ABSTRACT: After entry into force of the Stockholm Convention and Aarhus Protocol and in order to implement the upcoming European legal background, the European countries are asked to apply control measures to reduce the release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as to establish POPs release inventories. In this perspective, development of measuring techniques of emissions is a focal issue in acquiring useful information. In this paper, results of various measurement campaigns at different municipal waste incineration (MWI) plants using long-term automated sampling of PCDD/PCDF are presented. The samples collected from both manual and automated campaigns were analyzed following the European Standard EN-1948:2006 by high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer. Performances of two different commercial systems have been investigated. Anomalous values occurred during one long-term campaign (22.16 pg I-toxic equivalent (TEQ)/Nm(3)), compared to average values (4-5 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3)) of the MWI. At this maximum value, a main occurrence of abnormal and instable operating conditions has been found. Sampling based on long-term basis was found to be more reliable to monitor PCDD/PCDF emissions than occasional short-term sampling. Nevertheless, the results of long-term campaigns demonstrate that emission levels detected in 15-30 days campaigns, when unsteady operating conditions can occur, as start-up and shut down, are not immediately comparable to the typical levels in a 6-8 h, when operating conditions are generally stable. Moreover, there are often differences observed in the congener profiles between short- and long-term campaigns.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2012; 19(6):1896-907. · 2.65 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs, ubiquitous environmental pollutants which are part of the POPs, are mainly produced by anthropogenic activities as well as by natural processes. Occurrences of these pollutants in different sites in Trieste are presented. PCDD/Fs distribution and their possible emission sources are discussed.
Air samples were collected in different sites near the industrial area, in the city center, and in a background area, using a high-volume sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter and a PUF. Each sampling lasted a week.
The concentrations of the organochlorinated pollutants are consistent with literature data (ΣPCDD/Fs and Σdl-PCBs were 5-38 fg TEQ/Nm(3) and 4-31 fg TEQ/Nm(3), respectively), and an apparent seasonal trend was found with slightly higher concentrations in the winter and lower levels in both summer campaigns. Moreover, the isomer profile of each sampling campaign was compared to the fingerprint of a sintering plant, a cement plant, and an incinerator, the main industrial activities in Trieste.
The organic micropollutants were detected in levels consistent with literature data. The results show that the pollutants are uniformally distributed in the atmosphere of Trieste. PCDD/F fingerprints in each site remained almost identical during summer and winter, confirming the yearly prevalence of the emissions from the nearby sintering plant.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2012; 19(6):1927-35. · 2.65 Impact Factor
Environmental Engineering Science 01/2009; 26:71-80. · 0.88 Impact Factor