D. K. Shuh

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States

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Publications (304)729.12 Total impact

  • J.G. Tobin · D.K. Shuh ·
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    ABSTRACT: Uranium and Plutonium are highly reactive elements that undergo not only chemical reactions but also nuclear reactions. This can lead to possibly significant materials degradation, a matter of potentially great concern. Here, the issue of the electronic structure changes that occur with oxidation and radiological aging will be addressed, in a fairly empirical manner. In essence, the sensitivity of various electron spectroscopic techniques to oxidation and aging will be surveyed and discussed, including the apparent limitations. It will be found that 5d and 4d X-ray absorption and electron energy loss are essentially blind to the changes corresponding to oxidation and aging in U and Pu.
    Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 11/2015; 205:83-91. DOI:10.1016/j.elspec.2015.09.001 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polarized aluminum K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and first-principles calculations were used to probe electronic structure in a series of (BDI)Al, (BDI)AlX2, and (BDI)AlR2 coordination compounds (X = F, Cl, I; R = H, Me; BDI = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl-β-diketiminate). Spectral interpretations were guided by examination of the calculated transition energies and polarization-dependent oscillator strengths, which agreed well with the XANES spectroscopy measurements. Pre-edge features were assigned to transitions associated with the Al 3p orbitals involved in metal-ligand bonding. Qualitative trends in Al 1s core energy and valence orbital occupation were established through a systematic comparison of excited states derived from Al 3p orbitals with similar symmetries in a molecular orbital framework. These trends suggested that the higher transition energies observed for (BDI)AlX2 systems with more electronegative X(1-) ligands could be ascribed to a decrease in electron density around the aluminum atom, which causes an increase in the attractive potential of the Al nucleus and concomitant increase in the binding energy of the Al 1s core orbitals. For (BDI)Al and (BDI)AlH2 the experimental Al K-edge XANES spectra and spectra calculated using the eXcited electron and Core-Hole (XCH) approach had nearly identical energies for transitions to final state orbitals of similar composition and symmetry. These results implied that the charge distributions about the aluminum atoms in (BDI)Al and (BDI)AlH2 are similar relative to the (BDI)AlX2 and (BDI)AlMe2 compounds, despite having different formal oxidation states of +1 and +3, respectively. However, (BDI)Al was unique in that it exhibited a low-energy feature that was attributed to transitions into a low-lying p-orbital of b1 symmetry that is localized on Al and orthogonal to the (BDI)Al plane. The presence of this low-energy unoccupied molecular orbital on electron-rich (BDI)Al distinguishes its valence electronic structure from that of the formally trivalent compounds (BDI)AlX2 and (BDI)AlR2. The work shows that Al K-edge XANES spectroscopy can be used to provide valuable insight into electronic structure and reactivity relationships for main-group coordination compounds.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2015; 137(32). DOI:10.1021/jacs.5b05854 · 12.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using x-ray emission spectroscopy and absorption spectroscopy, it has been possible to directly access the states in the unoccupied conduction bands that are involved with 5f and 6d covalency in oxidized uranium. By varying the oxidizing agent, the degree of 5f covalency can be manipulated and monitored, clearly and irrevocably establishing the importance of 5f covalency in the electronic structure of the key nuclear fuel, uranium dioxide. © 2015 American Physical Society.
    Physical Review B 07/2015; 92(4). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.92.045130 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopic data are reported for the O 1s region of a single crystal of UO2, a polycrystalline NpO2 sample, and a single crystal of PuO2. The experimental data are interpreted using first-principles correlated-electron calculations within the framework of the density functional theory with added Coulomb U interaction (DFT+U). A detailed analysis regarding the origin of different structures in the x-ray emission and x-ray absorption spectra is given and the effect of varying the intra-atomic Coulomb interaction-U for the 5 f electrons is investigated. Our data indicate that O 1s x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies can, in combination with DFT+U calculations, successfully be used to study 5 f -shell Coulomb correlation effects in dioxides of light actinides. The values for the Coulomb U parameter in these dioxides are derived to be in the range of 4-5 eV.
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter 07/2015; 27(31):315503. DOI:10.1088/0953-8984/27/31/315503 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An extensive investigation of oxidation in uranium has been pursued. This includes the utilization of soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, hard x-ray absorption near-edge structure, resonant (hard) x-ray emission spectroscopy, cluster calculations, and a branching ratio analysis founded on atomic theory. The samples utilized were uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium trioxide (UO3), and uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). A discussion of the role of nonspherical perturbations, i.e., crystal or ligand field effects, will be presented.
    Physical Review B 07/2015; 92(3). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.92.035111 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • J. G. Tobin · C. H. Booth · W. Siekhaus · D. K. Shuh ·
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    ABSTRACT: A comparative structural study of UF4 and UO2, using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) techniques was conducted as part of the studies of 5f covalency in uranium compounds. This study confirmed the quality of the samples and provided additional insight into geometrical issues related to ionicity and covalency. It was observed that the local structure of UF4 from EXAFS was consistent with the long range structure derived from diffraction data.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films 05/2015; 33(3):033001. DOI:10.1116/1.4915893 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Covalency in Ln-Cl bonds of Oh-LnCl6(x-) (x = 3 for Ln = Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III); x = 2 for Ln = Ce(IV)) anions has been investigated, primarily using Cl K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT); however, Ce L3,2-edge and M5,4-edge XAS were also used to characterize CeCl6(x-) (x = 2, 3). The M5,4-edge XAS spectra were modeled using configuration interaction calculations. The results were evaluated as a function of (1) the lanthanide (Ln) metal identity, which was varied across the series from Ce to Gd, and (2) the Ln oxidation state (when practical, i.e., formally Ce(III) and Ce(IV)). Pronounced mixing between the Cl 3p- and Ln 5d-orbitals (t2g* and eg*) was observed. Experimental results indicated that Ln 5d-orbital mixing decreased when moving across the lanthanide series. In contrast, oxidizing Ce(III) to Ce(IV) had little effect on Cl 3p and Ce 5d-orbital mixing. For LnCl6(3-) (formally Ln(III)), the 4f-orbitals participated only marginally in covalent bonding, which was consistent with historical descriptions. Surprisingly, there was a marked increase in Cl 3p- and Ce(IV) 4f-orbital mixing (t1u* + t2u*) in CeCl6(2-). This unexpected 4f- and 5d-orbital participation in covalent bonding is presented in the context of recent studies on both tetravalent transition metal and actinide hexahalides, MCl6(2-) (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, U).
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2015; 137(7). DOI:10.1021/ja510067v · 12.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reaction of the neutral diniobium benzene complex {[Nb(BDI)NtBu]2(μ-C6H6)} (BDI = N,N′-diisopropylbenzene-β-diketiminate) with Ag[B(C6F5)4] results in a single electron oxidation to produce a cationic diniobium arene complex, {[Nb(BDI)NtBu]2(μ-C6H6)}{B(C6F5)4}. Investigation of the solid state and solution phase structure using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, magnetic susceptibility, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy indicates that the oxidation results in an asymmetric molecule with two chemically inequivalent Nb atoms. Further characterization using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, UV-visible, Nb L3,2-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and EPR spectroscopies supports assignment of a diniobium complex, in which one Nb atom carries a single unpaired electron that is not largely delocalized on the second Nb atom. During the oxidative transformation, one electron is removed from the δ-bonding HOMO, which causes a destabilization of the molecule and formation of an asymmetric product. Subsequent reactivity studies indicate that the oxidized product allows access to metal-based chemistry with substrates that did not exhibit reactivity with the starting neutral complex.
    Chemical Science 11/2014; 6(2). DOI:10.1039/C4SC02705A · 9.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), 1,5,10,14-tetra(1-hydroxy-2-pyridon-6-oyl)-1,5,10,14-tetraazatetradecane), is a potent octadentate chelator of actinides. It is being developed as a decorporation treatment for internal contamination with radionuclides. Conventional HPLC methods exhibited speciation peaks and bridging, likely attributable to the agent's complexation with residual metallic ions in the HPLC system. Derivatization of the target ligand in situ with Fe(III) chloride, however, provided a single homogeneous iron-complex that can readily be detected and analyzed by HPLC. The HPLC method used an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 5μm) at 25°C with UV detection at 280nm. A gradient elution, with acetonitrile (11% to 100%)/buffer mobile phase, was developed for impurity profiling. The buffer consisted of 0.02% formic acid and 10mM ammonium formate at pH 4.6. An Agilent 1200 LC-6530 Q-TOF/MS system was employed to characterize the [Fe(III)-3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO)] derivative and impurities. The proposed HPLC method was validated for specificity, linearity (concentration range 0.13-0.35mg/mL, r=0.9999), accuracy (recovery 98.3-103.3%), precision (RSD≤1.6%) and sensitivity (LOD 0.08μg/mL). The LC/HRMS revealed that the derivative was a complex consisting of one 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) molecule, one hydroxide ligand, and two iron atoms. Impurities were also identified with LC/HRMS. The validated HPLC method was used in shelf-life evaluation studies which showed that the API remained unchanged for one year at 25°C/60% RH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 10/2014; 102C:443-449. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2014.10.015 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the electronic structure of three newly synthesized nitrogen-donor uranyl complexes [(UO2)(H2bbp)Cl2], [(UO)2(Hbbp)(Py)Cl], and [(UO2)(bbp)(Py)2] using a combination of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy experiments and simulations. The complexes studied feature derivatives of the tunable tridentate N-donor ligand 2,6-bis(2-benzimidazyl)pyridine (bbp) and exhibit discrete chemical differences in uranyl coordination. The sensitivity of the N K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum to local bonding and charge transfer is exploited to systematically investigate the evolution of structural as well as electronic properties across the three complexes. A thorough interpretation of the measured experimental spectra is achieved via ab initio NEXAFS simulations based on the eXcited electron and Core-Hole (XCH) approach and enables the assignment of spectral features to electronic transitions on specific absorbing sites. We find that ligand-uranyl bonding leads to a signature blue shift in the N K-edge absorption onset, resulting from charge displacement toward the uranyl, while changes in the equatorial coordination shell of the uranyl lead to more subtle modulations in the spectral features. Theoretical simulations show that the flexible local chemistry at the nonbinding imidazole-N sites of the bbp ligand is also reflected in the NEXAFS spectra and highlights potential synthesis strategies to improve selectivity. In particular, we find that interactions of the bbp ligand with solvent molecules can lead to changes in ligand-uranyl binding geometry while also modulating the K-edge absorption. Our results suggest that NEXAFS spectroscopy combined with first-principles interpretation can offer insights into the coordination chemistry of analogous functionalized conjugated ligands.
    Inorganic Chemistry 10/2014; 53(21). DOI:10.1021/ic501107a · 4.76 Impact Factor
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    Plutonium Futures – The Science 2014, Las Vegas, NV, USA; 09/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The sorption of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) onto manganite (MnOOH) and Hausmannite (Mn3O4) was studied at pH 5. Manganite sorbed 21-24% from a 1x10-4 M plutonium solution and the hausmannite removed between 43-66% of the plutonium. The increased sorption by hausmannite results from its larger surface area (about twice that of manganite) plus a larger number of active surface sites. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra taken at the Pu LIII edge were compared to standard spectra of plutonium in single oxidation states. Based on these spectra, it appears that both manganite and hausmannite reduce the higher valent plutonium species to Pu(IV). Between 53-59% of the plutonium was present as Pu(IV) in the manganite samples while 55-61% of the plutonium complexed to the hausmannite had also been reduced to Pu(IV). The exact mechanism behind this redox interaction between the plutonium and the manganese needs to be identified.
    Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology 08/2014; 39(sup3). DOI:10.1080/00223131.2002.10875461 · 1.12 Impact Factor
  • Guoxin Tian · David K Shuh ·
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    ABSTRACT: The complexation of americium(iii) with nitrate was studied at temperatures from 10 to 85 °C in 1 M HNO3-HClO4 by spectrophotometry. The 1 : 1 complex species, AmNO3(2+), was identified and the stability constants were calculated from the absorption spectra recorded for titrations at several temperatures. Specific ion interaction theory (SIT) was used for ionic strength corrections to obtain the stability constants of AmNO3(2+) at infinite dilution and variable temperatures. The absorption spectra of Am(iii) in diluted HClO4 were also reviewed, and the molar absorptivity of Am(iii) at around 503 nm and 813 nm was re-calibrated by titrations with standardized DTPA solutions to determine the concentration of Am(iii).
    Dalton Transactions 07/2014; 43(39). DOI:10.1039/c4dt01183j · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The solid-state MU8Q17 compounds ScU8S17, CoU8S17, NiU8S17, TiU8Se17, VU8Se17, CrU8Se17, CoU8Se17, and NiU8Se17 were synthesized from the reactions of the elements at 1173 or 1123 K. These isostructural compounds crystallize in space group C2h3 - C2/m of the monoclinic system in the CrU8S17 structure type. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopic studies of ScU8S17 indicate that it contains Sc3+, and hence charge balance is achieved with a composition that includes U3+ as well as U4+. The other compounds charge balance with M2+ and U4+. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on ScU8S17 indicate antiferromagnetic couplings and a highly reduced effective magnetic moment. Ab Initio calculations find the compound to be metallic. Surprisingly, the Sc–S distances are actually longer than all the other M–S interactions, even though the ionic radii of Sc3+, low-spin Cr2+, and Ni2+ are similar.
    ChemInform 06/2014; 53(13). DOI:10.1021/ic500721d
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the uranium 5f/6d orbital mixing with oxygen 2p valence orbitals in uranium oxides is important for advancing nuclear technology. Unfortunately, U–O orbital mixing is difficult to probe experimentally. In this manuscript, U–O bonding is evaluated in U3O8 using O K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). To confirm that the O K-edge XAS spectra were correct and did not contain contributions from surface contamination, three different sample types were investigated using three unique detection methods. Specifically an epitaxial film of U3O8 deposited on Al2O3 (PAD-U3O8) was probed using grazing-incidence fluorescence yield (GIFY) detection, a bulk powder of α-phase U3O8 was analyzed with fluorescence yield (FY) detection at normal incidence, and particles of α-phase U3O8 were studied in transmission mode using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). Experimental spectra have been presented in the context of previously published computational results from DFT using the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) screened hybrid functional. Overall, the comparative analyses of PAD-U3O8 and α-phase U3O8 samples enabled identification of unique signatures associated with oxygen 2p orbital mixing with both UV and UVI 5f and 6d valence orbitals.
    Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 06/2014; 194. DOI:10.1016/j.elspec.2014.03.005 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two isostructural series of trigonal prismatic complexes, M(Bp(Me))3 and M(Bc(Me))3 (M = Y, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, U; [Bp(Me)](-) = dihydrobis(methypyrazolyl)borate; [Bc(Me)](-) = dihydrobis(methylimidazolyl)borate) are synthesized and fully characterized to examine the influence of ligand donor strength on slow magnetic relaxation. Investigation of the dynamic magnetic properties reveals that the oblate electron density distributions of the Tb(3+), Dy(3+), and U(3+) metal ions within the axial ligand field leads to slow relaxation upon application of a small dc magnetic field. Significantly, the magnetization relaxation is orders of magnitude slower for the N-heterocyclic carbene complexes, M(Bc(Me))3, than for the isomeric pyrazolate complexes, M(Bp(Me))3. Further, investigation of magnetically dilute samples containing 11-14 mol% of Tb(3+), Dy(3+), or U(3+) within the corresponding Y(3+) complex matrix reveals thermally-activated relaxation is favored for the M(Bc(Me))3 complexes, even when dipolar interactions are largely absent. Notably, the dilute species U(Bc(Me))3 exhibits Ueff ~33 cm(-1), representing the highest barrier yet observed for a U(3+) molecule demonstrating slow relaxation. Additional analysis through lanthanide XANES, X-band EPR, and (1)H NMR spectroscopies provides evidence that the origin of the slower relaxation derives from the greater magnetic anisotropy enforced within the strongly donating N-heterocyclic carbene coordination sphere. These results show that, like molecular symmetry, ligand donating ability is a variable that can be controlled to the advantage of the synthetic chemist in the design of single-molecule magnets with enhanced relaxation barriers.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2014; 136(16). DOI:10.1021/ja501569t · 12.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reaction of UO2Cl2·3THF with the tridentate nitrogen donor ligand 2,6-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)pyridine (H2BBP) in pyridine leads to the formation of three different complexes: [(UO2)(H2BBP)Cl2] (1), [(UO)2(HBBP)(Py)Cl] (2), and [(UO2)(BBP)(Py)2] (3) after successive deprotonation of H2BBP with a strong base. Crystallographic determination of 1-3 reveals that increased charge through ligand deprotonation and displacement of chloride leads to equatorial planarity about uranyl as well as a more compact overall coordination geometry. Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra of 1-3 at the U-4d edges have been recorded using a soft X-ray Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) and reveal the uranium 4d5/2 and 4d3/2 transitions at energies associated with uranium in the hexavalent oxidation state. First-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations for the complexes have been performed to determine and validate the coordination characteristics, which correspond well to the experimental results.
    Inorganic Chemistry 02/2014; 53(5). DOI:10.1021/ic4026359 · 4.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence for metal-carbon orbital mixing in thorocene and uranocene was determined from DFT calculations and carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) collected with a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). Both the experimental and computational results showed that the 5f orbitals engaged in significant δ-type mixing with the C8H82− ligands, which increased as the 5f orbitals dropped in energy on moving from Th4+ to U4+. The first experimental evidence for extensive ϕ-orbital interactions has been provided by the C K-edge XAS analysis of thorocene; however, ϕ-type covalency in uranocene was negligible. The results highlighted two contrasting trends in orbital mixing from one pair of highly symmetric molecules, and showed that covalency does not increase uniformly for different molecular orbital interactions with later actinides.
    Chemical Science 01/2014; 5(1):351. DOI:10.1039/c3sc52030g · 9.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study addresses the possibilities of immobilizing the mobile species of actinides in the geosphere using metallic iron. Sorption on corroding iron is well known, but there have been uncertainties as to the possibilities of reducing the actinyl species to sparingly soluble oxides and, thereby, permanently immobilizing them. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements at the actinide 5d edges on Fe foils exposed to U(VI) and Np(V) solutions in ground water unambigiously indicate reduction of actinides to respectively U(IV) and Np(IV) on iron surfaces. The reduction manifests itself in an appearance of distinct specific signatures of U(IV) and Np(IV) in the RIXS profile of 5f-5f excitations. Such signatures and RIXS intensity/cross-section behaviour with varying energy of incident photons can be reproduced by model atomic-multiplet calculations of the RIXS spectra. By normalizing the RIXS signal of corresponding 5f-5f excitations to core-to-core 6p-to-5d characteristic fluorescence transitions of actinides, their reduction rates on Fe samples with different exposure to actinide solutions can be estimated. Observed reduction implies similar processes in the nuclear waste canister thus suggesting reduced probability of nuclear waste release with ground waters from the canister.
    Analytical Chemistry 11/2013; 85(23). DOI:10.1021/ac4020534 · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-three atomic emission lines for 235U and 238U were compiled for computer simulation of isotopic analysis using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The spectral line profile was assumed to be Lorentzian in shape and the magnitude of three common types of noises (detector-read, photon-shot and flicker) were experimentally determined and incorporated into the simulation. Precision and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for isotopic analysis of a single U line were simulated, and it was found that analytical performance (precision) primarily depended on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and net intensity of the emission line, rather than on the magnitude of isotopic splitting (IS), when partial least squares (PLS) was used for calibration. This is because PLS multivariate calibration can be performed correctly even when the spectra are only partially resolved, which in turn relaxes the requirement on having IS larger than the spectral resolution. The analytical performance was found to improve with multiple-line analysis. Depending on the criteria (e.g., SBR, net intensity, magnitude of IS, or best single-line performance) used in sorting the spectral lines into the multiline pool, improvement factors ranging from 2 × to 9 × were obtained. The absolute uncertainty of isotopic analysis is practically constant and independent of isotopic abundance, which makes experimental estimation of the detection limit in isotopic analysis straightforward because one can experimentally measure this uncertainty with one arbitrary and conveniently chosen isotopic standard and then estimate the detection limit through simple extrapolation.
    Spectrochimica Acta Part B Atomic Spectroscopy 11/2013; 89:40–49. DOI:10.1016/j.sab.2013.09.001 · 3.18 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
729.12 Total Impact Points


  • 1992-2015
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      • Chemical Sciences Division
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1993-2014
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2010
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 1987-2010
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2006-2007
    • The Catholic University of America
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2004
    • Texas A&M University - Commerce
      • Department of Chemistry
      Commerce, Texas, United States
  • 2002
    • Kafkas University
      Cars, Kars, Turkey
  • 2000
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
      Livermore, California, United States
  • 1992-1996
    • University of California, Riverside
      Riverside, California, United States
  • 1995
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department of Physics
      Нью-Брансуик, New Jersey, United States
  • 1992-1994
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States