[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is not only a home for folding and posttranslational modifications of secretory proteins but also a reservoir for intracellular Ca(2+). Perturbation of ER homeostasis contributes to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. One key regulator that underlies cell survival and Ca(2+) homeostasis during ER stress responses is inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α). Despite extensive studies on this ER membrane-associated protein, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which excessive ER stress triggers cell death and Ca(2+) dysregulation via the IRE1α-dependent signaling pathway. In this study, we show that inactivation of IRE1α by RNA interference increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in SH-SY5Y cells, leading to cell death. This dysregulation is caused by an accelerated ER-to-cytosolic efflux of Ca(2+) through the InsP3 receptor (InsP3R). The Ca(2+) efflux in IRE1α-deficient cells correlates with dissociation of the Ca(2+)-binding InsP3R inhibitor CIB1 and increased complex formation of CIB1 with the pro-apoptotic kinase ASK1, which otherwise remains inactivated in the IRE1α-TRAF2-ASK1 complex. The increased cytosolic concentration of Ca(2+) induces mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular superoxide, resulting in severe mitochondrial abnormalities, such as fragmentation and depolarization of membrane potential. These Ca(2+) dysregulation-induced mitochondrial abnormalities and cell death in IRE1α-deficient cells can be blocked by depleting ROS or inhibiting Ca(2+) influx into the mitochondria. These results demonstrate the importance of IRE1α in Ca(2+) homeostasis and cell survival during ER stress and reveal a previously unknown Ca(2+)-mediated cell death signaling between the IRE1α-InsP3R pathway in the ER and the redox-dependent apoptotic pathway in the mitochondrion.
Cell Death & Disease 01/2014; 5:e1188. · 6.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand cell surface receptor, and amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is one of the ligands for RAGE. Because RAGE is a transporter of Abeta from the blood to the brain, RAGE is believed to play an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In the present study, the role of RAGE in Abeta production was examined in the brain tissue of an AD animal model, Tg2576 mice, as well as cultured cells. Because beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), an essential protease for Abeta production, is up-regulated in cells overexpressing RAGE and in RAGE-injected brains of Tg2576 mice, the molecular mechanisms underlying RAGE, BACE1 expression, and Abeta production were examined. Because RAGE stimulates intracellular calcium, nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 (NFAT1) was examined. NFAT1 was activated following RAGE-induced BACE1 expression followed by Abeta generation. Injection of soluble RAGE (sRAGE), which acts as a competitor with full-length RAGE (fRAGE), into aged Tg2576 mouse brains reduced the levels of plaques, Abeta, BACE1, and the active form of NFAT1 compared with fRAGE-injected Tg2576 mice. Taken together, RAGE stimulates functional BACE1 expression through NFAT1 activation, resulting in more Abeta production and deposition in the brain.
The FASEB Journal 04/2009; 23(8):2639-49. · 5.70 Impact Factor