Rui Zhang

Jeju National University, Tse-tsiu, Jeju-do, South Korea

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Publications (58)140.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reduced glutathione (GSH) is an abundant tripeptide present in the majority of cell types. GSH is highly reactive and is often conjugated to other molecules, via its sulfhydryl moiety. GSH is synthesized from glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine via two sequential ATP‑consuming steps, which are catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) and GSH synthetase (GSS). However, the role of GSH in cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine the levels of GSH and GSH synthetic enzymes in human colorectal cancer. The mRNA and protein expression levels of GSH, the catalytic subunit of GCL (GCLC) and GSS were significantly higher in the following five colon cancer cell lines: Caco‑2, SNU‑407, SNU‑1033, HCT‑116, and HT‑29, as compared with the normal colon cell line, FHC. Similarly, in 9 out of 15 patients with colon cancer, GSH expression levels were higher in tumor tissue, as compared with adjacent normal tissue. In addition, the protein expression levels of GCLC and GSS were higher in the tumor tissue of 8 out of 15, and 10 out of 15 patients with colon cancer respectively, as compared with adjacent normal tissue. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that GCLC and GSS were expressed at higher levels in colon cancer tissue, as compared with normal mucosa. Since GSH and GSH metabolizing enzymes are present at elevated levels in colonic tumors, they may serve as clinically useful biomarkers of colon cancer, and/or targets for anti-colon cancer drugs.
    Molecular Medicine Reports 06/2015; 12(3). DOI:10.3892/mmr.2015.3902 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors want to change Figure 1 of the paper published in IJMS [1]. In Figure 1, 5-position of OH was at 6-position. Therefore, Figure 1 is revised as follows. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused to the readers by this change.[...].
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2015; 16(1):1482-1483. DOI:10.3390/ijms16011482 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutathione S-transferase π-1 (GSTP-1) is a member of the glutathione S-transferase enzyme superfamily, which catalyzes the conjugation of electrophiles to glutathione during the process of detoxification. In this study, the epigenetic alter-ations of GSTP-1 expression in human colorectal cancers and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. In 10 colon cancer patients, proteomic analysis revealed that expression of GSTP-1 protein was higher in tumor tissues than in paired adjacent normal tissues. Likewise, in 7 of 10 colon cancer patients, GSTP-1 protein expression was more than 1.5‑fold higher in tumor tissues than in adjacent normal tissues, as determined by western blotting. Immunohistochemical data confirmed that GSTP-1 protein was expressed at higher levels in colon cancer tissues compared to normal mucosa. GSTP-1 enzyme activity was closely correlated with GSTP-1 protein expression in colon cancer patients. Consistent with this, GSTP-1 mRNA, protein and activity levels were higher in the colorectal cancer cell lines Caco-2, HCT-116, HT-29, SNU-407 and SNU-1033 compared to the normal colon cell line FHC. Methylation-specific PCR results indicated that the high levels of GSTP-1 in human colorectal cancer cell lines were likely due to the lower degree of promoter methylation in colon cancer cell lines compared to the normal colon cell line, consistent with findings in colon cancer patients. Moreover, the levels of specific activator-protein complexes and histone marks were higher in human colorectal cancer cells compared to the normal human colon cell line, whereas the repressor protein complexes exhibited the opposite pattern. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that expression levels of the transcription factors AP-1 and SP-1 were correlated with the upregulation of GSTP-1 expression in colorectal cancer cells. Finally, knockdown of GSTP-1 promoted the sensitivity of SNU-407 cells to the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil. These data indicate that GSTP-1 may serve as a clinically useful biomarker of colon cancer and a target for anti-colon cancer drugs.
    International Journal of Oncology 06/2014; 45(3). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2014.2522 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated whether phloroglucinol (1, 3, 5 - trihydroxybenzene) has therapeutic effects in cellular and animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is the second most common, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease, and is clinically characterized with motor dysfunctions such as bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, gait impairment, and resting tremor. In the brains of PD patients, dopaminergic neuronal loss is observed in the Substantia nigra. Although the exact mechanisms underlying PD are largely unknown, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are thought to be critical factors that induce the onset of the disease. Here, phloroglucinol administration was shown to attenuate motor functional deficits evaluated with rota-rod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD animal models. Moreover, phloroglucinol ameliorated the loss of synapses as assessed with protein levels and immunoreactivity against synaptophysin in the midbrain region of the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In addition, in SH-SY5Y cultures, the cytotoxicity of 6-OHDA was reduced by pre-treatment with phloroglucinol. The increase in the reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation and 8-hydroxyguanine caused by treatment with 6-OHDA was attenuated by phloroglucinol in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, phloroglucinol treatment rescued the reduced levels of nuclear Nrf2, antioxidant enzymes, i.e., catalase and glutathione peroxidase, in 6-OHDA-treated cells. Taken together, phloroglucinol has a therapeutic potential for treatment of PD.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71178. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071178 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The intestine-specific transcription factor, caudal type homeobox-1 (CDX1), is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that plays key roles in regulating intestinal epithelial differentiation and proliferation. It is aberrantly down-regulated in colorectal cancers and colon cancer-derived cell lines by promoter hypermethylation. Since the effects of oxidative stress on the transcription of tumor suppressor genes are largely unknown, this study explored the epigenetic alterations that occur during reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced silencing of CDX1 in colorectal cancer cells. Oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) down-regulated CDX1 mRNA levels and protein expression in the human colorectal cancer cell line, T-84. This down-regulation was abolished by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine. In addition, the DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) markedly attenuated the decrease in mRNA and protein expression levels induced by H2O2. Moreover, methylation-specific PCR data revealed that H2O2 treatment increased CDX1 promoter methylation, and treatment with 5-Aza-dC reversed this effect, suggesting that an epigenetic regulatory mechanism triggered by ROS-induced methylation may be involved in CDX1 expression. Furthermore, H2O2 treatment resulted in up-regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) expression and activity, and enhanced the association between DNMT1 and HDAC1. Taken together, these results suggest that ROS-induced oxidative stress silences the tumor suppressor CDX1 through epigenetic regulation, and may therefore be associated with the progression of colorectal cancer.
    Gene 04/2013; 25(524). DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2013.04.024 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that 20-O-(β-D-gluco-pyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (Compound K, a meta-bolite of ginseng saponin) induces mitochondria-dependent and caspase-dependent apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells via the generation of reactive oxygen species. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying apoptosis induced by Compound K with respect to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in HT-29 cells. In the present study, Compound K induced apoptotic cell death as confirmed by DNA fragmentation and apoptotic sub-G1 cell population. Compound K also induced ER stress as indicated by staining with ER tracker, cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ overloading, phosphorylation of protein-kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α), phosphorylation of IRE-1, splicing of ER stress-specific X-box transcription factor-1 (XBP-1), cleavage of activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6), upregulation of glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP-78/BiP) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), and cleavage of caspase-12. Furthermore, downregulation of CHOP expression using siCHOP RNA attenuated Compound K-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results support the important role of ER stress response in mediating Compound K-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.
    Oncology Reports 02/2013; 29(4). DOI:10.3892/or.2013.2270 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation leads to epidermal damage and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin cells, including keratinocytes. Therefore, the photo-protective effect of 3-bromo-4, 5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (BDB) against UVB was assessed in human HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to UVB radiation in vitro. BDB restored cell viability, which decreased upon exposure to UVB radiation. BDB exhibited scavenging activity against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, intracellular ROS induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or UVB radiation, the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, and the hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO(4)+H(2)O(2)). Moreover, BDB absorbed UVB and decreased injury resulting from UVB-induced oxidative stress to lipids, proteins and DNA. Finally, BDB reduced UVB-induced apoptosis, as exemplified by fewer apoptotic bodies and a reduction in DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest that BDB protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative stress by scavenging ROS and absorbing UVB rays, thereby reducing injury to cellular components.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 07/2012; 83:71-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.06.010 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Butin (7,3',4'-trihydroxydihydroflavone), a flavonoid with antioxidant activity, was recently reported to protect cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis, oxidative DNA damage and oxidative mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism by which butin protects mitochondria. The antioxidant function of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) is important in preventing oxidative stress. While exposure to H2O2 reduced the expression of Mn SOD in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4), the addition of butin restored Mn SOD expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, resulting in increased Mn SOD activity. The transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates Mn SOD gene expression by binding to the antioxidant responsive element (ARE). Butin enhanced the nuclear translocation and ARE-binding activity of Nrf2, which was decreased by H2O2. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 attenuated butin-induced Mn SOD expression and activity. Further, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB, Akt) contributed to the ARE-driven Mn SOD expression. Butin activated PI3K/Akt and exposure to either LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor), Akt inhibitor IV (an Akt-specific inhibitor), or Akt siRNA suppressed the butin-induced activation of Nrf2, resulting in decreased Mn SOD expression and activity. Finally, the cytoprotective effect of butin against H2O2-induced cell damage was suppressed by the siRNA-mediated knockdown of Mn SOD. These studies demonstrate that butin attenuates oxidative stress by activating Nrf2-mediated Mn SOD induction via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 06/2012; 113(6):1987-97. DOI:10.1002/jcb.24068 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Runt domain transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a tumor suppressor that is silenced in cancer via hypermethylation of its promoter. This study investigated the mechanisms involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced silencing of RUNX3 in terms of epigenetic alteration since the effects of oxidative stress in tumor suppressor gene transcription are largely unknown. RUNX3 mRNA and protein expressions were down-regulated in response to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the human colorectal cancer cell line SNU-407. This down-regulation was abolished with pretreatment of the ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Moreover, methylation-specific PCR data revealed that H(2)O(2) treatment increased RUNX3 promoter methylation; however, NAC and the cytosine methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC), decreased it, suggesting that an epigenetic regulatory mechanism by ROS-induced methylation may be involved in RUNX3 silencing. H(2)O(2) treatment resulted in DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) up-regulation with increased expression and activity, increased binding of DNMT1 to HADC1, and increased DNMT1 binding to the RUNX3 promoter. In addition, 5-Aza-dC treatment prevented the decrease in RUNX3 mRNA and protein levels by H(2)O(2) treatment. Additionally, H(2)O(2) treatment inhibited the nuclear localization and expression of RUNX3, which was abolished by NAC treatment. Furthermore, the down-regulation of RUNX3 expression by H(2)O(2) also influenced cell proliferation. Taken together, the data suggested that ROS silenced the tumor suppressor, RUNX3, by epigenetic regulation and may therefore be associated with the progression of colorectal cancer.
    Tumor Biology 04/2012; 33(2):403-12. DOI:10.1007/s13277-012-0322-6 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation cause skin aging via basement membrane/extracellular matrix degradation resulting from the action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Recently, phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) was demonstrated to attenuate the cell damage induced by oxidative stress by quenching ROS and stimulating antioxidant systems. In the current study, the effect of phloroglucinol on UVB-induced photoaging was investigated in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Phloroglucinol significantly inhibited the UVB-induced (1) upregulation of MMP-1 mRNA, protein and activity; (2) augmentation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels; (3) phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs); (4) expression of c-Fos and phospho c-Jun; and (5) enhancement of activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding to the MMP-1 promoter. In addition, the knockdown of MAPKs significantly inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 expression. The results of this study suggest that phloroglucinol may be useful as a photoprotective compound for the skin.
    Photochemistry and Photobiology 03/2012; 88(2):381-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01074.x · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catabolizes heme into carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and free iron which mediate its protective effect against oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression level and activity of HO-1 in Korean colon cancer tissues and cell lines. HO-1 protein expression was higher (>1.5-fold) in tumor tissues than in adjacent normal tissues in 14 of 20 colon cancer patients, and HO-1 protein expression was closely correlated with HO-1 enzyme activity in cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical data confirmed that HO-1 protein was expressed at a higher level in colon cancer tissues than in normal mucosa. Furthermore, HO-1 mRNA and protein expression and enzyme activity were higher in the colon cancer cell lines Caco-2, SNU-407, SNU-1033, HT-29, and SW-403 than in the normal fetal human colon cell line FHC. Treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin decreased the viability of colon cancer cell lines. These data indicate that HO-1 may serve as a clinically useful biomarker of colon cancer and as a target for anticolon cancer drugs.
    Tumor Biology 02/2012; 33(4):1031-8. DOI:10.1007/s13277-012-0336-0 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is related to the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which cause skin aging. The protective effects of mangiferin derived from Anemarrhena asphodeloides were investigated against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced damage using human skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Mangiferin was found to scavenge intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide radicals, and hydroxyl radicals. ROS regulate MMPs gene expression and activation of proenzymes. Mangiferin inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced MMP-1 gene expression and protein levels as well as its activity. Moreover, it abrogated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and stress-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (SEK)-c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, which are induced by H(2)O(2) treatment. And, it inhibited DNA binding activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1), a transcription factor of MMP-1 and downstream of ERK and JNK. Finally, it protected the human skin keratinocytes from H(2)O(2)-induced cell death. Taken together, these results indicate that mangiferin attenuated H(2)O(2)-induced MMP-1 activation via inhibition of ERK and JNK pathway and AP-1.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 12/2011; 75(12):2321-5. DOI:10.1271/bbb.110465 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vanadium compounds have shown promise in the treatment of diabetes and in cancer prevention. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Jeju ground water, containing the vanadium compounds S1 (8.0 ± 0.9 μg/l) and S3 (26.0 ± 2.0 μg/l), and of vanadyl sulfate (VOSO(4), 26 μg/l) on antioxidant systems in human Chang liver cells. Cells were incubated for ten passages in media containing deionized distilled water, Jeju ground water (S1, S3), or VOSO(4). S1 and S3 increased the gene and protein expression and the enzymatic activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and heme oxygenase. VOSO(4) was likewise found to improve mRNA and protein expression as well as the activities of these enzymes. Taken together, these results suggest that the antioxidant properties of Jeju ground water, containing vanadium compounds, and of vanadyl sulfate were due to stimulatory effects on antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant enzyme expression.
    Biological trace element research 12/2011; 147(1-3):16-24. DOI:10.1007/s12011-011-9277-5 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Jeju ground water, containing vanadium compounds, was shown to increase glutathione (GSH) levels as determined by a colorimetric assay and confocal microscopy. To investigate whether the effects of Jeju ground water on GSH were specifically mediated by vanadium compounds, human Chang liver cells were incubated for 10 passages in media containing deionized distilled water (DDW), Jeju ground water (S1 and S3), and vanadyl sulfate (VOSO(4)). Vanadyl sulfate scavenged superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Vanadyl sulfate effectively increased cellular GSH level and up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of a catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLC), which is involved in GSH synthesis. The induction of GCLC expression by vanadyl sulfate was found to be mediated by transcription factor erythroid transcription factor NF-E2 (Nrf2), which critically regulates GCLC by binding to the antioxidant response elements (AREs). Vanadyl sulfate treatment increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the accumulation of phosphorylated Nrf2. Extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) contributed to ARE-driven GCLC expression via Nrf2 activation. Vanadyl sulfate induced the expression of the active phospho form of ERK. Taken together, these results suggest that the increase in GSH level by Jeju ground water is, at least in part, due to the effects of vanadyl sulfate via the Nrf2-mediated induction of GCLC.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2011; 12(12):8878-94. DOI:10.3390/ijms12128878 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, we demonstrated that butin (7,3',4'-trihydroxydihydroflavone) protected cells against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced apoptosis by: (1) scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating antioxidant enzymes such superoxide dismutase and catalase; (2) decreasing oxidative stress-induced 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels via activation of oxoguanine glycosylase 1, and (3), reducing oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the cytoprotective effects of butin on oxidative stress-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, and possible mechanisms involved. Butin significantly reduced H(2)O(2)-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as determined by confocal image analysis and flow cytometry, alterations in Bcl-2 family proteins such as decrease in Bcl-2 expression and increase in Bax and phospho Bcl-2 expression, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol and activation of caspases 9 and 3. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic effect of butin was exerted via inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and activator protein-1 cascades induced by H(2)O(2) treatment. Finally, butin exhibited protective effects against H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by decreased apoptotic bodies, sub-G(1) hypodiploid cells and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, the protective effects of butin against H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis were exerted via blockade of membrane potential depolarization, inhibition of the JNK pathway and mitochondria-involved caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2011; 12(6):3871-87. DOI:10.3390/ijms12063871 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported to exert strong acute toxic effects on various cultured cells by inducing oxidative stress, the molecular mechanisms by which AgNPs-damaged cells are unknown. Because the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) may play an important role in the response to oxidative stress-induced damage and is quite sensitive to oxidative damage, we hypothesized that AgNPs may exert cytotoxic effects on cells by modulating ER stress. In our study, AgNPs resulted in cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death when analyzing cell viability, DNA fragmentation and the apoptotic sub-G(1) population. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy indicated that the cells were sensitive to AgNPs with respect to the induction of mitochondrial Ca(2+) overloading and enhancement of ER stress. AgNPs induced a number of signature ER stress markers, including phosphorylation of RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) and its downstream eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, phosphorylation of inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1), splicing of ER stress-specific X-box transcription factor-1, cleavage of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein-78 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP/GADD153). Down-regulation of PERK, IRE1 and ATF6 expression using siRNA significantly decreased AgNPs-induced the enhancement of ER stress. In addition, down-regulation of CHOP expression with siRNA CHOP attenuated AgNPs-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study supports an important role for the ER stress response in mediating AgNPs-induced apoptosis.
    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 11/2011; 44(1):224-32. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2011.10.019 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on human skin induces pathophysiological processes such as oxidative stress and inflammation. In previous reports, the antioxidant effects of triphlorethol-A were shown to protect cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage and gamma ray-induced oxidative stress. In this study, the role of triphlorethol-A in protecting human keratinocytes (HaCaT) against UVB-induced cell damage was investigated. Triphlorethol-A-treated cells were irradiated with UVB (150 mJ/cm(2)). Triphlorethol-A decreased UVB-induced intracellular ROS and restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes decreased by UVB radiation. Triphlorethol-A decreased UVB damage to cellular components, such as lipid membrane and DNA, restored cell viability and reduced UVB-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondria-mediated caspase pathway. Triphlorethol-A also reduced the UVB-induced loss of ΔΨ(m) and the active forms of caspase 9 and caspase 3. The anti-apoptotic effect of triphlorethol-A was found to involve the inhibition of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, which was induced by UVB exposure. And triphlorethol-A showed an absorptive capacity at range of UVB. These results suggest that triphlorethol-A protects human keratinocytes against UVB by enhancing the activities of the antioxidant system, inhibiting cellular damage and absorbing the UVB.
    Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology 10/2011; 106(1):74-80. DOI:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2011.10.007 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a phenolic flavonoid compound derived mainly from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a medicinal plant traditionally used in oriental medicine. In our previous study, baicalein attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by induction of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 transcription factor-mediated manganese superoxide dismutase. In the present study, the protective effects of baicalein against oxidative stress-induced damage, especially cellular components including DNA, lipid, and protein, were studied. The results of this study showed that baicalein scavenged intracellular ROS. Baicalein inhibited the H₂O₂-induced DNA damage that was demonstrated by decreased phospho-H2A.X expression and DNA tail formation. In addition, it prevented the lipid peroxidation shown by the fluorescence intensity of diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine and the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Moreover, baicalein inhibited protein oxidation demonstrated by protein carbonyl formation. Furthermore, baicalein protected cells via the inhibition of apoptosis induced by H₂O₂. The findings of this study suggest that baicalein provides protection for cellular components against oxidative damage via scavenging ROS and inhibiting apoptosis.
    Toxicology and Industrial Health 09/2011; 28(5):412-21. DOI:10.1177/0748233711413799 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The protective effect of KIOM-4, a mixture of plant extracts, was examined against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress in rat pancreatic β-cells (RINm5F). KIOM-4 scavenged superoxide and hydroxyl radicals generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase and Fenton reaction (FeSO(4)/H(2)O(2)), respectively, in a cell-free chemical system. In addition, a marked increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in STZ-induced diabetic cells; this increase was attenuated by KIOM-4 treatment. Mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) activity and protein expression were down-regulated by STZ treatment and up-regulated by KIOM-4 treatment. In addition, NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor for Mn SOD, was up-regulated by KIOM-4. KIOM-4 prevented STZ-induced mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and DNA modification. Moreover, KIOM-4 treatment restored the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) that was induced by STZ treatment, and inhibited the translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. In addition, KIOM-4 treatment elevated the level of ATP, succinate dehydrogenase activity and insulin level, which were reduced by STZ treatment. These results suggest that KIOM-4 exhibits a protective effect through its antioxidant effect and the attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic cells.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2011; 2011(1741-427X):978682. DOI:10.1093/ecam/neq007 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Formaldehyde (HCHO) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce DNA base modifications and DNA strand breaks and contributes to mutagenesis and other pathological processes. DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), a major mechanism for repairing DNA double-stranded breaks (DSB) in mammalian cells, involves the formation of a Ku protein heterodimer and recruitment of a DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to the site of DNA damage. HCHO treatment induced DSB and decreased the protein expressions of Ku 70 and phosphorylated DNA-PKcs. Triphlorethol-A reduced DNA strand breaks and restored the expression of NHEJ-related proteins. In response to oxidative DNA base damage, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) plays a vital role in repair of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OhdG) via the base-excision repair (BER) process. In this study, HCHO significantly increased 8-OhdG levels, whereas triphlorethol-A lowered 8-OhdG levels. Suppression of 8-OhdG formation by triphlorethol-A was related to enhanced OGG1 protein expression. Triphlorethol-A also enhanced the expression of phosphorylated Akt (the active form of Akt), a regulator of OGG1, which was found to be decreased by HCHO treatment. The phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-specific inhibitor LY294002 abolished the cytoprotective effects induced by triphlorethol-A, suggesting that OGG1 restoration by triphlorethol-A is involved in the PI3K/Akt pathway. These results suggest that triphlorethol-A may protect cells against HCHO-induced DNA damage via enhancement of NHEJ and BER capacity.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 04/2011; 74(12):811-21. DOI:10.1080/15287394.2011.567957 · 2.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

823 Citations
140.92 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2015
    • Jeju National University
      • School of Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Research Institute
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju-do, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2008
    • Cheju Halla University
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea