Raúl Gonzalez

Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Cordoue, Andalusia, Spain

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Publications (4)24.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) regulate the expression of a number of enzymes, which catalyze the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids. SREBP1c is the most relevant isoform in the adult liver, and its expression is controlled by the nutritional state. Transcriptional regulation studies into the SREBP1c gene, performed in the last few years, have improved our knowledge of the variability of signals that converge on its promoter region. Insulin, cholesterol derivatives, T3 and other endogenous molecules have been demonstrated to regulate the SREBP1c expression, particularly in rodents. The present study aimed to perform a detailed analysis of the human SREBP1c gene promoter structure in liver cells by focusing on responses to diverse metabolic signals. Serial deletion and mutation assays reveal that both SREBP (SRE) and LXR (LXRE) response elements are involved in SREBP1c transcription regulation mediated by insulin and cholesterol derivatives. We discovered that peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists enhance the activity of the SREBP1c promoter; a DR1 element, at -453 in the human promoter was involved in this activation. Moreover, PPARα agonists act in cooperation with LXR or insulin to induce lipogenesis. Collectively, our results identify PPARα as a novel regulatory factor in SREBP1c regulation which plays a relevant role in the interplay between lipids and insulin metabolic regulation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2011; 286(24):21466-77. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) regulate the expression of a number of enzymes, which catalyze the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids. SREBP1c is the most relevant isoform in the adult liver, and its expression is controlled by the nutritional state. Transcriptional regulation studies into the SREBP1c gene, performed in the last few years, have improved our knowledge of the variability of signals that converge on its promoter region. Insulin, cholesterol derivatives, T3 and other endogenous molecules have been demonstrated to regulate the SREBP1c expression, particularly in rodents. The present study aimed to perform a detailed analysis of the human SREBP1c gene promoter structure in liver cells by focusing on responses to diverse metabolic signals. Serial deletion and mutation assays reveal that both SREBP (SRE) and LXR (LXRE) response elements are involved in SREBP1c transcription regulation mediated by insulin and cholesterol derivatives. We discovered that peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists enhance the activity of the SREBP1c promoter; a DR1 element, at −453 in the human promoter was involved in this activation. Moreover, PPARα agonists act in cooperation with LXR or insulin to induce lipogenesis. Collectively, our results identify PPARα as a novel regulatory factor in SREBP1c regulation which plays a relevant role in the interplay between lipids and insulin metabolic regulation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2011; 286(24):21466-21477. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with a poor prognosis due to a lack of effective treatment options. In HCC a significant role is played by DNA damage and the inflammatory response. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an important protein that regulates both these mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of pharmacology PARP-1 inhibition on the reduction of tumor volume of HCC xenograft and on the hepatocarcinogenesis induced by diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN). Pharmacologic PARP-1 inhibition with DPQ greatly reduces tumor xenograft volume with regard to a nontreated xenograft (394 mm(3) versus 2,942 mm(3), P < 0.05). This observation was paralleled by reductions in xenograft mitosis (P = 0.02) and tumor vasculogenesis (P = 0.007, confirmed by in vitro angiogenesis study), as well as by an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in DPQ-treated mice (P = 0.04). A substantial difference in key tumor-related gene expression (transformed 3T3 cell double minute 2 [MDM2], FLT1 [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, VEGFR1], epidermal growth factor receptor [EPAS1]/hypoxia-inducible factor 2 [HIF2A], EGLN1 [PHD2], epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], MYC, JUND, SPP1 [OPN], hepatocyte growth factor [HGF]) was found between the control tumor xenografts and the PARP inhibitor-treated xenografts (data confirmed in HCC cell lines using PARP inhibitors and PARP-1 small interfering RNA [siRNA]). Furthermore, the results obtained in mice treated with DEN to induce hepatocarcinogenesis showed, after treatment with a PARP inhibitor (DPQ), a significant reduction both in preneoplastic foci and in the expression of preneoplastic markers and proinflammatory genes (Gstm3, Vegf, Spp1 [Opn], IL6, IL1b, and Tnf), bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and NF-kappaB activation in the initial steps of carcinogenesis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study shows that PARP inhibition is capable of controlling HCC growth and preventing tumor vasculogenesis by regulating the activation of different genes involved in tumor progression.
    Hepatology 01/2010; 51(1):255-66. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ca(2+) mobilization, nitric oxide (NO), and oxidative stress have been involved in cell death induced by hydrophobic bile acid in hepatocytes. The aim of the study was the elucidation of the effect of the antioxidant mitochondrial-driven ubiquinone (Mito Q) on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, NO production, and cell death in glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-treated HepG2 cells. The role of the regulation of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration by Ca(2+) chelators (EGTA or BAPTA-AM), agonist of Ca(2+) entrance (A23187) or NO (L-NAME or NO donor), was assessed during Mito Q cytoprotection in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. Cell death, NO synthase (NOS)-1, -2, and -3 expression, Ca(2+) mobilization, and NO production were evaluated. GCDCA reduced the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and NOS-3 expression and enhanced cell death in HepG2. NO donor prevented and L-NAME enhanced GCDCA-induced cell death. The reduction of Ca(2+) entry by EGTA, but not its release from intracellular stores by BAPTA-AM, reduced the expression of NOS-3 and enhanced cell death in control and GCDCA-treated cells. Mito Q prevented the reduction of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, NOS-3 expression, NO production, and cell death in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The conclusion is that the recovery of Ca(2+)-dependent NOS-3 expression by Mito Q may be considered an additional cytoprotective property of an antioxidant.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 12/2009; 22(12):1984-91. · 3.67 Impact Factor