[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study developed two specifications of the social skills deficit stress generation hypothesis: the "gender-incongruence" hypothesis to predict peer victimization and the "need for autonomy" hypothesis to predict conflict with authorities. These hypotheses were tested in a prospective large population cohort of 2,064 Dutch young adolescents. Social skills and pubertal timing were measured when the sample was about 11 years old, and stressful life events were measured 2.5 years later at follow-up. As predicted by the gender-incongruence hypothesis, poor assertion in boys and poor self-control in girls were associated with peer victimization. Consistent with the need for autonomy hypothesis, poor self-control was associated with conflict with authorities, in both boys and girls. Furthermore, early physical maturation exacerbated the effect of poor self-control on conflict with authorities for both genders. These specific associations provide more insights in the pathways that result in the experience of interpersonal stressors in young adolescents
The Journal of Early Adolescence 01/2011; 31(5):633-655. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some pupils already show unexcused, illegal, surreptitious absences in elementary education or the first years of secondary education. Are weak social bonds (see also Hirschi, 1969) and a lack of self-control (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990) indicative of truancy at an early age? Of the children in our sample, 5% were persistent truants in late elementary education and early secondary education. Using multivariate analyses the influence of various predictors on persistent truancy was examined. Lack of attachment to norm-relevant significant others (parents and teachers) and lack of prosocial orientation were indicative of truancy. Social bonds with classmates had no effect on truancy. Other risk factors for truancy were: being a boy, early pubertal development, family breakup, and low socio-economic status. The effect of self-control on truancy was partially mediated by social bonds. The impact of social bonds to norm-relevant significant others suggests that early truancy can partly be prevented by focusing on children's relations with parents at home and with teachers at school. Prevention of truancy is desirable because the likelihood of involvement in other deviant behavior increases for truants
International Journal of Behavioral Development 01/2010; · 1.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we examine the effects of increasing as well as decreasing caregiving demands on depressive symptomatology. In addition, we focus on spousal caregivers' activity restriction as an explanatory mechanism for changes in depressive symptomatology in the caregiving context. Two databases are used to answer our research questions. An increase of caregiving demands is assessed in study 1, which includes prospective data on 127 spousal caregivers of stroke, hip fracture, congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction patients. A decrease of caregiving demands is examined in study 2, which includes prospective data on 110 spousal caregivers of bypass operation patients. The results generally support the hypothesis that an increase in caregiving demands results in increased depressive symptomatology, while a decrease in caregiving demands reduces depressive symptomatology. The results also support the notion of activity restriction as a critical mediator of changes in depressive symptoms. Cross-sectionally it mediates the association between caregiving and depressive symptomatology, and longitudinally it contributes to changes in depressive symptomatology in both samples.
Social Science [?] Medicine 12/1998; 47(9):1361-71. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considerable variation in the effects of the loss of the spouse have been reported, and there is lack of agreement regarding the effects of gender and bereavement on well-being. The objective of this article is to examine time-differences in the consequences of bereavement for men and women. Cross-sectional data are used on 4642 married or widowed late mid-life and elderly people. Analyses show that bereaved participants score significantly lower on well-being, and a clear gender-effect is found in connection with the time period of bereavement. Men score considerably lower than women when they are up to two years bereaved, but not when they are bereaved longer than two years. Hence, analyses of variance revealed an interaction effect for gender * time period. In addition, while the largest part of the variance in well-being can be explained by different means of achieving well-being, the effects of marital status, gender, and adjustment to widowhood over time do not disappear completely
OMEGA--Journal of Death and Dying 01/1998; 38(2):113-141. · 0.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quality of life (QofL) has emerged as a new outcome paradigm. It is now the endpoint in various taxonomies of patient outcomes, in which relationships are modeled amongst biological abnormalities, symptom status, functional status, disability, health perceptions and quality of life. Although current models and taxonomies point at important determinants of QofL, they do not provide a heuristic that guides the conceptualization of QofL and the systematic development of an explanatory theory of how ill health affects QofL. General mechanisms linking ill health, behavior, and QofL are lacking. In this paper we propose social production function (SPF) theory as providing such a heuristic, relating the effects of ill health, the activities that patients engage in to maintain QofL, and QofL itself. This theory basically asserts that people produce their own well-being by trying to optimize achievement of universal human goals via six instrumental goals within the environmental and functional limitations they are facing. Three important notions of SPF theory are: (1) the linkages between goals, needs, and well-being; (2) the distinction between universal needs and instrumental goals; and (3) substitution among instrumental goals, activities and endowments according to cost-benefit considerations, whereby costs refer to scarce resources such as functional capacity, time, effort and money. We will argue that SPF theory meaningfully relates the "biomedical model"-with its focus on pathological processes and biological, physiological and clinical outcomes-to the "quality of life" model, with its focus on functioning and well-being. We describe SPF theory and how SPF theory can be used to: (1) operationally define and measure QofL; (2) clarify persistent measurement problems; and (3) develop an explanatory framework of the effects of disease on QofL. In the discussion section, we address the limitations of the SPF approach of QofL and its relationship with personality.
Social Science [?] Medicine 11/1997; 45(7):1051-63. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Possible differences between childhood-limited antisocial youth and their stable high-antisocial counterparts were examined. Children were 11 years old at wave 1 (T1) and 13.5 at wave 2 (T2). At both waves, the same parent, teacher, and self-reports of antisocial behavior were used. Stable highs and childhood-limited antisocial youth differed somewhat in family and individual background. Stable highs had less effortful control, perceived more overprotection, had a higher level of familial vulnerability to externalizing disorder, and lived less often with the same parents throughout their lives than the childhood-limited group. Both groups had similar levels of service use before T1, but after that period, the childhood-limited youth received more help from special education needs services than from problem behavior services, and vice versa for stable highs. The results suggest that the childhood-limited antisocial youth recovered not only from antisocial behavior but also from academic failure, peer rejection, and internalizing problems.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dagelijks zijn ongeveer 200 miljoen kinderen en jongeren op de wereld slachtoffer van pesten (zie www.kanderstegdeclaration.org). Het is een complex en serieus probleem dat in alle landen voorkomt. In Nederland hebben we het dan over honderdduizenden kinderen. Pesten is een vorm van agressie waarbij één of meer personen proberen een andere persoon schade toe te brengen. Dat kan door te schoppen of te slaan, maar ook door buiten te sluiten, te schelden of uit te lachen. Kenmerkend aan pesten is dat de macht ongelijk is verdeeld en dat het stelselmatig gebeurt (Olweus, 1978, 1993). Het is iets anders dan plagen, wat vrienden onderling ook wel doen en wat meer incidenteel gebeurt. Pesten heeft gevolgen voor de geestelijke gezondheid en de verdere ontwikkeling van alle betrokkenen. Slachtoffers van pesten ondervinden er schade van, soms voor de rest van hun leven .... [...]