Richard W Nelson

University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States

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Publications (28)57.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine total dietary fiber (TDF) composition of feline diets used for management of obesity and diabetes mellitus. Design-Cross-sectional survey. Sample-Dry veterinary (n = 10), canned veterinary (12), and canned over-the-counter (3) feline diets. Procedures-Percentage of TDF as insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), high-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (HMWSDF), and low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF) was determined. Results-Median measured TDF concentration was greater than reported maximum crude fiber content in dry and canned diets. Median TDF (dry-matter) concentration in dry and canned diets was 12.2% (range, 8.11% to 27.16%) and 13.8% (range, 4.7% to 27.9%), respectively. Dry and canned diets, and diets with and without a source of oligosaccharides in the ingredient list, were not different in energy density or concentrations of TDF, IDF, HMWSDF, or LMWSDF. Similarly, loaf-type (n = 11) and gravy-type (4) canned diets differed only in LMWSDF concentration. Disparities in TDF concentrations among products existed despite a lack of differences among groups. Limited differences in TDF concentration and dietary fiber composition were detected when diets were compared on the basis of carbohydrate concentration. Diets labeled for management of obesity were higher in TDF concentration and lower in energy density than diets for management of diabetes mellitus. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Diets provided a range of TDF concentrations with variable concentrations of IDF, HMWSDF, and LMWSDF. Crude fiber concentration was not a reliable indicator of TDF concentration or dietary fiber composition. Because carbohydrate content is calculated as a difference, results suggested that use of crude fiber content would cause overestimation of both carbohydrate and energy content of diets.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 07/2014; 245(1):99-105. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine concentrations of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in serum of healthy bitches during various stages of the reproductive cycle and in bitches with hyperadrenocorticism and to compare the dynamics of 17OHP with those of progesterone. Prospective evaluation study. 15 healthy sexually intact bitches and 28 spayed bitches with hyperadrenocorticism. 11 healthy bitches were evaluated during estrus, nonpregnant diestrus, and anestrus (group 1); 4 other healthy bitches were evaluated during pregnancy and after ovariohysterectomy (group 2). Cycle stages were determined via physical examination, vaginal cytologic evaluation, and serum progesterone concentration. Bitches with hyperadrenocorticism were evaluated once at the time of diagnosis (group 3). Serum hormone concentrations were determined with immunoassays. In group 1, the serum 17OHP concentration was significantly higher in diestrus (median, 1.8 ng/mL) than in estrus (median, 1.1 ng/mL) and anestrus (median, 0.2 ng/mL) and higher in estrus than in anestrus. Changes in serum progesterone concentrations accounted for 22% (estrus) or 23% (diestrus) of the variation in serum 17OHP concentrations. In group 2, 17OHP and progesterone concentrations were significantly higher during pregnancy than after ovariohysterectomy. The serum 17OHP concentration in group 3 was significantly lower (median, 0.2 ng/mL) than in group 1 in estrus and diestrus and in group 2 during pregnancy (median, 0.7 ng/mL) but was not different from 17OHP concentrations in anestrus or after ovariohysterectomy (median, 0.2 ng/mL). Serum 17OHP concentrations in healthy bitches increased during estrus, diestrus, and pregnancy and at those times were higher than in spayed bitches with hyperadrenocorticism.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 06/2010; 236(11):1208-14. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate accuracy of 6 portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) by comparing results of these meters with results obtained with a reference chemistry analyzer. Evaluation study. 49 dogs (158 blood samples). Procedures-Venous blood samples were tested with the 6 PBGMs, and results were compared with results of a commercially available analyzer that used a reference method based on the hexokinase reaction. Plasma glucose concentrations obtained with the reference analyzer ranged from 41 to 639 mg/dL. There were significant correlations between blood glucose concentrations obtained with the 6 PBGMs and plasma glucose concentrations obtained with the reference analyzer (r > or = 0.96). However, for all 6 PBGMs, results differed from results for the reference analyzer, with the difference increasing as plasma glucose concentration increased. Significant differences in bias were found among meters. For 142 samples classified as hypoglycemic, euglycemic, or hyperglycemic on the basis of results of the reference analyzer, the percentage of samples that were misclassified on the basis of results of the PBGMs ranged from 2.1% to 38.7%. Results of the present study suggested that there were substantial differences in the accuracy of currently available PBGMs when used to determine blood glucose concentration in dogs.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 09/2009; 235(3):276-80. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that diseases that promote isosthenuria predispose to urinary tract infections because of a lack of the common bacteriostatic properties present in concentrated urine. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic risk factors for positive urine culture outcome in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), uncontrolled hyperthyroidism (HT), or lower urinary tract disease (LUTD). For this retrospective study, medical records of all cats in which a urinalysis and aerobic bacterial urine culture were performed between January 1995 and December 2002 were reviewed. Signalment, body weight, and clinicopathologic data were recorded. Based on the medical records, cats were diagnosed with CKD, DM, HT, or LUTD. Prevalence odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. Multivariate models were created for each variable of interest while controlling for the confounding effect of disease group. Six hundred fourteen cats met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Overall, positive urine cultures were identified in 16.9% of cats with CKD, 13.2% of cats with DM, 21.7% of cats with HT, and 4.9% of cats with clinical signs of LUTD. Decreasing urine specific gravity was not associated with positive urine culture when controlled for disease but pyuria, bacteriuria, and hematuria were all associated with positive urine culture outcome. Persians, females, increasing age, and decreasing body weight were all associated with positive urine culture outcome. Performing a urine culture sample based solely on the presence of isosthenuria does not seem warranted. Further studies are warranted to help identify host predisposing factors for urinary bacterial colonization in cats with these diseases.
    Veterinary Clinical Pathology 10/2008; 37(3):317-22. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of weight gain and subsequent weight loss on glucose tolerance and insulin response were evaluated in 12 healthy cats. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) were performed at entry into the study, after a significant gain of body weight induced by feeding palatable commercial cat food ad libitum, after a significant loss of body weight induced by feeding a poorly palatable purified diet to discourage eating and promote fasting, and after recovery from fasting when body weight had returned to pre-study values and cats were eating commercial foods. A complete physical examination with measurement of body weight was performed weekly, a CBC and serum biochemistry panel were evaluated at the time of each IVGTT, and a liver biopsy specimen obtained 2 to 4 days after each IVGTT was evaluated histologically for each cat.Mean serum glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose infusion and total amount of insulin secreted during the second 60 minutes and entire 120 minutes after glucose infusion were significantly (P > .05) increased after weight gain, as compared with baseline. At the end of weight loss, cats had hepatic lipidosis and serum biochemical abnormalities consistent with feline hepatic lipidosis. There was a significant (P > .05) increase in mean serum glucose concentration and t1/2, and a significant (P > .05) decrease in mean serum insulin concentration and the glucose disappearance coefficient (K) after glucose infusion for measurements obtained after weight loss, compared with those obtained after weight gain and at baseline. Insulin peak response, insulino-genic index, and total amount of insulin secreted during the initial 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 60 minutes after glucose infusion were decreased markedly (P > .05), compared with measurements obtained after weight gain and at baseline. In addition, the total amount of insulin secreted for 120 minutes after glucose infusion was decreased markedly (P > .05) in measurements obtained after weight loss, compared with those obtained after weight gain. At the end of recovery, all cats were voluntarily consuming food, serum biochemical abnormalities identified after weight loss had resolved, the number and size of lipid vacuoles in hepatocytes had decreased, and results of IVGTT were similar to those obtained at baseline.These findings confirmed the reversibility of obesity-induced insulin resistance in cats, and documented initial deterioration in glucose tolerance and insulin response to glucose infusion when weight loss was caused by severe restriction of caloric intake.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 06/2008; 11(2):86 - 91. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum glucose and plasma C-peptide response to IV glucagon administration was evaluated in 24 healthy dogs, 12 dogs with untreated diabetes mellitus, 30 dogs with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus, and 8 dogs with naturally acquired hyperadrenocorticism. Serum insulin response also was evaluated in all dogs, except 20 insulin-treated diabetic dogs. Blood samples for serum glucose, serum insulin, and plasma C-peptide determinations were collected immediately before and 5,10,20,30, and (for healthy dogs) 60 minutes after IV administration of 1 mg glucagon per dog. In healthy dogs, the patterns of glucagon-stimulated changes in plasma C-peptide and serum insulin concentrations were identical, with single peaks in plasma C-peptide and serum insulin concentrations observed approximately 15 minutes after IV glucagon administration. Mean plasma C-peptide and serum insulin concentrations in untreated diabetic dogs, and mean plasma C-peptide concentration in insulin-treated diabetic dogs did not increase significantly after IV glucagon administration. The validity of serum insulin concentration results was questionable in 10 insulin-treated diabetic dogs, possibly because of anti-insulin antibody interference with the insulin radioimmunoassay. Plasma C-peptide and serum insulin concentrations were significantly increased (P < .001) at all blood sarnplkg times after glucagon administration in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, compared with healthy dogs, and untreated and insulin-treated diabetic dogs. Five-minute C-peptide increment, C-peptide peak response, total C-peptide secretion, and, for untreated diabetic dogs, insulin peak response and total insulin secretion were significantly lower (P < .001) in diabetic dogs, compared with healthy dogs, whereas these same parameters were significantly increased (P < .011 in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, compared with healthy dogs, and untreated and insulin-treated diabetic dogs. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend for higher plasma C-peptide concentrations in untreated diabetic dogs compared with insulin-treated diabetic dogs during the glucagon stimulation test. Baseline C-peptide concentrations also were significantly higher (P < .05) in diabetic dogs treated with insulin for less than 6 months, compared with diabetic dogs treated for longer than 1 year. Finally, 7 of 42 diabetic dogs had baseline plasma C-peptide concentrations greater than 2 SD (ie, >0.29 pmol/mL) above the normal mean plasma C-peptide concentration; values that were significantly higher, compared with results in healthy dogs (P < .001) and with the other 35 diabetic dogs (P < .001). In summary, measurement of plasma C-peptide concentration during glucagon stimulation testing allowed differentiation among healthy dogs, dogs with impaired β-cell function (ie, diabetes mellitusl, and dogs with increased β-cell responsiveness to glucagon (ie, insulin resistance). Plasma C-peptide concentrations during glucagon stimulation testing were variable in diabetic dogs and may represent dogs with type-1 and type-2 diabetes or, more likely, differences in severity of β-cell loss in dogs with type-1 diabetes. J Vet Intern Med 1996;10:116–122. Copyright © 1996 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 06/2008; 10(3):116 - 122. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of twice-daily oral administration of a low-dose of trilostane treatment and assess the duration of effects after once-daily trilostane administration in dogs with naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism (NOH). Prospective study. 28 dogs with NOH. 22 dogs received 0.5 to 2.5 mg of trilostane/kg (0.23 to 1.14 mg/lb) orally every 12 hours initially. At intervals, dogs were reevaluated; owner assessment of treatment response was recorded. To assess drug effect duration, 16 of the 22 dogs and 6 additional dogs underwent 2 ACTH stimulation tests 3 to 4 hours and 8 to 9 hours after once-daily trilostane administration. After 1 to 2 weeks, mean trilostane dosage was 1.4 mg/kg (0.64 mg/lb) every 12 hours (n = 22 dogs; good response [resolution of signs], 8; poor response, 14). Four to 8 weeks later, mean dosage was 1.8 mg/kg (0.82 mg/lb) every 12 or 8 hours (n = 21 and 1 dogs, respectively; good response, 15; poor response, 5; 2 dogs were ill). Eight to 16 weeks after the second reevaluation, remaining dogs had good responses (mean dosages, 1.9 mg/kg [0.86 mg/lb], q 12 h [n = 13 dogs] and 1.3 mg/kg [0.59 mg/lb], q 8 h [3]). At 3 to 4 hours and 8 to 9 hours after once-daily dosing, mean post-ACTH stimulation serum cortisol concentrations were 2.60 and 8.09 Pg/dL, respectively. In dogs with NOH, administration of trilostane at low doses every 12 hours was effective, although 2 dogs became ill during treatment. Drug effects diminished within 8 to 9 hours. Because of potential adverse effects, lower doses should be evaluated.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 06/2008; 232(9):1321-8. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical features and heritability of naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism in Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers (NSDTRs). Retrospective case series. 25 NSDTRs with hypoadrenocorticism. Questionnaires completed by owners of NSDTRs with hypoadrenocorticism and medical records from veterinarians were reviewed for information regarding diagnosis, age at diagnosis, concurrent diseases, age at death, and cause of death. Pedigrees were analyzed for heritability and mode of inheritance of hypoadrenocorticism (including complex segregation analysis of pedigrees of 1,515 dogs). On the basis of results of ACTH stimulation testing, hypoadrenocorticism was diagnosed in 16 female and 9 male NSDTRs (including 6 full siblings). Median age at diagnosis was 2.6 years; the diagnosis was made prior to 2 years of age in 11 dogs. Seventeen dogs had hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, or both, and serum electrolyte concentrations were within reference ranges for 8 dogs at the time of diagnosis. Median survival time after diagnosis for 4 dogs that died or were euthanized as a result of medical causes was 1.6 years. Heritability was calculated at 0.98 with no sex effect, and complex segregation analysis fit a major gene model with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. In NSDTRs, hypoadrenocorticism was diagnosed at an earlier age, compared with published reports of age at diagnosis among the general dog population. Among the study dogs, 32% had no serum electrolyte abnormalities at the time of diagnosis, and the disease appeared to have an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance in the breed.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 09/2007; 231(3):407-12. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been used in place of serum growth hormone quantification for identifying acromegaly in diabetic cats. The utility of IGF-I as a screening test for acromegaly has not been critically evaluated. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of serum IGF-I concentration for identifying acromegaly.Hypothesis: Serum IGF-I is a useful screening test for acromegaly in diabetic cats.Animals: A review was made of the medical records of 74 diabetic cats that had serum IGF-I quantified. The diabetes was classified as well controlled (15 cats), poorly controlled because of problems with the insulin treatment regimen, concurrent disease, or both (40), or poorly controlled with clinical findings consistent with acromegaly (19).Methods: A review of medical records was made.Results: Serum IGF-I concentration was significantly (P < .0001) increased in acromegalic diabetic cats, compared with well-controlled and poorly controlled diabetic cats. Sensitivity and specificity for serum IGF-I concentration were 84% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.4–96.6%) and 92% (95% CI = 81.3–97.2%), respectively. There was no significant correlation between serum IGF-I concentration and duration of insulin treatment (r = 0.23, P= .089), insulin dosage (r = 0.14, P= .30), age (r = 0.16, P= .12), and pituitary volume (r = 0.40, P= .11), but a modest correlation was found between serum IGF-I concentration and body weight (r = 0.48, P < .0001).Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Results support the use of serum IGF-I concentration as a screening test for acromegaly in diabetic cats that have clinical findings supportive of the disease.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 08/2007; 21(5):892 - 898. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of serologic evaluation and fungal culture of tissue for diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis in dogs. Prospective study. 58 dogs with nasal discharge and 26 healthy dogs. Dogs with nasal discharge were anesthetized and underwent computed tomography and rhinoscopy; nasal tissues were collected for histologic examination and fungal culture. Sera were assessed for antibodies against Aspergillus spp (healthy dog sera were used as negative control specimens). Nasal aspergillosis was diagnosed in dogs that had at least 2 of the following findings: computed tomographic characteristics consistent with aspergillosis, fungal plaques detected during rhinoscopy, and histologically detectable fungal hyphae in nasal tissue. Histologic characteristics of malignancy were diagnostic for neoplasia. Without evidence of neoplasia or fungal disease, nonfungal rhinitis was diagnosed. Among the 58 dogs, 21 had nasal aspergillosis, 25 had nonfungal rhinitis, and 12 had nasal neoplasia. Fourteen aspergillosis-affected dogs and 1 dog with nonfungal rhinitis had serum antibodies against Aspergillus spp. Fungal culture results were positive for Aspergillus spp only for 17 dogs with aspergillosis. With regard to aspergillosis diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 67%, 98%, 93%, and 84%, respectively, for serum anti-Aspergillus antibody determination and 81%, 100%, 100%, and 90%, respectively, for fungal culture. Results suggest that seropositivity for Aspergillus spp and identification of Aspergillus spp in cultures of nasal tissue are highly suggestive of nasal aspergillosis in dogs; however, negative test results do not rule out nasal aspergillosis.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 06/2007; 230(9):1319-23. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of diabetic neuropathy in cats provides an opportunity to study the development and treatment of neurological complications not present in diabetic rodent models, where few pathological alterations are evident. The present study further defines pathological alterations in nerve biopsies from 12 cats with spontaneously occurring diabetes mellitus. Peroneal nerve biopsies displayed concurrent injury to both Schwann cells and axons of myelinated fibers that was remarkably similar to that present in human diabetic neuropathy. In addition to demyelination, remyelination (constituting 20-84% of the total myelinated fiber population) was indicated by fibers with inappropriately thin myelin sheaths. Unlike our previous investigations, striking axonal injury was apparent, and consisted of dystrophic accumulations of membranous debris or neurofilaments, as well as degenerative fiber loss resulting in a 50% decrease in myelinated fiber density. In spite of extensive fiber loss, regenerative clusters were apparent, suggesting that axonal regeneration was not completely frustrated. These data highlight the potential utility of feline diabetic neuropathy as a model that faithfully replicates the nerve injury in human diabetes mellitus.
    Acta Neuropathologica 05/2007; 113(4):431-42. · 9.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare incidence of diabetes mellitus in cats that had undergone renal transplantation with incidence in cats with chronic renal failure, compare mortality rates in cats that underwent renal transplantation and did or did not develop diabetes mellitus, and identify potential risk factors for development of posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) in cats. Retrospective case series. 187 cats that underwent renal transplantation. Medical records were reviewed. 26 of the 187 (13.9%) cats developed PTDM, with the incidence of PTDM being 66 cases/1,000 cat years at risk. By contrast, the incidence of diabetes mellitus among a comparison population of 178 cats with chronic renal failure that did not undergo renal transplantation was 17.9 cases/1,000 cat years at risk, and cats that underwent renal trans-plantation were 5.45 times as likely to develop diabetes mellitus as were control cats with chronic renal failure. The mortality rate among cats with PTDM was 2.38 times the rate among cats that underwent renal transplantation but did not develop PTDM. Age, sex, body weight, and percentage change in body weight were not found to be significantly associated with development of PTDM. Results suggest that cats that undergo renal transplantation have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus, compared with cats with chronic renal failure, and that mortality rate is higher for cats that develop PTDM than for cats that do not.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 04/2007; 230(6):880-4. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A syndrome of relative adrenal insufficiency has been identified in septic humans, and is associated with hypotension and death. Relative adrenal insufficiency is generally associated with basal serum cortisol concentration within or above the reference range and a blunted cortisol response to adrenocorticotropic hormone administration. It is unknown whether relative adrenal insufficiency occurs in septic dogs. That relative adrenal insufficiency occurs in septic dogs, and that relative adrenal insufficiency is associated with hypotension and mortality. Thirty-three septic dogs admitted to a small animal intensive care unit. Dogs were included in the study if they had a known or suspected infectious disease and had systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Dogs were excluded if they had disease or medication history expected to affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Serum cortisol and endogenous plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations were measured before, and serum cortisol concentration measured 1 hour after, intramuscular administration of 250 microg of cosyntropin/dog. The change in cortisol concentration (delta-cortisol) before and after cosyntropin administration was determined in each dog. Hypotension was associated with lower delta-cortisol values (OR 1.3; CI 1.0-1.9; P = .029). delta-Cortisol cutoff of 3.0 microg/dL was most accurate for predicting hypotension, survival to discharge, and 28-day survival. The rate of death in dogs with delta-cortisol < or = 3 microg/dL was 4.1 times that of dogs with delta-cortisol > 3 microg/dL (RR 4.1; CI 1.5-12.3; P = .01). Delta-cortisol < or = 3 microg/dL after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration is associated with systemic hypotension and decreased survival in septic dogs.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/2007; 21(2):226-31. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been used in place of serum growth hormone quantification for identifying acromegaly in diabetic cats. The utility of IGF-I as a screening test for acromegaly has not been critically evaluated. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of serum IGF-I concentration for identifying acromegaly. Serum IGF-I is a useful screening test for acromegaly in diabetic cats. A review was made of the medical records of 74 diabetic cats that had serum IGF-I quantified. The diabetes was classified as well controlled (15 cats), poorly controlled because of problems with the insulin treatment regimen, concurrent disease, or both (40), or poorly controlled with clinical findings consistent with acromegaly (19). A review of medical records was made. Serum IGF-I concentration was significantly (P < .0001) increased in acromegalic diabetic cats, compared with well-controlled and poorly controlled diabetic cats. Sensitivity and specificity for serum IGF-I concentration were 84% (95%/ confidence interval [CI] = 60.4-96.6%) and 92% (95% CI = 81.3-97.2%), respectively. There was no significant correlation between serum IGF-I concentration and duration of insulin treatment (r = 0.23, P = .089), insulin dosage (r = 0.14, P = .30), age (r = 0.16, P = .12), and pituitary volume (r = 0.40, P = .11), but a modest correlation was found between serum IGF-I concentration and body weight (r = 0.48, P < .0001). Results support the use of serum IGF-I concentration as a screening test for acromegaly in diabetic cats that have clinical findings supportive of the disease.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2007; 21(5):892-8. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine ultrasonographic characteristics of the thyroid gland in healthy small-, medium-, and large-breed dogs and evaluate the relationships of thyroid gland size and volume with body weight and body surface area (BSA). 72 dogs of small (6 Toy and 6 Miniature Poodles), medium (12 Beagles), and large breeds (12 Akitas and 36 Golden Retrievers). Each dog's thyroid gland was examined ultrasonographically with a 10- to 5-MHz multifrequency linear-array transducer. Size, shape, echogenicity, and homogeneity of thyroid lobes were evaluated on longitudinal and transverse images. Thyroid lobe volume was estimated by use of the equation for an ellipsoid (pi/6 [length x height x width]). Thyroid lobes appeared fusiform or elliptical on longitudinal images and triangular or round to oval on transverse images. In most dogs, thyroid lobes were hyperechoic or isoechoic, compared with surrounding musculature, and had a homogeneous echogenic pattern. Mean length, width, height, and volume of thyroid lobes were significantly greater in Akitas and Golden Retrievers, compared with findings in Beagles or Poodles; mean length, width, and height were significantly greater in Beagles, compared with findings in Poodles. Total thyroid gland volume correlated with body weight (r = 0.73) and BSA (r = 0.74). Among the dog breeds examined ultrasonographically, thyroid lobe size and volume were more variable than shape, echogenicity, and homogeneity. The correlation of thyroid gland volume with BSA suggests that size of the dog, rather than breed, should be considered when assessing thyroid glands ultrasonographically.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 02/2006; 67(1):70-7. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Feline bronchial disease is commonly treated with oral glucocorticoids (OGC), which might be contraindicated in cats with certain infectious, endocrine, renal, or cardiac diseases. Inhalant GC (IGC) maximize local efficacy and minimize systemic bioavailability. We evaluated systemic endocrine and immune effects of IGC (flunisolide, 250 microg/puff q12h) versus OGC (prednisone, 10 mg/d PO) and placebo. Six healthy cats received each drug for 2 weeks followed by a 1-month washout. Testing included determination of single early morning cortisol concentration, results of ACTH stimulation, the urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratio (UC: Cr), lymphocyte phenotype, lymphocyte blastogenesis, serum total IgA and IgM concentrations, and cytokine profiles. Significant differences between treatments were not apparent for serum immunoglobulin concentrations, or expression (mRNA) for the cytokines, interleukin (IL-) 2, IL-4, and IL-10, or gamma interferon. Single early morning cortisol concentration was lower for IGC (0.68 - 0.74 microg/dL), compared with that associated with placebo (2.82 +/- 1.94 microg/dL; P = .033). The ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol concentrations were lower after treatment in cats receiving IGC (before, 8.5 +/- 50.2 microg/dL; after, 2.9 +/- 3.3 microg/dL, P = .0004), but not OGC (before, 8.0 +/- 6.1 microg/dL; after, 6.0 +/- 4.5 microg/dL, P = .07). Similarly, UC: Cr (0.8 +/- 0.8) before IGC was lower than the value (5.02 +/- 3.62; P = .019) after IGC. Compared with placebo, cats given OGC, but not IGC, had significantly lower total percentages of T and B cells. Lymphocyte proliferation was decreased in cats receiving OGC, but not IGC, in comparison with placebo (6.9 +/- 3.3; 24.0 +/- 6.5; 18.8 +/- 14.0, respectively). Significantly more IL-10 mRNA transcription was detected in cats administered OGC or IGC, compared with placebo. Although IGC suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, IGC had minimal effects on the systemic adaptive immune system.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2006; 20(1):57-64. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate pretreatment clinical and laboratory findings in dogs with naturally occurring primary hyperparathyroidism. Retrospective study. 210 dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism and 200 randomly selected, age-matched control dogs that did not have primary hyperparathyroidism. Medical records for dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism were reviewed for signalment; clinical features; and results of clinicopathologic testing, serum parathyroid hormone assays, and diagnostic imaging. Mean age of the dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism was 11.2 years (range, 6 to 17 years). The most common clinical signs were attributable to urolithiasis or urinary tract infection (ie, straining to urinate, increased frequency of urination, and hematuria). Most dogs (149 [71%]) did not have any observable abnormalities on physical examination. All dogs had hypercalcemia, and most (136 [65%]) had hypophosphatemia. Overall, 200 of the 210 (95%) dogs had BUN and serum creatinine concentrations within or less than the reference range, and serum parathyroid hormone concentration was within reference limits in 135 of 185 (73%) dogs in which it was measured. Urolithiasis was identified in 65 (31 %) dogs, and urinary tract infection was diagnosed in 61 (29%). Mean serum total calcium concentration for the control dogs-was significantly lower than mean concentration for the dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism, but mean BUN and serum creatinine concentrations for the control dogs were both significantly higher than concentrations for the dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism. Results suggest that urolithiasis and urinary tract infection may be associated with hypercalcemia in dogs-with primary hyperparathyroidism, but that development of renal insufficiency is uncommon.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 10/2005; 227(5):756-61. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentration measurement after administration of ACTH for use in the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. Prospective study. 110 dogs. Serum 17-OHP concentrations were measured before and after ACTH stimulation in 53 healthy dogs to establish reference values for this study. Affected dogs had pituitary-dependent (n = 40) or adrenal tumor-associated (12) hyperadrenocorticism or potentially had atypical hyperadrenocorticism (5; diagnosis confirmed in 1 dog). In affected dogs, frequency interval and borderline and abnormal serum 17-OHP concentrations after ACTH stimulation were determined. Serum cortisol concentrations were assessed via low-dose dexamethasone suppression and ACTH stimulation tests. In healthy dogs, serum 17-OHP concentration frequency intervals were grouped by sex and reproductive status (defined as < 95th percentile). Frequency intervals of serum 17-OHP concentrations after ACTH stimulation were < 77, < 2.0, < 3.2, and < 3.4 ng/mL (< 23.3, < 6.1, < 9.7, and < 10.3 nmol/L) for sexually intact and neutered females and sexually intact and neutered males, respectively. In 53 dogs with confirmed hyperadrenocorticism, serum cortisol concentrations after ACTH stimulation and 8 hours after administration of dexamethasone and serum 17-OHP concentrations after ACTH stimulation were considered borderline or abnormal in 79%, 93%, and 69% of dogs, respectively. Two of 5 dogs considered to have atypical hyperadrenocorticism had abnormal serum 17-OHP concentrations after ACTH stimulation. Serum 17-OHP concentration measurement after ACTH stimulation may be useful in the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs when other test results are equivocal.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 10/2005; 227(7):1095-101. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate adrenal sex hormone concentrations in response to ACTH stimulation in healthy dogs, dogs with adrenal tumors, and dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). Prospective study. 11 healthy control dogs, 9 dogs with adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (adenocarcinoma [ACA] or other tumor); 11 dogs with PDH, and 6 dogs with noncortisol-secreting adrenal tumors (ATs). Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs; physical examination findings; and results of ACTH stimulation test, low-dose dexamethasone suppression test, or both. Dogs with noncortisol-secreting ATs did not have hyperadrenocorticism but had ultrasonographic evidence of an AT. Concentrations of cortisol, androstenedione, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were measured before and 1 hour after i.m. administration of 0.25 mg of synthetic ACTH. All dogs with ACA, 10 dogs with PDH, and 4 dogs with ATs had 1 or more sex hormone concentrations greater than the reference range after ACTH stimulation. The absolute difference for progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and testosterone concentrations (value obtained after ACTH administration minus value obtained before ACTH administration) was significantly greater for dogs with ACA, compared with the other 3 groups. The absolute difference for androstenedione was significantly greater for dogs with ACA, compared with dogs with AT and healthy control dogs. Dogs with ACA secrete increased concentrations of adrenal sex hormones, compared with dogs with PDH, noncortisol-secreting ATs, and healthy dogs. Dogs with noncortisol-secreting ATs also have increased concentrations of sex hormones. There is great interdog variability in sex hormone concentrations in dogs with ACA after stimulation with ACTH.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 03/2005; 226(4):556-61. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound evaluation of the thyroid gland was performed in healthy, hypothyroid, and euthyroid Golden Retriever dogs with nonthyroidal illness (NTI) to determine the diagnostic usefulness of ultrasound for differentiating between euthyroid and hypothyroid dogs. Thirty-six healthy, 11 hypothyroid, and 35 euthyroid dogs with NTI were evaluated. Each thyroid lobe was examined ultrasonographically for size, shape, echogenicity, and homogeneity. Thyroid lobe volume was estimated by using the equation for an ellipsoid: pi/6(length X height x width). No differences were found between healthy dogs and euthyroid dogs with NTI. In the majority of euthyroid dogs, the thyroid lobes were fusiform and triangular in shape in longitudinal and transverse planes, respectively. The thyroid capsule appeared smooth. The thyroid parenchyma had a homogeneous echogenic pattern and usually was hyperechoic or isoechoic compared with the surrounding musculature. Ultrasound findings in hypothyroid dogs were more variable, including a greater frequency of round to oval-shaped thyroid lobes in the transverse imaging plane (P < .05), hypoechogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma compared with surrounding musculature (P < .001), and a decrease in the size and volume of the thyroid lobes and total volume of the thyroid gland (P < .05) compared with euthyroid dogs. Other findings in hypothyroid dogs included an irregular surface to the thyroid capsule, a heterogeneous pattern to the thyroid parenchyma, and differences in the echogenic pattern between the left and right thyroid lobes. Results suggest that determination of thyroid size and volume by ultrasound may be a useful adjunctive test for differentiating between hypothyroid and euthyroid dogs with NTI.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2005; 19(4):499-506. · 2.06 Impact Factor