventricular septum thickness, and wall thickness increased progressively from group 1 to group 3; this difference also remained significant after adjusting for smoking and 24-h BPs. The albumin excretion rate was much higher in group 3 than in group 1 (P = .003), but when 24-h BP was added to the model the difference was no longer significant.These results indicate that alcohol has a detrimental effect on the heart and the kidney. Alcohol’s effect on LV wall thickness appears to be direct, whereas its action on albumin excretion rate seems to be mediated mainly by its effect on BP.
    American Journal of Hypertension - AMER J HYPERTENS. 01/1998; 11(2):230-234.
  • American Journal of Hypertension - AMER J HYPERTENS. 01/1998; 11(4).
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    ABSTRACT: According to recent international guidelines the decision on whether to treat young subjects during the early phase of hypertension should be based not only on their office blood pressure but also on their ambulatory blood pressure and whether target organ damage has occurred. Few data on the prevalence of hypertensive complications in young subjects with mild hypertension are available. In the Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording Venetia Study (HARVEST), a multicenter trial conducted in northeast Italy, the percentage of young borderline-to-mild hypertensive subjects with echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy was 4.5% and the percentage with concentric remodeling was 4%. Clear differences in cardiac size and geometric adjustment to ambulatory systolic pressure between the two sexes were found. The impact of blood pressure on the walls of the left ventricle and on the left ventricular mass was remarkable in women but weak in men. The assessment of left ventricular systolic function confirmed that many young mild hypertensive subjects have an increased ejective performance. The left ventricular contractility evaluated by midwall measurement was, however, found to be depressed in 9.2% of the HARVEST participants. Their left ventricular diastolic function was similar to that of 50 normotensive controls. The prevalence of microalbuminuria [albumin excretion rate (AER) > 30 mg/24 h) was 6.1%, only slightly higher than that found by other authors among normotensive subjects and much lower than that observed among patients with more severe hypertension. For our stage I hypertensives, however, the AER was correlated to the 24 h blood pressure with high statistical significance, whereas we found no relationship between the AER and left ventricular mass index either for all of the subjects taken together or for the men and women considered separately. The results suggest that renal and cardiac involvement do not occur in parallel during the initial phase of hypertension.
    Blood pressure monitoring 04/1997; 2(2):79-88. · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of large doses of anabolic steroids on 24-hour blood pressure, cardiac structure and function, and lipid profiles were studied in 10 body builders using anabolic steroids and 14 body builders who did not use steroids (control subjects). All subjects underwent noninvasive 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography, Doppler analysis of transmitral flow, and analysis for lipoprotein and gonadotropin levels. Anabolic steroid users were studied at the end of a steroid cycle and after a period of withdrawal. Average 24-hour blood pressure was similar in the two groups, but anabolic steroid users exhibited a smaller pressure reduction during sleep than did nonusers. This finding was present both at the end of treatment and after the period of withdrawal. Echocardiographic dimensional and functional indexes did not differ substantially between anabolic steroid users and the nonusers, and were similar in anabolic steroid users during use and after withdrawal. Anabolic steroid users also had higher LDL and lower HDL cholesterol levels than nonusers; Lp(a) was higher in nonusers, although this difference did not attain the level of statistical significance. These differences were more striking at the end of the treatment period. The results of this study show that chronic anabolic steroid intake causes an abnormal 24-hour blood pressure pattern, characterized by a flattening of the diurnal curve, and minor changes of the dimensional echocardiographic parameters.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 01/1997; 36(12):1132-40. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Hypertension - AMER J HYPERTENS. 01/1997; 10(4).