[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-four parents of oppositional preschoolers were randomly assigned to either a self-directed behavioral family intervention condition (SD) or to a waitlist control group (WL). The self-directed parent training program, based on self-regulation principles, consisted of a written information package and weekly telephone consultations for 10 weeks. At posttest, in comparison to the WL group, children in the SD group had lower levels of behavior problems on parent report measures of child behavior. At posttreatment, parents in the SD condition reported increased levels of parenting competence and lower levels of dysfunctional parenting practices as compared to parents in the WL condition. In addition, mothers reported lower levels of anxiety, depression, and stress as compared to mothers in the WL condition at posttreatment. Using mother's reports, gains in child behavior and parenting practices achieved at posttreatment were maintained at 4-month follow-up.