[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation is a key posttranslational modification for modulating biological interactions. Biosensor technology is ideally suited for examining in real time the role of phosphorylation on protein-protein interactions in signaling pathways. We have developed processes for on-chip phosphorylation of immobilized receptors on biosensor surfaces. These processes have been used to analyze E-cadherin/beta-catenin interactions. Phosphorylation of the intracellular domain (ICD) of E-cadherin modulates its affinity to beta-catenin and consequently the strength of cell-cell adhesion. We have phosphorylated immobilized E-cadherin ICD in situ using casein kinase 1 (CK1), casein kinase 2 (CK2), and src. On-chip phosphorylation of E-cadherin was confirmed using anti-phosphoserine and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. The binding of beta-catenin to E-cadherin was analyzed quantitatively. CK1 phosphorylation of E-cadherin increased the binding affinity to beta-catenin from approximately 230 to 4 nM. A similar increase in affinity, from 260 to 4 nM, was obtained with CK2 phosphorylation of E-cadherin. However, phosphorylation by src kinase decreased the affinity constant from approximately 260 nM to 4 microM. Interestingly, phosphorylation of E-cadherin by CK1 or CK2 prevented the inhibition of beta-catenin binding by src phosphorylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improved search algorithms and scoring functions are required before the identification of peptide tandem MS data can be considered to be fully reliable and automatable. The development of models that can accurately predict product ion spectra from a peptide sequence would certainly help achieve this goal, but this firstly requires a better understanding of the process of fragmentation of peptides in the gas-phase. We summarize recent developments in this area and show that the prediction of product ion spectra is feasible and should improve the identification of peptide tandem MS data, especially for peptides that currently give low or insignificant scores with current search algorithms.
Biochemical Society Transactions 01/2004; 31(Pt 6):1479-83. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulated production of IL-6 and its receptor (IL-6R) are implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, autoimmune diseases and prostate cancer. The IL-6R complex comprises two molecules each of IL-6, IL-6R, and the signaling molecule, gp130. Here, we report the x-ray structure (2.4 A) of the IL-6R ectodomains. The N-terminal strand of the Ig-like domain (D(1)) is disulfide-bonded to domain D(2), and domains D(2) and D(3), the cytokine-binding domain, are structurally similar to known cytokine-binding domains. The head-to-tail packing of two closely associated IL-6R molecules observed in the crystal may be representative of the configuration of the physiological dimer of IL-6R and provides new insight into the architecture of the IL-6R complex.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2003; 99(25):15959-64. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central infusion of angiotensin IV or its more stable analogues facilitates memory retention and retrieval in normal animals and reverses amnesia induced by scopolamine or by bilateral perforant pathway lesions. These peptides bind with high affinity and specificity to a novel binding site designated the angiotensin AT(4) receptor. Until now, the AT(4) receptor has eluded molecular characterization. Here we identify the AT(4) receptor, by protein purification and peptide sequencing, to be insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). HEK 293T cells transfected with IRAP exhibit typical AT(4) receptor binding characteristics; the AT(4) receptor ligands, angiotensin IV and LVV-hemorphin 7, compete for the binding of [(125)I]Nle(1)-angiotensin IV with IC(50) values of 32 and 140 nm, respectively. The distribution of IRAP and its mRNA in the brain, determined by immunohistochemistry and hybridization histochemistry, parallels that of the AT(4) receptor determined by radioligand binding. We also show that AT(4) receptor ligands dose-dependently inhibit the catalytic activity of IRAP. We have therefore demonstrated that the AT(4) receptor is IRAP and propose that AT(4) receptor ligands may exert their effects by inhibiting the catalytic activity of IRAP thereby extending the half-life of its neuropeptide substrates.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2002; 276(52):48623-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Along with the great strides that have been made towards understanding cancer, has come a realization of the complexity of molecular events that lead to malignancy. Proteomics-based approaches, which enable the quantitative investigation of both cellular protein expression levels and protein-protein interactions involved in signaling networks, promise to define the molecules controlling the processes involved in cancer.
Trends in Biotechnology 11/2001; 19(10 Suppl):S40-8. · 9.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The conventional approach for analyzing the protein complement of a genome involves the combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometric based protein identification technologies. While 2-DE is a powerful separation technique, it is severely limited by the insolubility of certain classes of proteins (e.g. hydrophobic membrane proteins), as well as the amount of protein that can be processed. Here, we describe a simple procedure for resolving complex mixtures of proteins that involves a combination of free flow electrophoresis (FFE), a liquid-based isoelectric focussing (IEF) method, and sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Resolved proteins were identified by peptide fragment sequencing using capillary column reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)/mass spectrometry (MS). An initial demonstration of the method was performed using digitonin/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA extracted cytosolic proteins from the human colon carcinoma cell line, LIM 1215. Cytosolic proteins were separated by liquid-based IEF (pH range 3-10) into 96 fractions, and each FFE fraction was further fractionated by SDS-PAGE. Selected protein bands were excised from the SDS-PAGE gel, digested in situ with trypsin, and subsequently identified by on-line RP-HPLC/electrospray-ionization ion trap MS. Our results indicate that FFE is: (i) an extremely powerful liquid-based IEF method for resolving proteins; (ii) not limited by the amount of sample that can be loaded onto the instrument; and (iii) capable of fractionating intact protein complexes (a potentially powerful tool for cell-mapping proteomics). An up-to-date list of cytosolic proteins from the human colorectal carcinoma cell line LIM 1215 can be found in the Joint Protein Structure Laboratory (JPSL) proteome database. This information will provide an invaluable resource for future proteomics-based biological studies of colon cancer. The JPSL proteome database can be accessed through the World Wide Web (WWW) network (http://www.ludwig.edu.au/jpsl/jpslhome.html).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Syntaxin 7 is a mammalian target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) involved in membrane transport between late endosomes and lysosomes. The aim of the present study was to use immunoaffinity techniques to identify proteins that interact with Syntaxin 7. We reasoned that this would be facilitated by the use of cells producing high levels of Syntaxin 7. Screening of a large number of tissues and cell lines revealed that Syntaxin 7 is expressed at very high levels in B16 melanoma cells. Moreover, the expression of Syntaxin 7 increased in these cells as they underwent melanogenesis. From a large scale Syntaxin 7 immunoprecipitation, we have identified six polypeptides using a combination of electrospray mass spectrometry and immunoblotting. These polypeptides corresponded to Syntaxin 7, Syntaxin 6, mouse Vps10p tail interactor 1b (mVti1b), alpha-synaptosome-associated protein (SNAP), vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)8, VAMP7, and the protein phosphatase 1M regulatory subunit. We also observed partial colocalization between Syntaxin 6 and Syntaxin 7, between Syntaxin 6 and mVti1b, but not between Syntaxin 6 and the early endosomal t-SNARE Syntaxin 13. Based on these and data reported previously, we propose that Syntaxin 7/mVti1b/Syntaxin 6 may form discrete SNARE complexes with either VAMP7 or VAMP8 to regulate fusion events within the late endosomal pathway and that these events may play a critical role in melanogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2001; 276(23):19820-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: gp130 is the common signal transducing receptor subunit for the interleukin-6-type family of cytokines. Its extracellular region (sgp130) is predicted to consist of five fibronectin type III-like domains and an NH2-terminal Ig-like domain. Domains 2 and 3 constitute the cytokine-binding region defined by a set of four conserved cysteines and a WSXWS motif, respectively. Here we determine the disulfide structure of human sgp130 by peptide mapping, in the absence and presence of reducing agent, in combination with Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. Of the 13 cysteines present, 10 form disulfide bonds, two are present as free cysteines (Cys(279) and Cys(469)), and one (Cys(397)) is modified by S-cysteinylation. Of the 11 potential N-glycosylation sites, Asn(21), Asn(61), Asn(109), Asn(135), Asn(205), Asn(357), Asn(361), Asn(531), and Asn(542) are glycosylated but not Asn(224) and Asn(368). The disulfide bonds, Cys(112)-Cys(122) and Cys(150)-Cys(160), are consistent with known cytokine-binding region motifs. Unlike granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, the connectivities of the four cysteines in the NH2-terminal domain of gp130 (Cys(6)-Cys(32) and Cys(26)-Cys(81)) are consistent with known superfamily of Ig-like domains. An eight-residue loop in domain 5 is tethered by Cys(436)-Cys(444). We have created a model predicting that this loop maintains Cys(469) in a reduced form, available for ligand-induced intramolecular disulfide bond formation. Furthermore, we postulate that domain 5 may play a role in the disulfide-linked homodimerization and activation process of gp130.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2001; 276(11):8244-53. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gas-phase ion-molecule reactions of neutral alanylglycine have been examined with various mass-selected acylium ions RCO(+) (R= CH(3), CD(3), C(6)H(5), C(6)F(5) and (CH(3))( 2)N), as well as the transacylation reagent O-benzoylbenzophenone in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Reactions of the gaseous dipeptide with acylium ions trapped in the ICR cell result in the formation of energized [M + RCO](+) adduct ions that fragment to yield N-terminal b-type and C-terminal y-type product ions, including a modified b(1) ion which is typically not observed in the fragmentation of protonated peptides. Judicious choice of the acylium ion employed allows some control over the product ion types that are observed (i.e., b versus y ions). The product ion distributions from these ion--molecule reactions are similar to those obtained by collision-activated dissociation in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer of the authentic N-acylated alanylglycine derivatives. These data indicate that derivatization of the peptide in the gas-phase occurs at the N-terminal amine. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations, performed to estimate the thermochemistry of the steps associated with adduct formation as well as product ion formation, indicate that (i) the initially formed adduct is energized and hence likely to rapidly undergo fragmentation, and (ii) the likelihood for the formation of modified b(1) ions in preference to y(1) ions is dependent on the R substituent of the acylium ion. The reaction of the tetrapeptide valine--alanine--alanine--phenylalanine with the benzoyl cation was also found to yield a number of product ions, including a modified b(1) ion. This result suggests that the new experimental approach described here may provide a tool to address one of the major limitations associated with traditional mass spectrometric peptide sequencing approaches, that is, determination of the identity and order of the two N-terminal amino acids. Analogies are made between the reactions observed here and the derivatization and N-terminal cleavage reactions employed in the condensed-phase Edman degradation method.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2001; 123(6):1184-92. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ligands such as EGF and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) play an important role in controlling the proliferation, survival, morphology, and motility of colonic epithelial cells. There is also increasing evidence that growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins cooperate to regulate these cellular processes. We have reported previously that autocrine TGF-alpha and an unidentified ECM protein in the serum-free conditioned medium of the human colon carcinoma cell line LIM1215 synergize to induce spreading of these cells in low-density cultures. We have now purified the ECM protein secreted by LIM1215 cells and show that it synergizes with EGF to induce spreading of LIM1215 cells and other human cell lines from the colon and other tissues. The purified ECM migrated as a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 800 kDa on SDS-PAGE under nonreducing conditions and, under reducing conditions, as three protein bands of approximately 360, 210, and 200 kDa. Immunoblotting experiments and mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic digests on the purified protein identified the 360-, 210-, and 200-kDa protein bands as laminin alpha5, beta1, and gamma1 chains, respectively, indicating that LIM1215 cells secrete laminin-10 (alpha5 beta1 gamma1). In serum-free medium, LIM1215 cells adhere to laminin-10 primarily via alpha2 beta1 and alpha3 beta1 integrin receptors. EGF-induced spreading of LIM1215 cells on laminin-10 is partially inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with blocking antibodies directed against integrin alpha3 or beta1 but not alpha2, alpha6, or beta4 subunits. Spreading is almost completely inhibited by blocking alpha3 + alpha2, alpha3 + alpha6, or beta1 + beta4 integrin chains and results in cell death. Increased spreading in the presence of EGF correlates with up-regulation of alpha6 beta4 integrins in these cells after exposure to EGF. These results indicate that colon cancer cells attach and spread on laminin-10 via multiple integrin receptors and suggest a critical role for alpha3 beta1 integrins in the spreading response. Together, our results support the concept that the adhesive properties of colon cancer cells are modulated by autocrine production of TGF-alpha and laminin-10 and autocrine induction of appropriate integrins.
Experimental Cell Research 01/2001; 261(2):360-71. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gas phase fragmentation reactions of protonated serine and its YNHCH(CH2X)CO2H derivatives, beta-chloroalanine, S-methyl cysteine, O-methyl serine, and O-phosphoserine, as well as the corresponding N-acetyl model peptides have been examined via electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In particular, the competition between losses from the side chain and the combined loss of H2O and CO from the C-terminal carboxyl group of the amino acids or H2O or CH2CO from the N-acetyl model peptides are compared. In this manner the effect of the leaving group (Y = H or CH3CO, vary X) or of the neighboring group can be examined. It was found that the amount of HX lost from the side chain increases with the proton affinity of X [OP(O)(OH)2 > OCH3 approximately equals OH > Cl]. The ion due to the side chain loss of H2O from the model peptide N-acetyl serine is more abundant than that from protonated serine, suggesting that the N-acetyl group is a better neighboring group than the amino group. Ab initio calculations at the MP2(FC)/6-31G*//HF/6-31G* level of theory suggest that this effect is due to the transition state barrier for water loss from protonated N-acetyl serine being lower than that for protonated serine. The mechanism for side chain loss has been examined using MS3 tandem mass spectrometry, independent synthesis of proposed product ion structures combined with MS/MS, and hydrogen/deuterium exchange. Neighboring group rather than cis 1,2 elimination processes dominate in all cases. In particular, the loss of H3PO4 from O-phosphoserine and N-acetyl O-phosphoserine is shown to yield a 3-membered aziridine ring and 5-membered oxazoline ring, respectively, and not the dehydroalanine moiety. This is in contrast to results presented by DeGnore and Qin (J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 1998, 9, 1175-1188) for the loss of H3PO4 from larger peptides, where dehydroalanine was observed. Alternate mechanisms to cis 1,2 elimination, for the formation of dehydroalanine in larger phosphoserine or phosphothreonine containing peptides, are proposed.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 12/2000; 11(12):1047-60. · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin regulates glucose metabolism in adipocytes via a phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent pathway that appears to involve protein phosphorylation. However, the generation of phosphoinositides is not sufficient for insulin action, and it has been suggested that insulin regulation of glucose metabolism may involve both PI3K-dependent and -independent pathways, the latter being insulin specific. To test this hypothesis, we have designed a phosphoprotein screen to study insulin-specific phosphoproteins that may be either downstream or in parallel to PI3K. Nineteen insulin-regulated phosphospots were detected in the cytosol and high speed pellet fractions, only six of which were significantly regulated by platelet-derived growth factor. Importantly, almost all (92%) of the insulin-specific phosphoproteins identified using this approach were sensitive to the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Thus, we obtained no evidence for an insulin-specific, PI3K-independent signaling pathway. A large proportion (62%) of the insulin-specific phosphoproteins were enriched in the same high speed pellet fraction to which PI3K was recruited in response to insulin. Thus, our data suggest that insulin specifically stimulates the phosphorylation of a novel subset of downstream targets and this may in part be because of the unique localization of PI3K in response to insulin in adipocytes.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2000; 275(32):24313-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify proteins that bind mammalian IAP homolog A (MIHA, also known as XIAP), we used coimmuno-precipitation and 2D immobilized pH gradient/SDS PAGE, followed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. DIABLO (direct IAP binding protein with low pI) is a novel protein that can bind MIHA and can also interact with MIHB and MIHC and the baculoviral IAP, OpIAP. The N-terminally processed, IAP-interacting form of DIABLO is concentrated in membrane fractions in healthy cells but released into the MIHA-containing cytosolic fractions upon UV irradiation. As transfection of cells with DIABLO was able to counter the protection afforded by MIHA against UV irradiation, DIABLO may promote apoptosis by binding to IAPs and preventing them from inhibiting caspases.