ABSTRACT: Carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is now routinely performed with embolic protection devices, yet little is known about the compositional characteristics of the captured embolic debris and whether the type or quantity of debris correlates with patient, lesion, or operator characteristics. This study examined the embolic debris generated during CAS using electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.
Between 2003 and 2005, CAS for carotid stenosis was performed in 175 patients. Cerebral protection devices were used in all but three cases. Sixty-four consecutive unselected microporous filters from procedures performed by a single vascular surgeon were obtained for analysis. Captured particulate debris within the protection devices was quantified (number and mean size of particles) by light microscopy for all filters. Twenty protection devices (9 symptomatic, 11 asymptomatic patients) were processed for electron microscopy and EDS to assess morphology, cellular composition, and calcium content of debris.
Captured particulate matter was present in 49 filters (77%) and included particles measuring 200 to 500 mum in 72%, 500 to 1000 mum in 53%, and >1000 mum in 33%. The mean number of captured particles was 6.9, and mean size was 248 +/- 150 mum. Univariate analysis revealed that sequential patient cohort and filter type were correlated with the number (but not size) of captured particles. The number of particles significantly decreased after the first cohort of 20 patients (11.5 particles) compared with the second (5.0 particles, P = .023) and third (5.2 particles, P = .029) cohorts. The type of captured debris ranged from sheets of damaged red blood cells without other components to clumps of recently activated platelets with early fibrin crosslinking to plaque debris coated with well-organized coalescing areas of platelet thrombus. Platelet activation was more common in symptomatic patients (78%) than asymptomatic patients (27%; P < .05). Despite the presence of calcified lesions in six patients whose filters were analyzed by EDS, <1% of energy emission on EDS of scanned particulate debris fell within the emission range of calcium, indicating the presence of minimal calcium in the embolic particles.
Particulate embolic debris is released in most patients during CAS and can measure >1000 mum in one third of patients. The number of particles may decrease with increasing operator experience with CAS. Debris captured during CAS with embolic protection exhibits a range of cellular and acellular components on electron microscopy, with a higher prevalence of platelet activation evident in symptomatic patients.
Journal of Vascular Surgery 04/2007; 45(4):716-24; discussion 724-5. · 3.21 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The clinical significance and treatment of retrograde collateral arterial perfusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms after endovascular repair (type II endoleak) have not been completely characterized. A canine abdominal aortic aneurysm model of type II endoleak with an implanted pressure transducer was used to evaluate the use of polyurethane foam to induce thrombosis of type II endoleaks. The effect on endoleak patency, intra-aneurysmal pressure, and thrombus histology was studied.
Prosthetic aneurysms with an intraluminal, solid-state, strain-gauge pressure transducer were created in the infrarenal aorta of 14 mongrel dogs. Aneurysm side-branch vessels were reimplanted into the prosthetic aneurysm of 10 animals by using a Carrel patch. Type II (retrograde) endoleaks were created by excluding the aneurysm from antegrade perfusion with an impermeable stent graft. Thrombosis of the type II endoleak was induced by implantation of polyurethane foam into the prosthetic aneurysm sac of four animals. Six animals with type II endoleaks were not treated. In four control animals, no collateral side branches were reimplanted, and therefore no endoleak was created. Intra-aneurysmal and systemic pressures were measured daily for 60 to 90 days after the implantation of the stent graft. Endoleak patency and flow were assessed during surgery and at the time of death by using angiographic imaging and duplex ultrasonography. Histologic analysis of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus was also performed.
Intra-aneurysmal pressure values are indexed to systemic pressure and are represented as a percentage of the simultaneously obtained systemic pressure, which has a value of 1.0. All six animals with untreated type II endoleaks maintained patency of the endoleak and side-branch arteries throughout the study period. Compared with control aneurysms that had no endoleak, animals with patent type II endoleaks exhibited significantly higher intra-aneurysmal pressurization (systolic pressure: patent type II endoleak, 0.702 +/- 0.283; control, 0.172 +/- 0.091; P < .001; mean pressure: endoleak, 0.784 +/- 0.229; control, 0.137 +/- 0.102; P < .001; pulse pressure: endoleak, 0.406 +/- 0.248; control, 0.098 +/- 0.077; P < .001; P < .001 for comparison for all groups by analysis of variance). Treatment of the type II endoleak with polyurethane foam induced thrombosis of the endoleak and feeding side-branch arteries in all four animals with type II endoleaks. This resulted in intra-aneurysmal pressures statistically indistinguishable from the controls (systolic pressure, 0.183 +/- 0.08; mean pressure, 0.142 +/- 0.09; pulse pressure, 0.054 +/- 0.04; not significant). Angiography and histology documented persistent patency up to the time of death (mean, 64 days) for untreated type II endoleaks and confirmed thrombosis of polyurethane foam-treated endoleaks in all cases.
Untreated type II endoleaks were associated with intra-aneurysmal pressures that were 70% to 80% of systemic pressure. Treatment with polyurethane foam resulted in a reduction of intra-aneurysmal pressure to a level that was indistinguishable from control aneurysms that had no endoleak.
Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms is dependent on the successful exclusion of the aneurysm from arterial circulation. Type II endoleaks originate from retrograde flow into the aneurysm sac. This study demonstrates the use of polyurethane foam to induce thrombosis in a canine model of a type II endoleak, thereby reducing intra-aneurysmal pressure to levels similar to levels in animals without endoleaks. This approach may be a strategy for future treatment of type II endoleaks.
Journal of Vascular Surgery 09/2005; 42(2):321-8. · 3.21 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of Type 2 endoleak after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) remains incompletely delineated. This study describes the development of a novel canine model that allows for continuous monitoring of intraaneurysmal pressure in the setting of Type 2 endoleak.
Infrarenal AAA were created in 10 mongrel dogs by implanting a prosthetic aneurysm containing an intraluminal, solid-state, strain gauge pressure transducer which is able to measure pressures in both solid and liquid media. A segment of native aorta with two or more patent side branch vessels was reimplanted into the prosthetic aneurysm using a Carrel patch. Four animals had two lumbar vessels implanted; two had two lumbar vessels and the caudal mesenteric artery implanted, and four control animals had no vessels reimplanted. Retrograde flow in the aneurysmal side branches caused a Type 2 endoleak after the aneurysm was excluded from antegrade flow by deploying a stent graft. Both systemic and intra-sac pressures were measured daily for up to 90 days after endovascular exclusion and indexed to systemic pressure. Endoleak patency and flow were assessed with digital subtraction angiography, duplex ultrasound, and cine-magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Histological characterization of the intraaneurysmal contents was performed.
Before endovascular exclusion, the systolic, mean arterial, and pulse pressure within the aneurysmal sac closely matched that of the systemic circulation (systolic, 0.96 +/- 0.22; mean, 0.94 +/- 0.21; pulse pressure, 0.97 +/- 0.22) (R value, 0.97). Endovascular exclusion in animals with no collateral side branch vessels resulted in no endoleak and significantly reduced intraaneurysmal pressure when compared to systemic pressure, with systolic, mean arterial, and pulse pressure 0.172 +/- 0.05, 0.137 +/- 0.05, and 0.098 +/- 0.02, respectively (P < 0.001). In animals with Type 2 endoleaks, the pressures were lower than systemic pressure, but statistically significant in their difference from the control group. The systolic pressure of those with Type 2 endoleaks was 0.702 +/- 0.048; mean arterial pressure was 0.784 +/- 0.028, and pulse pressure was 0.406 +/- 0.031 when indexed to systemic pressure (P < 0.001). Cine-MRA and Duplex ultrasound documented persistent patency of the Type 2 endoleaks throughout the study period in animals with multiple side branches.
Intraaneurysmal pressure in the setting of Type 2 endoleaks may be accurately determined using this canine model. Intraaneurysmal pressure is maintained at a significant level in the context of this retrograde collateral perfusion, suggesting that persistent Type 2 endoleaks are of clinical significance. This model may serve to allow further evaluation and characterization of Type 2 endoleaks.
Journal of Surgical Research 03/2005; 123(2):275-83. · 2.25 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of retrograde collateral arterial perfusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms after endovascular repair (type II endoleak) has not been completely characterized. In this study a canine model was used to analyze intra-aneurysmal pressure, thrombus histologic characteristics, endoleak patency, and radiographic appearance of type II endoleaks originating from single and multiple aneurysm side branches.
Prosthetic aneurysms with an intraluminal solid-state strain-gauge pressure transducer were created in the infrarenal aorta of 14 mongrel dogs. A single collateral side branch was reimplanted in 4 animals, multiple side branches were reimplanted in 6 animals, and no side branches were reimplanted in 4 control animals. Intra-aneurysmal and systemic pressure was measured for 60 to 90 days after creation of the type II endoleak. Endoleak patency and flow were assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning and cine-magnetic resonance angiography. Histologic analysis of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus was also performed.
Stent-graft exclusion reduced intra-aneurysmal pressure significantly in all animals, as compared with systemic pressure (P < .001). All intra-aneurysmal pressure values are indexed to the systemic pressure, and are represented as a percentage of the simultaneously obtained systemic pressure, which has a value of 1.0. Type II endoleaks originating from multiple side branches exhibited significantly increased intra-aneurysmal systolic pressure, mean pressure, and pulse pressure, as compared with endoleaks derived from either a single side branch (systolic pressure: multiple, 0.70 +/- 0.28 vs single, 0.50 +/- 0.19; P < .001; mean pressure: multiple, 0.78 +/- 0.23 vs single, 0.59 +/- 0.22, P < .001; pulse pressure: multiple, 0.41 +/- 0.25 vs single, 0.17 +/- 0.15, P < .001) or excluded control aneurysms that had no side branches and no endoleak (systolic pressure, 0.17 +/- 0.09; mean pressure, 0.14 +/- 0.10; pulse pressure, 0.098 +/- 0.08; P < .001). Cine-magnetic resonance angiograms and duplex ultrasound scans documented persistent patency of multiple branch endoleaks up to the time of euthanasia. In contrast, single side branch endoleaks thrombosed within 3 days (P < .001). Thrombus in the aneurysm sac in close proximity to the endoleak contained intact red blood cells and limited fibrin. Thrombus distant from the endoleak demonstrated extensive fibrin deposition and degraded red blood cells.
The canine model may be used to reliably measure intra-aneurysmal pressure in the presence of patent and thrombosed type II endoleaks. In this model 2 or more side branches are necessary to maintain persistent patency of type II endoleaks. These endoleaks are associated with significantly elevated intra-aneurysmal pressure, that is, 70% to 80% of systemic pressure. These results suggest that persistent type II endoleaks have clinical significance.
Endoleaks originating from retrograde flow in the side branch vessels of the aneurysm generate significant levels of intra-aneurysmal pressure, that is, 70% to 80% of systemic pressure. At least 2 patent side branch vessels appear to be necessary to cause persistent patency of type II endoleak in the canine model. Further studies will be necessary to enable more complete characterization of retrograde endoleaks and to extend these findings to allow clinical application. However, these results suggest that persistently patent type II endoleaks are clinical significance and may require more intensive follow-up intervention.
Journal of Vascular Surgery 11/2004; 40(5):985-94. · 3.21 Impact Factor