Shigeki Hamada

Hokkaido University, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan

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Publications (35)97.34 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The higher plant ADP-glucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), composed of two small subunits and two large subunits (LSs), produces ADPG, the sole substrate for starch biosynthesis from α-D-glucose 1-phosphate and ATP. This enzyme controls a key step in starch synthesis as its catalytic activity is activated by 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) and inhibited by orthophosphate (Pi). Previously, two mutations in the LS of potato AGPase (PLS), PLS-E38K and PLS-G101N, were found to increase sensitivity to 3-PGA activation and tolerance to Pi inhibition. In the present study, the double mutated enzyme (PLS-E38K/G101N) was evaluated. In a complementation assay of ADPG synthesis in an Escherichia coli mutant defective in the synthesis of ADPG, expression of PLS-E38K/G101N mediated higher glycogen production than wild-type potato AGPase (PLS-WT) and the single mutant enzymes, PLS-E38K and PLS-G101N, individually. Purified PLS-E38K/G101N showed higher sensitivity to 3-PGA activation and tolerance to Pi inhibition than PLS-E38K or PLS-G101N. Moreover, the enzyme activities of PLS-E38K, PLS-G101N, and PLS-E38K/G101N were more readily stimulated by other major phosphate-ester metabolites, such as fructose 6-phosphate, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, and ribose 5-phosphate, than was that of PLS-WT. Hence, although the specific enzyme activities of the LS mutants toward 3-PGA were impaired to some extent by the mutations, our results suggest that their enhanced allosteric regulatory properties and the broadened effector selectivity gained by the same mutations not only offset the lowered enzyme catalytic turnover rates but also increase the net performance of potato AGPase in vivo in view of increased glycogen production in bacterial cells.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 09/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently we reported that rice salicylic acid (SA) glucosyltransferase (OsSGT) is active toward 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid (tuberonic acid, TA) and that OsSGT gene expression is induced by wounding stress. Here we report that tobacco SA glucosyltransferase (NtSGT), which is thought to be an ortholog of OsSGT, is also active toward TA. Although NtSGT expression is known to be induced by biotrophic stress, it was also induced by wounding stress in the same manner as OsSGT. These results indicate that this glucosyltransferase is important not only in biotrophic stress but also for wounding stress. It was found that this enzyme is dually functional, with activity both toward TA and SA.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 12/2011; 75(12):2316-20. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphoryl group from a nucleoside triphosphate to a nucleoside diphosphate. In this study, we examined the subcellular localization, tissue-specific gene expression, and enzymatic characteristics of three rice NDPK isozymes (OsNDPK1-OsNDPK3). Sequence comparison of the three OsNDPKs suggested differential subcellular localization. Transient expression of green fluorescence protein-fused proteins in onion cells indicated that OsNDPK2 and OsNDPK3 are localized to plastid and mitochondria respectively, while OsNDPK1 is localized to the cytosol. Expression analysis indicated that all the OsNDPKs are expressed in the leaf, leaf sheath, and immature seeds, except for OsNDPK1, in the leaf sheath. Recombinant OsNDPK2 and OsNDPK3 showed lower optimum pH and higher stability under acidic pH than OsNDPK1. In ATP formation, all the OsNDPKs displayed lower K(m) values for the second substrate, ADP, than for the first substrate, NTP, and showed lowest and highest K(m) values for GTP and CTP respectively.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 09/2011; 75(9):1740-5. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The consecutive genes BF0771-BF0774 in the genome of Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343 were found to constitute an operon. The functional analysis of BF0772 showed that the gene encoded a novel enzyme, mannosylglucose phosphorylase that catalyzes the reaction, 4-O-β-d-mannopyranosyl-d-glucose+Pi→mannose-1-phosphate+glucose. Here we propose a new mannan catabolic pathway in the anaerobe, which involves 1,4-β-mannanase (BF0771), a mannobiose and/or sugar transporter (BF0773), mannobiose 2-epimerase (BF0774), and mannosylglucose phosphorylase (BF0772), finally progressing to glycolysis. This pathway is distributed in microbes such as Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Flavobacterium, and Cellvibrio.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2011; 408(4):701-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberonic acid (TA) and its glucoside (TAG) have been isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaflets and shown to exhibit tuber-inducing properties. These compounds were reported to be biosynthesized from jasmonic acid (JA) by hydroxylation and subsequent glycosylation, and to be contained in various plant species. Here we describe the in vivo hydrolytic activity of TAG in rice. In this study, the TA resulting from TAG was not converted into JA. Tuberonic acid glucoside (TAG)-hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase, designated OsTAGG1, was purified from rice by six purification steps with an approximately 4300-fold purification. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band on native PAGE, but as two bands with molecular masses of 42 and 26 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Results from N-terminal sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting of both polypeptides suggested that both bands were derived from a single polypeptide, which is a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. In the native enzyme, the K(m) and V(max) values of TAG were 31.7 microM and 0.25 microkatal/mg protein, OsTAGG1 preferentially hydrolyzed TAG and methyl TAG. Here we report that OsTAGG1 is a specific beta-glucosidase hydrolyzing TAG, which releases the physiologically active TA.
    Phytochemistry 08/2010; 71(11-12):1280-8. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that epilactose, a nondigestible disaccharide, increased calcium (Ca) absorption in the small intestines of rats. Here, we explored the mechanism(s) underlying the epilactose-mediated promotion of Ca absorption in a ligated intestinal segment of anesthetized rats. The addition of epilactose to the luminal solution increased Ca absorption and chromium (Cr)-EDTA permeability, a paracellular indicator, with a strong correlation (R = 0.93) between these changes. Epilactose induced the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chains (MLCs), which is known to activate the paracellular route, without any change in the association of tight junction proteins with the actin cytoskeleton. The epilactose-mediated promotion of the Ca absorption was suppressed by specific inhibitors of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). These results indicate that epilactose increases paracellular Ca absorption in the small intestine of rats through the induction of MLC phosphorylation via MLCK- and ROCK-dependent mechanisms.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2010; 58(3):1927-32. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A practical purification method for a non-digestible disaccharide, epilactose (4-O-beta-galactosyl-D-mannose), was established. Epilactose was synthesized from lactose with cellobiose 2-epimerase and purified by the following procedure: (i) removal of lactose by crystallization, (ii) hydrolysis of lactose by beta-galactosidase, (iii) digestion of monosaccharides by yeast, and (iv) column chromatography with Na-form cation exchange resin. Epilactose of 91.1% purity was recovered at 42.5% yield.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 01/2010; 74(8):1736-7. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The RNAs for the storage proteins of rice (Oryza sativa), prolamines and glutelins, which are stored as inclusions in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and storage vacuoles, respectively, are targeted by specific cis-localization elements to distinct subdomains of the cortical ER. Glutelin RNA has one or more cis-localization elements (zip codes) at the 3' end of the RNA, whereas prolamine has two cis-elements; one located in the 5' end of the coding sequence and a second residing in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). We had earlier demonstrated that the RNAs for the maize zeins ('prolamine' class) are localized to the spherical protein body ER (PB-ER) in developing maize endosperm. As the PB-ER localization of the 10-kDa delta-zein RNA is maintained in developing rice seeds, we determined the number and proximate location of their cis-localization elements by expressing GFP fusions containing various zein RNA sequences in transgenic rice and analyzing their spatial distribution on the cortical ER by in situ RT-PCR and confocal microscopy. Four putative cis-localization elements were identified; three in the coding sequences and one in the 3'-UTR. Two of these zip codes are required for restricted localization to the PB-ER. Using RNA targeting determinants we show, by mis-targeting the storage protein RNAs from their normal destination on the cortical ER, that the coded proteins are redirected from their normal site of deposition. Targeting of RNA to distinct cortical ER subdomains may be the underlying basis for the variable use of the ER lumen or storage vacuole as the final storage deposition site of storage proteins among flowering plant species.
    The Plant Journal 07/2009; 60(1):146-55. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cellobiose 2-epimerase from Ruminococcus albus (RaCE) catalyzes the epimerization of cellobiose and lactose to 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannose and 4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-D-mannose (epilactose). Based on the sequence alignment with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerases of known structure and on a homology-modeled structure of RaCE, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of possible catalytic residues in the enzyme, and the mutants were expressed in Escherichia coli cells. We found that R52, H243, E246, W249, W304, E308, and H374 were absolutely required for the activity of RaCE. F114 and W303 also contributed to catalysis. These residues protruded into the active-site cleft in the model (alpha/alpha)(6) core barrel structure.
    Biotechnology Letters 04/2009; 31(7):1065-71. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberonic acid (12-hydroxy epi-jasmonic acid, TA) and its glucoside (TAG) were isolated from potato leaflets (Solanumtuberosum L.) and shown to have tuber-inducing properties. The metabolism of jasmonic acid (JA) to TAG in plant leaflets, and translocation of the resulting TAG to the distal parts, was demonstrated in a previous study. It is thought that TAG generated from JA transmits a signal from the damaged parts to the undamaged parts by this mechanism. In this report, the metabolism of TA in higher plants was demonstrated using [12-(3)H]TA, and a glucosyltransferase active toward TA was purified from the rice cell cultures. The purified protein was shown to be a putative salicylic acid (SA) glucosyltransferase (OsSGT) by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Recombinant OsSGT obtained by overexpression in Escherichia coli was active not only toward TA but also toward SA. The OsSGT characterized in this research was not specific, but this is the first report of a glucosyltransferase active toward TA. mRNA expressional analysis of OsSGT and quantification of TA, TAG, SA and SAG after mechanical wounding indicated that OsSGT is involved in the wounding response. These results demonstrated a crucial role for TAG not only in potato tuber formation, but also in the stress response in plants and that the SA glucosyltransferase can work for TA glucosylation.
    Phytochemistry 03/2009; 70(3):370-9. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation plays a key regulatory role in a variety of cellular processes. To better understand the function of protein phosphorylation in seed maturation, a PCR-based cloning method was employed and five cDNA clones (pvcipk1-5) for protein kinases were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from immature seeds of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The deduced amino acid sequences showed that the five protein kinases (PvCIPK1-5) are members of the sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase type 3 (SnRK3) family, which interacts with calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs). Two cDNA clones (pvcbl1 and 2) for CBLs were further isolated from the cDNA library. The predicted primary sequences of the proteins (PvCBL1 and 2) displayed significant identity (more than 90%) with those of other plant CBLs. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the isolated genes, except pvcbl1, are expressed in leaves and early maturing seeds, whereas pvcbl1 is constitutively expressed during seed development. Yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that among the five PvCIPKs, only PvCIPK1 interacts with both PvCBL1 and PvCBL2. These results suggest that calcium-dependent protein phosphorylation-signaling via CBL-CIPK complexes occurs during seed development.
    Phytochemistry 03/2009; 70(4):501-7. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE, EC 5.1.3.11) catalyzes the reversible epimerization of cellobiose to 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannose. In this study, we found a CE gene in the genome sequence of non-cellulolytic Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343. The recombinant enzyme, expressed in Escherichia coli cells, catalyzed a hydroxyl stereoisomerism at the C-2 positions of the reducing terminal glucose and at the mannose moiety of cello-oligosaccharides, lactose, beta-mannobiose (4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-D-mannose), and globotriose [O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-glucose]. The CE from B. fragilis showed less than 40% identity to reported functional CEs. It exhibited 44-63% identities to N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase-like hypothetical proteins of unknown function in bacterial genome sequences of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia. On the other hand, it showed less than 26% identity to functional N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerases. Based on the amino acid homology and phylogenetic positions of the functional epimerases, we emphasize that many genes for putative N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerases and related hypothetical proteins of unknown function reported to date in the bacterial genomes should be annotated as CE-like proteins or putative CEs.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 02/2009; 73(2):400-6. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that cellobiose 2-epimerase from Ruminococcus albus effectively converted lactose to epilactose. In this study, we examined the biological effects of epilactose on intestinal microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and postadministrative plasma glucose by animal tests. Dietary supplementation with epilactose or fructooligosaccharide (4.5% each) increased cecal wall weight and cecal contents and decreased the pH of the cecal contents in Wistar-ST rats. The number of total anaerobes tended to be greater in rats fed epilactose and fructooligosaccharide than in those fed the control diet. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were more numerous in rats fed epilactose and fructooligosaccharide diets than in those fed the control diet. Analysis of clone libraries of 16S rRNA suggests that supplementation with epilactose did not induce the proliferation of harmful bacteria belonging to classes Clostridia or Bacteroidetes. Epilactose, as well as fructooligosaccharide, inhibited the conversion of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids, which are suggested to be promoters of colon cancer. In addition, oral administration of epilactose did not elevate the plasma glucose concentration in ddY mice. These results clearly indicate that epilactose is a promising prebiotic. We also showed that cellobiose 2-epimerase converted lactose in cow milk and a spray-dried ultrafiltrate of cheese whey to epilactose. Cellobiose 2-epimerase may increase the value of dairy products by changing lactose to epilactose possessing prebiotic properties.
    Journal of Dairy Science 01/2009; 91(12):4518-26. · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry - BIOSCI BIOTECHNOL BIOCHEM. 01/2009; 73(2):400-406.
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    ABSTRACT: Epilactose (4-O-beta-galactopyranosyl-D-mannnose) is a rare disaccharide in cow milk that can be synthesized from lactose by the cellobiose 2-epimerase of Ruminococcus albus. In this study, we examined the biological activities of epilactose using male Wistar-ST rats. The apparent rates of calcium and magnesium absorption of rats fed epilactose and fructooligosaccharide diets were greater than those fed control and lactose diets, accompanied by greater weight gain of the cecal wall and higher levels of short-chain fatty acids and other organic acids. Epilactose also increased the calcium absorption in everted small intestinal sacs. In addition, the levels of plasma total cholesterol and nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol were lower in epilactose-fed rats. These results indicate that epilactose promotes calcium absorption in the small intestine and possibly lowers the risk of arteriosclerosis. Cecal microbes may efficiently utilize epilactose and contribute to these biological activities.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2008; 56(21):10340-5. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE; EC 5.1.3.11) is known to catalyze the reversible epimerization of cellobiose to 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannose in Ruminococcus albus cells. Here, we report a CE in a ruminal strain of Eubacterium cellulosolvens for the first time. The nucleotide sequence of the CE had an ORF of 1218 bp (405 amino acids; 46 963.3 Da). The CE from E. cellulosolvens showed 44-54% identity to N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase-like hypothetical proteins in the genomes of Coprococcus eutactus, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium phytofermentans, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, and Eubacterium siraeum. Surprisingly, it exhibited only 46% identity to a CE from R. albus. The recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli was purified by two-step chromatography. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 46.7 kDa and exhibited optimal activity at around 35 degrees C and pH 7.0-8.5. In addition to cello-oligosaccharides, it converted lactose to epilactose (4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-D-mannose).
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 09/2008; 287(1):34-40. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that the major storage protein RNAs found in the rice endosperm are transported as particles via actomyosin to specific subdomains of the cortical endoplasmic reticulum. In this study, we examined the potential role of OsTudor-SN, a major cytoskeletal-associated RNA binding protein, in RNA transport and localization. OsTudor-SN molecules occur as high-molecular-weight forms, the integrity of which are sensitive to RNase. Immunoprecipitation followed by RT-PCR showed that OsTudor-SN binds prolamine and glutelin RNAs. Immunofluorescence studies using affinity-purified antibodies show that OsTudor-SNs exists as particles in the cytoplasm, and are distributed to both the protein body endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cisternal ER. Examination of OsTudor-SN particles in transgenic rice plants expressing GFP-tagged prolamine RNA transport particles showed co-localization of OsTudor-SN and GFP, suggesting a role in RNA transport. Consistent with this view, GFP-tagged OsTudor-SN is observed in living endosperm sections as moving particles, a property inhibited by microfilament inhibitors. Downregulation of OsTudor-SN by antisense and RNAi resulted in a decrease in steady state prolamine RNA and protein levels, and a reduction in the number of prolamine protein bodies. Collectively, these results show that OsTudor-SN is a component of the RNA transport particle, and may control storage protein biosynthesis by regulating one or more processes leading to the transport, localization and anchoring of their RNAs to the cortical ER.
    The Plant Journal 07/2008; 55(3):443-54. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gene for cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE) from Ruminococcus albus NE1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant CE was purified to homogeneity by a simple purification procedure with a high yield of 88%, and the molecular mass was 43.1 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 44.0 kDa on gel chromatography. It exhibited optimal activity around at 30 degrees C and pH 7.5, and the enzyme activity was inhibited by Al3+, Fe3+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Ag+, N-bromosuccinimide, iodoacetate, and 4-chloromercuribenzoate. In addition to cello-oligosaccharides, the enzyme was found to effectively 2-epimerize lactose to yield 4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-D-mannose (epilactose), which occurs in cow milk as a rare oligosaccharide. The Km and kcat/Km values toward lactose were 33 mM and 1.6 s(-1) mM(-1), and those toward cellobiose were 13.8 mM and 4.6 s(-1) mM(-1), respectively. N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine, uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucose, D-glucose 6-phosphate, maltose, sophorose, laminaribiose, and gentiobiose were inert as substrates for the recombinant CE. We demonstrated that epilactose was resistant to rat intestinal enzymes, utilized by human adult bifidobacteria, and stimulated the tight junction permeability in Caco-2 cells. These results strongly suggest that this rare disaccharide is promising for use as a prebiotic.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 07/2008; 79(3):433-41. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In plants and green algae, several starch synthase isozymes are responsible for the elongation of glucan chains in the biosynthesis of amylose and amylopectin. Multiple starch synthase isozymes, which are classified into five major classes (granule-bound starch synthases, SSI, SSII, SSIII, and SSIV) according to their primary sequences, have distinct enzymatic properties. All the starch synthase isozymes consist of a transit peptide, an N-terminal noncatalytic region (N-domain), and a C-terminal catalytic region (C-domain). To elucidate the enzymatic properties of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) SSIII and the function of the N-domain of kidney bean SSIII, three recombinant proteins were constructed: putative mature recombinant SSIII, recombinant kidney bean SSIII N-domain, and recombinant kidney bean SSIII C-domain. Purified recombinant kidney bean SSIII displayed high specific activities for primers as compared to the other starch synthase isozymes from kidney bean. Kinetic analysis showed that the high specific activities of recombinant kidney bean SSIII are attributable to the high k(cat) values, and that the K(m) values of recombinant kidney bean SSIII C-domain for primers were much higher than those of recombinant kidney bean recombinant SSIII. Recombinant kidney bean SSIII and recombinant kidney bean SSIII C-domain had similar chain-length specificities for the extension of glucan chains, indicating that the N-domain of kidney bean SSIII does not affect the chain-length specificity. Affinity gel electrophoresis indicated that recombinant kidney bean SSIII and recombinant kidney bean SSIII N-domain have high affinities for amylose and amylopectin. The data presented in this study provide direct evidence for the function of the N-domain of kidney bean SSIII as a carbohydrate-binding module.
    FEBS Journal 10/2007; 274(17):4550-60. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plant isoamylase-type starch-debranching enzymes (ISAs) hydrolyze alpha-1,6-linkages in alpha-1,4/alpha-1,6-linked polyglucans. Two ISAs, designated PvISA1/2 and PvISA3, were purified from developing seeds of kidney bean by ammonium sulfate fractionation and several column chromatographic procedures. The enzymes displayed different substrate specificities for polyglucans: PvISA1/2 showed broad chain-length specificities, whereas PvISA3 liberated specific chains with a DP of 2 to 4.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 10/2007; 71(9):2308-12. · 1.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

341 Citations
97.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2011
    • Hokkaido University
      • • Graduate School of Agriculture
      • • Research Faculty of Agriculture
      • • Division of Applied Bioscience
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
  • 2003–2009
    • Washington State University
      • Institute of Biological Chemistry
      Pullman, WA, United States