Ruiying Zhao

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States

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Publications (25)193.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Obesity increases the risk of cancer death among postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, but the direct evidence for the mechanisms is lacking. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate direct evidence for the mechanisms mediating this epidemiologic phenomenon.
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 07/2014; 106(7).
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    ABSTRACT: HER2/neu oncogene is frequently deregulated in cancers, and the (PI3K)-Akt signaling is one of the major pathways in mediating HER2/neu oncogenic signal. p57 (Kip2) , an inhibitor of cyclin-depependent kinases, is pivotal in regulating cell cycle progression, but its upstream regulators remain unclear. Here we show that the HER2-Akt axis is linked to p57 (Kip2) regulation, and that Akt is a negative regulator of p57 (Kip2) . Ectopic expression of Akt can decrease the expression of p57 (Kip2) , while Akt inhibition leads to p57 (Kip2) stabilization. Mechanistic studies show that Akt interacts with p57 (Kip2) and causes cytoplasmic localization of p57 (Kip2) . Akt phosphorylates p57 on Ser 282 or Thr310. Akt activity results in destabilization of p57 by accelerating turnover rate of p57 and enhancing p57 ubiquitination. Importantly, the negative impact of HER2/Akt on p57 stability contributes to HER2-mediated cell proliferation, transformational activity and tumorigenicity. p57 restoration can attenuate these defects caused by HER2. Significantly, Kaplan-Meier analysis of tumor samples demonstrate that in tumors where HER2 expression was observed, high expression levels of p57 (Kip2) were associated with better overall survival. These data suggest that HER2/Akt is an important negative regulator of p57 (Kip2) , and that p57 restoration in HER2-overexpressing cells can reduce breast tumor growth. Our findings indicate the applicability of employing p57 regulation as a therapeutic intervention in HER2-overexpressing cancers.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 02/2013; 12(6). · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CSN5 is pivotal in regulating cell cycle, but its targets remain not well characterized. Kaplan-Meier analysis of patients' breast tumor samples demonstrated that high expression of CSN5 was associated with poor overall survival. We investigated how CSN5 can be involved in tumorigenesis and found inverse correlation between CSN5 and p57Kip2. We found that p57Kip2 interacted with CSN5 and was a target of CSN5 for stability regulation. CSN5 enhanced ubiquitination levels of p57Kip2, thereby increasing the turnover rate of p57Kip2. Ectopic expression of CSN5 increased the turnover rate of p57Kip2, while CSN5 knockdown led to p57Kip2 stabilization. Importantly, HER2 has the positive impact on CSN5 stability, thus CSN5- p57Kip2 link may contribute to HER2-mediated cell proliferation. We showed that p57Kip2 expression inhibited HER2-mediated cell proliferation and migration tumor progression, attesting to its role as a potent inhibitor of G1- and S-phase CDKs. While p57Kip2 induction negatively regulated HER2 function and prevented cell growth and cell migration, ectopic expression of CSN5 overcame p57Kip2 -mediated G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle and inhibition of cell migration ability in the tetracycline-inducible p57Kip2 stable transfectants. Together, these results provide a mechanistic explanation of the correlation of CSN5 overexpression with p57 downregulation during tumorigenesis.
    Cancer Hallmarks. 01/2013; 1.
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    ABSTRACT: Subunit 6 of the COP9 signalosome complex, CSN6, is known to be critical to the regulation of the MDM2-p53 axis for cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis, but its many targets remain unclear. Here we show that p57 (Kip2) is a target of CSN6, and that CSN6 is a negative regulator of p57 (Kip2) . CSN6 associates with p57 (Kip2) , and its overexpression can decrease the steady-state expression of p57 (Kip2) ; accordingly, CSN6 deficiency leads to p57 (Kip2) stabilization. Mechanistic studies show that CSN6 associates with p57 (Kip2) and Skp2, a component of the E3 ligase, which, in turn, facilitates Skp2-mediated protein ubiquitination of p57 (Kip2) . Loss of Skp2 compromised CSN6-mediated p57 (Kip2) destabilization, suggesting collaboration between Skp2 and CSN6 in degradation of p57 (Kip2) . CSN6's negative impact on p57 (Kip2) elevation translates into cell growth promotion, cell cycle deregulation and potentiated transformational activity. Significantly, univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis of tumor samples demonstrates that high CSN6 expression or low p57 expression is associated with poor overall survival. These data suggest that CSN6 is an important negative regulator of p57 (Kip2) , and that overexpression of CSN6 in many types of cancer could lead to decreased expression of p57 (Kip2) and result in promoted cancer cell growth.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 11/2012; 11(24). · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HER2/neu oncogene is frequently overexpressed in various types of cancer, and the (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is often activated in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. CSN6, subunit 6 of the COP9 signalosome complex, is pivotal in regulating MDM2 to destabilize p53, but its upstream regulators remain unclear. Here we show that the HER2-Akt axis is linked to CSN6 regulation, and that Akt is a positive regulator of CSN6. Ectopic expression of Akt can increase the expression of CSN6; accordingly, Akt inhibition leads to CSN6 destabilization. Mechanistic studies show that Akt causes CSN6 phosphorylation at Ser 60, which, in turn, reduces ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation of CSN6. Significantly, Akt's positive impact on CSN6 elevation translates into p53 degradation, potentiating transformational activity and increasing DNA damage. Akt inhibition can attenuate these defects caused by CSN6. These data suggest that Akt is an important positive regulator of CSN6, and that activation of Akt in many types of cancer could lead to abnormal elevation of CSN6 and result in downregulated p53 and increased DNA damage, which promotes cancer cell growth.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 10/2012; 11(22). · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many signals must be integrated to maintain self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and to enable induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming. However, the exact molecular regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. To unravel the essential internal and external signals required for sustaining the ESC state, we conducted a short hairpin (sh) RNA screen of 104 ESC-associated phosphoregulators. Depletion of one such molecule, aurora kinase A (Aurka), resulted in compromised self-renewal and consequent differentiation. By integrating global gene expression and computational analyses, we discovered that loss of Aurka leads to upregulated p53 activity that triggers ESC differentiation. Specifically, Aurka regulates pluripotency through phosphorylation-mediated inhibition of p53-directed ectodermal and mesodermal gene expression. Phosphorylation of p53 not only impairs p53-induced ESC differentiation but also p53-mediated suppression of iPSC reprogramming. Our studies demonstrate an essential role for Aurka-p53 signaling in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation, and somatic cell reprogramming.
    Cell Stem Cell 08/2012; 11(2):179-194. · 25.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many signals must be integrated to maintain self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and to enable induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming. However, the exact molecular regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. To unravel the essential internal and external signals required for sustaining the ESC state, we conducted a short hairpin (sh) RNA screen of 104 ESC-associated phosphoregulators. Depletion of one such molecule, aurora kinase A (Aurka), resulted in compromised self-renewal and consequent differentiation. By integrating global gene expression and computational analyses, we discovered that loss of Aurka leads to upregulated p53 activity that triggers ESC differentiation. Specifically, Aurka regulates pluripotency through phosphorylation-mediated inhibition of p53-directed ectodermal and mesodermal gene expression. Phosphorylation of p53 not only impairs p53-induced ESC differentiation but also p53-mediated suppression of iPSC reprogramming. Our studies demonstrate an essential role for Aurka-p53 signaling in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation, and somatic cell reprogramming.
    Cell stem cell 08/2012; 11(2):179-94. · 23.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but radioresistance severely reduces NPC radiocurability. Here, we have established a radio-resistant NPC cell line, CNE-2R, and investigate the role of miRNAs in radioresistance. The miRNAs microarray assay reveals that miRNAs are differentially expressed between CNE-2R and its parental cell line CNE-2. We find that miR-205 is elevated in CNE-2R. A target prediction algorithm suggests that miR‑205 regulates expression of PTE N, a tumor-suppressor. Introducing miR-205 into CNE-2 cells suppresses PTE N protein expression, followed by activation of AKT, increased number of foci formation and reduction of cell apoptosis postirradiation. On the other hand, knocking down miR-205 in CNE-2R cells compromises the inhibition of PTE N and increases cell apoptosis. Significantly, immunohistochemistry studies demonstrate that PTE N is downregulated at late stages of NPC, and that miR-205 is significantly elevated followed the radiotherapy. Our data conclude that miR-205 contributes to radioresistance of NPC by directly targeting PTE N. Both miR-205 and PTE N are potential predictive biomarkers for radiosensitivity of NPC and may serve as targets for achieve successful radiotherapy in NPC.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 02/2012; 11(4). · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Constitutive Kras and NF-κB activation is identified as signature alterations in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, how NF-κB is activated in PDAC is not yet understood. Here, we report that pancreas-targeted IKK2/β inactivation inhibited NF-κB activation and PDAC development in Kras(G12D) and Kras(G12D);Ink4a/Arf(F/F) mice, demonstrating a mechanistic link between IKK2/β and Kras(G12D) in PDAC inception. Our findings reveal that Kras(G12D)-activated AP-1 induces IL-1α, which, in turn, activates NF-κB and its target genes IL-1α and p62, to initiate IL-1α/p62 feedforward loops for inducing and sustaining NF-κB activity. Furthermore, IL-1α overexpression correlates with Kras mutation, NF-κB activity, and poor survival in PDAC patients. Therefore, our findings demonstrate the mechanism by which IKK2/β/NF-κB is activated by Kras(G12D) through dual feedforward loops of IL-1α/p62.
    Cancer cell 01/2012; 21(1):105-20. · 25.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 signalosome (COP9 or CSN) is an evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complex found in plants and animals. Because of the homology between the COP9 signalosome and the 19S lid complex of the proteosome, COP9 has been postulated to play a role in regulating the degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Many tumor suppressor and oncogene products are regulated by ubiquitination- and proteosome-mediated protein degradation. Therefore, it is conceivable that COP9 plays a significant role in cancer, regulating processes relevant to carcinogenesis and cancer progression (e.g., cell cycle control, signal transduction and apoptosis). In mammalian cells, it consists of eight subunits (CSN1 to CSN8). The relevance and importance of some subunits of COP9 to cancer are emerging. However, the mechanistic regulation of each subunit in cancer remains unclear. Among the CSN subunits, CSN5 and CSN6 are the only two that each contain an MPN (Mpr1p and Pad1p N-terminal) domain. The deneddylation activity of an MPN domain toward cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRL) may coordinate CRL-mediated ubiquitination activity. More recent evidence shows that CSN5 and CSN6 are implicated in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of important mediators in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which some CSN subunits are involved in cancer to provide a much needed perspective regarding COP9 in cancer research, hoping that these insights will lay the groundwork for cancer intervention.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 09/2011; 10(18):3057-66. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 14-3-3σ, a gene upregulated by p53 in response to DNA damage, exists as part of a positive-feedback loop, which activates p53 and is a human cancer epithelial marker downregulated in various cancer types. 14-3-3σ levels are critical for maintaining p53 activity in response to DNA damage and regulating signal mediators such as Akt. In this study, we identify mammalian constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) as a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase for targeting 14-3-3σ through proteasomal degradation. We show for the first time that COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6) associates with COP1 and is involved in 14-3-3σ ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Mechanistic studies show that CSN6 expression leads to stabilization of COP1 through reducing COP1 self-ubiquitination and decelerating COP1's turnover rate. We also show that CSN6-mediated 14-3-3σ ubiquitination is compromised when COP1 is knocked down. Thus, CSN6 mediates 14-3-3σ ubiquitination through enhancing COP1 stability. Subsequently, we show that CSN6 causes 14-3-3σ downregulation, thereby activating Akt and promoting cell survival. Also, CSN6 overexpression leads to increased cell growth, transformation and promotes tumorigenicity. Significantly, 14-3-3σ expression can correct the abnormalities mediated by CSN6 expression. These data suggest that the CSN6-COP1 axis is involved in 14-3-3σ degradation, and that deregulation of this axis will promote cell growth and tumorigenicity.
    Oncogene 05/2011; 30(48):4791-801. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mammalian constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN), a protein complex involved in embryonic development, is implicated in cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response. Its role in tumor development, however, remains unclear. Here, we have shown that the COP9 subunit 6 (CSN6) gene is amplified in human breast cancer specimens, and the CSN6 protein is upregulated in human breast and thyroid tumors. CSN6 expression positively correlated with expression of murine double minute 2 (MDM2), a potent negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor. Expression of CSN6 appeared to prevent MDM2 autoubiquitination at lysine 364, resulting in stabilization of MDM2 and degradation of p53. Mice in which Csn6 was deleted died early in embryogenesis (E7.5). Embryos lacking both Csn6 and p53 survived to later in embryonic development (E10.5), which suggests that loss of p53 could partially rescue the effect of loss of Csn6. Mice heterozygous for Csn6 were sensitized to γ-irradiation-induced, p53-dependent apoptosis in both the thymus and the developing CNS. These mice were also less susceptible than wild-type mice to γ-irradiation-induced tumorigenesis. These results suggest that loss of CSN6 enhances p53-mediated tumor suppression in vivo and that CSN6 plays an important role in regulating DNA damage-associated apoptosis and tumorigenesis through control of the MDM2-p53 signaling pathway.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2011; 121(3):851-65. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) is a p53-targeting E3 ubiquitin ligase that is downregulated by DNA damage through mechanisms that remain obscure. Here, we report that COP1 is not downregulated following DNA damage in 14-3-3σ null cells, implicating 14-3-3σ as a critical regulator in the response of COP1 to DNA damage. We also identified that 14-3-3σ, a p53 target gene product, interacted with COP1 and controlled COP1 protein stability after DNA damage. Mechanistic studies revealed that 14-3-3σ enhanced COP1 self-ubiquitination, thereby preventing COP1-mediated p53 ubiquitination, degradation, and transcriptional repression. In addition, we found that COP1 expression promoted cell proliferation, cell transformation, and tumor progression, manifesting its role in cancer promotion, whereas 14-3-3σ negatively regulated COP1 function and prevented tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of human cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of clinical breast and pancreatic cancer specimens demonstrated that COP1 protein levels were inversely correlated with 14-3-3σ protein levels. Together, our findings define a mechanism for posttranslational regulation of COP1 after DNA damage that can explain the correlation between COP1 overexpression and 14-3-3σ downregulation during tumorigenesis.
    Cancer Research 02/2011; 71(3):884-94. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exenatide is an incretin mimetic that is recently available in the US for the treatment of diabetes. There is a paucity of information on the effects of exenatide in glucocorticoid (GC)-induced diabetes. Although the effect of continuous intravenous infusion of exenatide on GC-induced glucose intolerance has been investigated before in healthy human males receiving oral prednisolone, we investigated the efficacy of a single subcutaneous dose of exenatide (3 μg/kg) in lowering blood glucose in GC-induced glucose intolerance in C57BL/6 mice. In a longitudinal experiment, the area under the curve (AUC) of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) significantly increased after dexamethasone (P = 0.004), which was subsequently decreased by exenatide (P < 0.001). A cross-sectional experiment showed that exenatide improved glucose tolerance compared with placebo in a mouse model of dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance. AUC of OGTT in the exenatide group were significantly (P < 0.001) lower than in the placebo group. Insulin tolerance tests (ITT) demonstrated that exenatide decreased the ability of the mice to tolerate insulin compared with placebo. The AUC of ITT in the exenatide group were also significantly (P = 0.006) lower than in the placebo group. In conclusion, a single dose of exenatide was able to decrease glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in these placebo-controlled experiments. Future clinical trials are justified to investigate the role of exenatide in the treatment of GC-induced glucose intolerance/diabetes.
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 01/2011; 4:61-5.
  • Oncogene research 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Mammalian constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) is a p53 E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in regulating p53 protein level. In plants, the dynamic cytoplasm/nucleus distribution of COP1 is important for its function in terms of catalyzing the degradation of target proteins. In mammalian cells, the biological consequence of cytoplasmic distribution of COP1 is not well characterized. Here, we show that DNA damage leads to the redistribution of COP1 to the cytoplasm and that 14-3-3σ, a p53 target gene product, controls COP1 subcellular localization. Investigation of the underlying mechanism suggests that COP1 S387 phosphorylation is required for COP1 to bind 14-3-3σ. Significantly, upon DNA damage, 14-3-3σ binds to phosphorylated COP1 at S387, resulting in COP1's accumulation in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic COP1 localization leads to its enhanced ubiquitination. We also show that N-terminal 14-3-3σ interacts with COP1 and promotes COP1 nuclear export through its NES sequence. Further, we show that COP1 is important in causing p53 nuclear exclusion. Finally, we demonstrate that 14-3-3σ targets COP1 for nuclear export, thereby preventing COP1-mediated p53 nuclear export. Together, these results define a novel, detailed mechanism for the subcellular localization and regulation of COP1 after DNA damage and provide a mechanistic explanation for the notion that 14-3-3σ's impact on the inhibition of p53 E3 ligases is an important step for p53 stabilization after DNA damage.
    Molecular Cancer 01/2010; 9:243. · 5.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor hypoxia directly promotes genomic instability and facilitates cell survival, resulting in tumors with a more aggressive phenotype. The proto-oncogene pim-1 regulates apoptosis and the cell cycle by phosphorylating target proteins. Overexpression of Pim-1 can cause genomic instability and contribute to lymphomagenesis. It is not clear whether Pim-1 is involved in hypoxia-mediated tumor survival in solid tumors. Here, we show that hypoxia can stabilize Pim-1 by preventing its ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation and can cause Pim-1 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Importantly, overexpression of Pim-1 increases NIH3T3 cell transformation exclusively under hypoxic conditions, suggesting that Pim-1 expression under hypoxia may be implicated in the transformation process of solid tumors. Also, blocking Pim-1 function by introduction of dominant negative Pim-1 resensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to apoptosis induced by glucose-deprivation under hypoxia. Introduction of short interfering RNAs for Pim-1 also resensitizes cancer cells to glucose deprivation under hypoxic conditions, while forced overexpression of Pim-1 causes solid tumor cells to become resistant to glucose deprivation. Moreover, dominant negative Pim-1 reduces tumorigenicity in pancreatic cancer cells and HeLa xenograft mouse models. Together, our studies indicate that Pim-1 plays a distinct role in solid tumor formation in vivo, implying that Pim-1 may be a novel target for cancer therapy.
    American Journal Of Pathology 08/2009; 175(1):400-11. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia changes the responses of cancer cells to many chemotherapy agents, resulting in chemoresistance. The underlying molecular mechanism of hypoxia-induced drug resistance remains unclear. Pim-1 is a survival kinase, which phosphorylates Bad at serine 112 to antagonize drug-induced apoptosis. Here we show that hypoxia increases Pim-1 in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha-independent manner. Inhibition of Pim-1 function by dominant-negative Pim-1 dramatically restores the drug sensitivity to apoptosis induced by chemotherapy under hypoxic conditions in both in vitro and in vivo tumor models. Introduction of siRNAs for Pim-1 also resensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs under hypoxic conditions, whereas forced overexpression of Pim-1 endows solid tumor cells with resistance to cisplatin, even under normoxia. Dominant-negative Pim-1 prevents a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential in solid tumor cells, which is normally induced by cisplatin (CDDP), followed by the reduced activity of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, indicating that Pim-1 participates in hypoxia-induced drug resistance through the stabilization of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Our results demonstrate that Pim-1 is a pivotal regulator involved in hypoxia-induced chemoresistance. Targeting Pim-1 may improve the chemotherapeutic strategy for solid tumors.
    Oncogene 07/2009; 28(28):2581-92. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of action of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) involve Rheb and the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. mTOR in particular plays a key role in the regulation of autophagy. Collectively, the literature suggests that FTIs very likely induce autophagy, but thus far there have been no reports that FTIs affect this process relevant to cancer cell biology. We hypothesized that FTIs can induce autophagy. In this study, we found that the FTIs manumycin A, FTI-276, and lonafarnib induced autophagy in two human cancer cell lines. We also found that neither inhibition of apoptosis with a pan-caspase inhibitor nor inhibition of autophagy increased the number of clones of lonafarnib-treated U2OS osteosarcoma cells that formed in soft agar. Although whether autophagy is a cell death or cell survival mechanism after FTI treatment remains unresolved, our data show that cancer cells apparently can shift between apoptosis and autophagy once they are committed to die after FTI treatment.
    Cancer biology & therapy 11/2008; 7(10):1679-84. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27 Kip1, a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor, is downregulated by oncogenic signal of HER2, a receptor tyrosine kinase oncogene. HER2 promotes mitogenic growth and transformation of cancer cells. HER2 signaling can enhance p27 Kip1 ubiquitination, thereby promoting p27 degradation and subsequent activation of CDK activity. p27 ubiquitination and degradation is enhanced by JAB1 binding as well as by phosphorylation on Thr187. In this study, we generated modified p27 proteins, which are mutated at Thr 187 or deleted at JAB1 binding domain. We applied these modified p27 genes as novel anticancer agents for HER2-overexpressing cells under the control of a tetracycline (tet)-regulated gene expression system. Induction of p27 T187A and p27 T187A DeltaJAB inhibits HER2-activated cell growth, CDK2 activity, cell proliferation, and transformation. Significantly, a modified protein (p27 T187ADeltaJAB) reduced the tumor volume in a HER2-overexpressing tumor model efficiently. These findings demonstrate the applicability of employing modified p27 proteins as a therapeutic intervention in HER2-overexpressing cancers.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 06/2006; 98(1):128-38. · 3.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

404 Citations
193.61 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2013
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2009
    • Hokkaido University
      • Institute for Genetic Medicine
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
  • 2008
    • Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences
      • Department of Pathophysiology
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2006
    • Sichuan University
      • West China School of Pharmacy
      Chengdu, Sichuan Sheng, China