[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian Grb2 adaptor protein binds pTyr-X-Asn motifs through its SH2 domain, and engages downstream targets such as Sos1 and Gab1 through its SH3 domains. Grb2 thereby couples receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras-MAP kinase pathway, and potentially to phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3'-kinase. By creating a null (Delta) allele of mouse Grb2, we have shown that Grb2 is required for endoderm differentiation at embryonic day 4.0.
Grb2 likely has multiple embryonic and postnatal functions. To address this issue, a hypomorphic mutation, first characterized in the Caenorhabditis elegans Grb2 ortholog Sem-5, was engineered into the mouse Grb2 gene. This mutation (E89K) reduces phosphotyrosine binding by the SH2 domain. Embryos that are compound heterozygous for the null and hypomorphic alleles exhibit defects in placental morphogenesis and in the survival of a subset of migrating neural crest cells required for branchial arch formation. Furthermore, animals homozygous for the hypomorphic mutation die perinatally because of clefting of the palate, a branchial arch-derived structure. Analysis of E89K/Delta Grb2 mutant fibroblasts revealed a marked defect in ERK/MAP kinase activation and Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation following growth factor stimulation.
We have created an allelic series within mouse Grb2, which has revealed distinct functions for phosphotyrosine-Grb2 signaling in tissue morphogenesis and cell viability necessary for mammalian development. The placental defects in E89K/Delta mutant embryos are reminiscent of those seen in receptor tyrosine kinase-, Sos1-, and Gab1-deficient embryos, consistent with the finding that endogenous Grb2 is required for efficient RTK signaling to the Ras-MAP kinase and Gab1 pathways.
Current Biology 06/2001; 11(9):662-70. · 9.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shc proteins possess SH2 and PTB domains and serve a scaffolding function in signaling by a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases. There are three known mammalian Shc genes, of which ShcB and ShcC are primarily expressed in the nervous system. We have generated null mutations in ShcB and ShcC and have obtained mice lacking either ShcB or ShcC or both gene products. ShcB-deficient animals exhibit a loss of peptidergic and nonpeptidergic nociceptive sensory neurons, which is not enhanced by additional loss of ShcC. Mice lacking both ShcB and ShcC exhibit a significant loss of neurons within the superior cervical ganglia, which is not observed in either mutant alone. The results indicate that these Shc family members possess both unique and overlapping functions in regulating neural development and suggest physiological roles for ShcB/ShcC in TrkA signaling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteins with SH2 and SH3 domains link tyrosine kinases to intracellular pathways. To investigate the biological functions of a mammalian SH2/SH3 adaptor, we have introduced a null mutation into the mouse gene for Grb2. Analysis of mutant embryonic stem cells, embryos, and chimeras reveals that Grb2 is required during embyrogenesis for the differentiation of endodermal cells and formation of the epiblast. Grb2 acts physiologically as an adaptor, since replacing the C terminus of the Ras activator Sos1 with the Grb2 SH2 domain yields a fusion protein that largely rescues the defects caused by the Grb2 mutation. Furthermore, Grb2 is rate limiting for mammary carcinomas induced by polyomavirus middle T antigen. These data provide genetic evidence for a mammalian Grb2-Ras signaling pathway, mediated by SH2/SH3 domain interactions, that has multiple functions in embryogenesis and cancer.