[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with diabetes and heart failure (HF) have worse clinical outcomes compared to patients with HF without diabetes after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Patients with HF and diabetes represent a growing population at high risk for cardiovascular events and are increasingly treated with CRT. Although patients with diabetes and HF appear to benefit from CRT, their clinical outcomes are worse than those of patients without diabetes after CRT. The aim of this study was to identify clinical predictors that explain the differential hazard in patients with diabetes. We studied 442 patients (169 with diabetes) with systolic HF referred to the Massachusetts General Hospital CRT clinic from 2003 to 2010 to identify predictors of outcomes after CRT in patients with HF and diabetes. Patients with diabetes were more likely to have ischemic causes of HF than those without diabetes, but there was no difference in the left ventricular ejection fraction or HF classification at implantation. Patients with diabetes had poorer event-free survival (death or HF hospitalization) compared to those without diabetes (log-rank p = 0.04). The presence of diabetes was the most important independent predictor of differential outcomes in the entire population (hazard ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.51). Patients with diabetes receiving insulin therapy had poorer survival, whereas those not receiving insulin therapy had similar survival to patients without diabetes. Patients with peri-implantation glycosylated hemoglobin >7% had worse outcomes, whereas patients with glycosylated hemoglobin ≤7% had improved survival (hazard ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.86) equivalent to that of patients without diabetes. In conclusion, although the presence of diabetes, independent of other variables, increases the hazard of worse outcomes after CRT, there is additional risk conferred by insulin use and suboptimal peri-implantation glycemic control.
The American journal of cardiology 05/2012; 110(5):683-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Standard coronary venous angiography (SCVA) provides a static, fixed projection of the coronary venous (CV) tree. High-speed rotational coronary venous angiography (RCVA) is a novel method of mapping CV anatomy using dynamic, multiangle visualization. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of RCVA during cardiac resynchronization therapy. Digitally acquired rotational CV angiograms from 49 patients (mean age 69 +/- 11 years) who underwent left ventricular lead implantation were analyzed. RCVA, which uses rapid isocentric rotation over a 110 degrees arc, acquiring 120 frames/angiogram, was compared with SCVA, defined as 2 static orthogonal views: right anterior oblique 45 degrees and left anterior oblique 45 degrees . RCVA demonstrated that the posterior vein-to-coronary sinus (CS) angle and the left marginal vein-to-CS angle were misclassified in 5 and 11 patients, respectively, using SCVA. RCVA identified a greater number of second-order tributaries with diameters >1.5 mm than SCVA. The CV branch selected for lead placement was initially identified in 100% of patients using RCVA but in only 74% of patients using SCVA. RCVA showed that the best angiographic view for visualizing the CS and its tributaries differed significantly among different areas of the CV tree and among patients. The area of the CV tree that showed less variability was the CS ostium, which had a fairly constant relation with the spine in shallow right anterior oblique and left anterior oblique projections. In conclusion, RCVA provided a more precise map of CV anatomy and the spatial relation of venous branches. It allowed the identification of fluoroscopic views that could facilitate cannulation of the CS. The final x-ray view displaying the appropriate CV branch for left ventricular lead implantation was often different from the conventional left anterior oblique and right anterior oblique views. RCVA identified the target branch for lead implantation more often than SCVA.
The American Journal of Cardiology 11/2007; 100(10):1561-5. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imaging the coronary venous (CV) tree to delineate the coronary sinus and its tributaries can facilitate electrophysiological procedures, such as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and catheter ablation. Venography also allows visualization of the left atrial (LA) veins, which may be a potential conduit for ablative or pacing strategies given their proximity to foci that can trigger atrial fibrillation.
The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of CV anatomy using rotational venography in patients undergoing CRT.
Coronary sinus (CS) size and the presence, size, and angulation of its tributaries were determined from the analysis of rotational CV angiograms from 51 patients (age 68 +/- 11 years; n = 12 women) undergoing CRT.
The CS, posterior veins, and lateral veins were identified in 100%, 76%, and 91% of patients. Lateral veins were less prevalent in patients with a history of lateral myocardial infarction than in patients without such a history (33% vs. 96%; P = .014). The diameters of the CS and its tributaries were fairly variable (7.3-18.9 mm for CS, 1.3-10.5 mm for CS tributaries). The CS was larger in men than in women and in cases of ischemic than in cases of nonischemic cardiomyopathy (all P <.05). The vein of Marshall, the most constant LA vein, was identified in 37 patients; its diameter is 1.7 +/- 0.5 mm, and its takeoff angle is 154 degrees +/- 15 degrees , making the vein potentially accessible for cannulation.
Differences in CV anatomy that are related to either gender or coronary artery disease could have important practical implications during the left ventricular lead implantation. The anatomical features of the vein of Marshall make it a feasible potential conduit for epicardial LA pacing.