R Roy

Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (35)104.36 Total impact

  • 04/2013; 7(8):821. DOI:10.4267/10608/4460
  • European Journal of Paediatric Neurology - EUR J PAEDIATR NEUROL; 09/2007
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    D Skuk · R Roy · B Roy · M Goulet · J P. Tremblay
    Transplantation; 07/2004
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    D Skuk · R Roy · B Roy · M Goulet · J P. Tremblay
    Transplantation; 07/2004
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    ABSTRACT: Prevention of acute rejection is the most prevalent measure used to reduce the long-term risk of chronic allograft rejection. Until now, biopsy was the only useful diagnostic tool for monitoring allograft acute rejection, but invasiveness of this procedure limits its use. The aim of this study was to investigate the implication of peripheral blood immune markers as a predictive diagnostic tool preceding biopsy in acute renal allograft rejection determination. Of the 61 patients studied, 13 had no rejection episodes, 8 had a proven acute rejection, and 40 were excluded for graft dysfunction causes. Mitogen-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells were tested for interleukin- (IL) 2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, Interferon-gamma, Perforin, Granzyme B, and Fas L using semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). An up-regulated mRNA expression value was calculated in which a patient's sample was deemed positive if its differential expression value was equal or higher than the mean differential expression value calculated from the nonrejecting patients. IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, Interferon-gamma, Perforin, and Granzyme B mRNA levels were associated with acute rejection. When at least two of these cytokine markers were up-regulated in a given patient, 75% of the rejecting recipients were identified against 15% of the nonrejecting patients. We have shown that acute rejection episodes in renal transplant recipients were associated with an increase in mRNA expression of cytokines in mitogen-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The evaluation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules prove useful in the clinical identification of acutely rejecting transplant recipients and in the justification of concomitant antirejection therapy before histological diagnosis confirmation.
    Transplantation 11/2000; 70(7):1074-80. DOI:10.1097/00007890-200010150-00014 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CD8+CD38+ T-cell subset can predict progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome among human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects. This T-cell subset usually increases during other active viral infections (cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein Barr virus). We report on its usefulness in the early detection of CMV infection in kidney transplant recipients. Quantitation of CD8+CD38+ T cells was monitored by dual-color flow cytometry analysis on 77 patients during the posttransplantation period. Seventeen of the 52 patients at risk for CMV disease (33%) had primary infection or reactivation and three patients had herpes simplex virus infection only. In every patient with CMV disease, high values for the CD8+CD38+ subset were detected with a 90% positive predictive value for the primary infections. Elevated values were observed at the very first clinical signs of the viral disease or within the few preceeding days. Acute rejection episodes did not provoke false-positive results. This immunologic marker is sensitive and easily obtainable on a daily basis. It may help to direct therapy during rejection or serve as a tool for early detection of clinical viral diseases.
    Transplantation 02/1998; 65(2):279-82. DOI:10.1097/00007890-199801270-00026 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myoblast transplantation is a potential treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. One of the problems possibly responsible for the limited success of clinical trials is the rapid death of the myoblasts after transplantation. To investigate this problem, myoblasts expressing beta-galactosidase were injected in the tibialis anterior muscles of mice. Beta-galactosidase activity was reduced by 74.7% after 3 days. Myoblast death observed at 3 days was reduced to 57.2% when the hosts were irradiated. This result suggested that host cells were contributing to this phenomenon. Transplantation in SCID and FK506-treated mice did not reduce cell death, indicating that mortality was not due to an acute specific reaction. In contrast, administration of the anti-LFA-1 (TIB-213) mAb markedly reduced myoblast death at 3 days without altering leukocyte tissue infiltration. We postulated that neutrophils were mediating myoblast mortality by an LFA-1-dependent mechanism. To test this hypothesis, IL-1beta-activated myoblasts were loaded with 6-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, di(acetoxymethylester) (DCFH), a marker for oxidative stress. Addition of neutrophils and zymosan-activated serum resulted in a time-dependent DCFH fluorescence; this neutrophil-induced oxidation was considerably inhibited by TIB-213. These results indicate that an effective control of the inflammatory reaction will be necessary for any new clinical trials of myoblast transplantation and suggest that neutrophil-mediated myoblast injury occurs by an LFA-1-dependent pathway.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/1997; 159(5):2522-31. · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 07/1997; 29(4):1932-4. DOI:10.1016/S0041-1345(97)00166-8 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myoblasts obtained from donors histoincompatible for several non-major histocompatibility complex antigens (i.e., including minor histocompatibility antigens) and from syngeneic donors were transplanted without any immunosuppression into the muscles of male dystrophic C57BL/10J mdx/mdx mice. Myoblasts from syngeneic mice resulted in the formation of a high percentage of dystrophin-positive fibers 16 weeks after the transplantation. There was no evidence of a cellular immune reaction against the donor myoblasts, i.e., no infiltration by CD4 or CD8 lymphocytes and no increased expression of granzyme B and interferon-gamma mRNAs. Transplantation of myoblasts obtained from donors histoincompatible only for non- major histocompatibility complex antigens produced a transient increase of dystrophin-positive fibers at 4 weeks after transplantation for some donor strains but not for others. For donor strains that did produce an increase at 4 weeks, the number of dystrophin-positive fibers was reduced 16 weeks after the transplantation. There was evidence of a cellular immune reaction-infiltration by CD4 and by CD8 lymphocytes and increased expression of granzyme B and interferon-gamma mRNAs. Transplantation of myoblasts obtained from male C57BL/10J +/+ mice into female C57BL/10J mdx/mdx mice also led to the presence of only a few dystrophin-positive fibers with the same signs of cellular immune reaction. In this later case, the cellular immune response was attributed to the H-Y minor antigens. Finally, antibodies against fetal calf serum were detected after both syngeneic and nonsyngeneic transplantations, indicating that the culture medium may also be a source of antigens. In mice, the presence of these antibodies against culture medium did not reduce the success of a first syngeneic transplantation.
    Transplantation 04/1997; 63(6):893-9. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myoblasts were grown from monkey muscle biopsies and infected in vitro with a defective retroviral vector containing a cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene. These myoblasts were then transplanted to 14 different monkeys, 6 of which were immunosuppressed with FK506. Without immunosuppression, only a few myoblasts and myotubes expressing beta-gal were observed 1 week after the transplantation, but no cells expressing beta-gal were observed after 4 weeks. This result was attributed to immune responses since infiltration by CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes was abundant 1 week after transplantation but not after 4 weeks. The expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 2 (IL-2), granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and granzyme B mRNAs was increased in the myoblast-injected muscle indicating that the infiltrating lymphocytes were activated. Moreover, antibodies against the donor myoblasts were detected in 3 out of 6 cases. When the monkeys were immunosuppressed with FK506, muscle fibers expressing beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) were present 1, 4 and 12 weeks after the transplantation. There was neither significant infiltration by CD4 or CD8 lymphocytes, nor antibodies detected. The mRNA expression of most cytokines was significantly reduced as compared to the nonimmunosuppressed monkeys. These results indicate that FK506 is effective in controlling short-term immune reactions following myoblast transplantation in monkeys and suggest that it may prove useful for myoblast transplantation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 07/1996; 55(6):687-97. DOI:10.1097/00005072-199606000-00002 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of single and repeated sets of injections in the same muscle of mdx mice of myoblasts grown with or without a high concentration 100 ng ml-1 of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The injected myoblasts were obtained from non-dystrophic transgenic mice expressing the beta-galactosidase gene under the control of a muscle-specific promoter. In these experiments, the host muscle was not irradiated to prevent muscle regeneration by host myoblasts. The host muscle was not damaged before myoblast transplantation with notexin, marcaïne or cold to trigger a regeneration-degeneration cycle. Without such pretreatments, the first set of injections of myoblasts grown without bFGF produced only 8% beta-galactosidase-positive and dystrophin-positive muscle fibers 1 month after transplantation. The percentage of muscle fibers containing the donor reporter gene increased, however, to 26% following a second set of injections in the same muscle. The percentage of muscle fibers expressing the donor reporter gene was significantly higher when the myoblasts were grown with a high dose of bFGF. Indeed the first set of injections produced 34% beta-gal-positive fibers while a second set of injections raised this percentage to 54%. In all cases, the percentage of dystrophin-positive fibers was similar to that of beta-gal-positive fibers. Therefore a high percentage of muscle fibers of donor origin can be obtained without preliminary damaging treatments of the mdx muscle when myoblasts grown with bFGF are injected several times. The effects of bFGF is not produced by increasing the percentage of myoblasts in a primary muscle culture since improvement of myoblast transplantation was obtained with a pure myoblast clone even with a lower concentration (10 ng ml-1) of bFGF.
    Neuromuscular Disorders 06/1996; 6(3):187-93. DOI:10.1016/0960-8966(96)00004-1 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclophosphamide immunosuppression does not permit successful myoblast allotransplantation in mouse. Myoblast transplantation is a potential treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In one clinical trial, Duchenne patients were immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide. We report here that myoblasts from transgenic mice expressing the beta-galactosidase reporter gene transplanted in mdx mice failed to form new muscle fibres when cyclophosphamide (2 or 10 mg kg-1 per day) was used for immunosuppression. At the lowest dose of cyclophosphamide (2 mg kg-1 per day), some mdx recipient mice formed antibodies against donor myoblasts; however, no humoral immune reaction was observed at the highest dose (10 mg kg-1 per day). The failure of transplantation under cyclophosphamide treatment was attributed to the low immunosuppressive activity at a low dose and to the toxic action of a high dose of this drug. These results could explain the lack of success of myoblast transplantation in a previous clinical trial.
    Neuromuscular Disorders 12/1995; 5(6):511-7. DOI:10.1016/0960-8966(95)00011-B · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myoblast transplantation has been considered a potential treatment for some muscular disorders. It has proven very successful, however, only in immunodeficient or immunosuppressed mice. In this study, myoblasts from C57BL10J +/+ mice were transplanted, with no immunosuppressive treatment, in the tibialis anterior of fully histocompatible but dystrophin-deficient C57BL10J mdx/mdx mice. One to 9 months after transplantation, the success of the graft was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. All the transplanted mice (n = 24) developed dystrophin-positive fibers following transplantation. Depending on myoblast cultures, transplantations, and time of analysis, the mice presented 15 to 80% of dystrophin-positive fibers in transplanted muscles. These fibers were correctly oriented and they were either from donor or hybrid origin. The dystrophin-positive fibers remained stable up to 9 months. Possible humoral and cellular immune responses were investigated after grafting. Antibodies directed against dystrophin and/or muscle membrane were developed by 58% of the mice as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Despite the presence of these antibodies, dystrophin-positive fibers were still present in grafted muscles 9 months after transplantation. Moreover, the muscles did not show massive infiltration by CD4 cells, CD8 cells, or macrophages, as already described in myoblast allotransplantations. This lack of rejection was attributed to the sequestrated nature of dystrophin after fiber formation. These results indicate that myoblast transplantation leads to fiber formation when immunocompetent but fully histocompatible donors and recipients are used and that dystrophin incompatibility alone is not sufficient to induce an immunological rejection reaction.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 12/1995; 131(4):975-88. DOI:10.1083/jcb.131.4.975 · 9.69 Impact Factor
  • Muscle & Nerve 11/1995; 18(10):1217-8. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A mutagenesis RT-PCR method was used to detect normal dystrophin mRNA following the injection of normal myoblasts in mdx mice using two immunosuppressors. A specific sequence of the dystrophin mRNA (257 bp) was amplified by RT-PCR from the muscle total RNA. MaeIII digestion of the amplified products allowed us to distinguish the normal messenger of dystrophin from the dystrophic one and to establish the percentage of normal and of dystrophic (mdx) dystrophin mRNA. Normal dystrophin mRNA was detected using this technique in mdx muscles transplanted with histocompatible normal myoblasts. For this type of transplantation, no significant difference in the percentage of normal dystrophin mRNA was observed between immunosuppressed mice and those not immunosuppressed. No normal dystrophin mRNA was, however, observed in mdx mice following histoincompatible normal myoblast transplantation without immunosuppression. When such transplantations were done in mice immunosuppressed with cyclosporine or FK-506, normal dystrophin mRNA accounted for 31% and 36% of the total dystrophin mRNA, respectively. In fact, one animal immunosuppressed with FK-506 expressed as much as 57% of normal dystrophin mRNA. These results thus show that FK-506 makes it possible to restore dystrophin expression to a level comparable to that observed in DMD carriers that are usually asymptomatic.
    Muscle & Nerve 10/1995; 18(9):980-6. DOI:10.1002/mus.880180909 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human and mouse (C57BL/10SnJ+/+) myoblasts were injected separately in the muscles of C57BL/10ScSn mdx/mdx mice. Mouse myoblasts (C57BL/10SnJ+/+) were also injected in normal mice (C57BL/10SnJ+/+ and BALB/c+/+). Some muscles that received a xenotransplantation (i.e., human myoblasts) were previously injected with a myotoxin, i.e., notexin. This treatment was not used for the allografts (i.e., mouse myoblasts). Human myoblast injections did not increase the number of dystrophin-positive cells above the background level due to backmutation. Moreover, the human myoblasts detected with an anti-HLA antibody decreased rapidly during the 6-week follow-up. The injection of normal mouse myoblasts in mdx mice did, however, increase the number of dystrophin-positive fibers. Moreover, numerous cells expressing mouse MHC class II, macrophages, granulocytes, neutrophils, natural killer cells, and a subset of T lymphocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry in cryostat sections of myoblast-injected muscles. These cells were present within 1 week of the myoblast injection in the muscle regions containing injected human or mouse myoblasts, and progressively decreased during the 6-week follow-up in the human myoblast transplantation. Lymphocyte infiltration reached a significant level following xeno- and alloincompatible transplantations. Antibodies against the human myoblasts and against alloincompatible myoblasts were also detected in the serum of the recipients. These results suggest that humoral and cellular immune reactions are responsible for the poor outcome of myoblast transplantation in mice and could be involved in failure of transplantation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. These results indicate that adequate immunosuppression must be used in these patients.
    Muscle & Nerve 02/1995; 18(1):39-51. DOI:10.1002/mus.880180107 · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 01/1995; 26(6):3461-2. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 01/1995; 26(6):3372-3. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 01/1995; 26(6):3518. · 0.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
104.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2007
    • Laval University
      Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
  • 1995–1997
    • Université du Québec
      Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
  • 1996
    • Centre Hospitalier Le Vinatier
      Брон, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 1984–1995
    • Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM)
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada