SA Gray

Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States

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Publications (4)9.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni, a common commensal in chickens, is one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. The aims of this investigation were twofold. First, we sought to determine whether mutations in the C. jejuni ciaB and pldA virulence-associated genes impaired the organism's ability to colonize chickens. Second, we sought to determine if inoculation of chicks with C. jejuni mutants could confer protection from subsequent challenge with the C. jejuni wild-type strain. The C. jejuni ciaB gene encodes a secreted protein necessary for the maximal invasion of C. jejuni into cultured epithelial cells, and the pldA gene encodes a protein with phospholipase activity. Also included in this study were two additional C. jejuni mutants, one harboring a mutation in cadF and the other in dnaJ, with which we have previously performed colonization studies. In contrast to results with the parental C. jejuni strain, viable organisms were not recovered from any of the chicks inoculated with the C. jejuni mutants. To determine if chicks inoculated with the C. jejuni mutants become resistant to colonization by the C. jejuni parental strain upon subsequent challenge, chicks were inoculated either intraperitoneally (i.p.) or both orally and i.p. with the C. jejuni mutants. Inoculated birds were then orally challenged with the parental strain. Inoculation with the C. jejuni mutants did not provide protection from subsequent challenge with the wild-type strain. In addition, neither the C. jejuni parental nor the mutant strains caused any apparent morbidity or mortality of the chicks. We conclude that mutations in genes cadF, dnaJ, pldA, and ciaB impair the ability of C. jejuni to colonize the cecum, that chicks tolerate massive inoculation with these mutant strains, and that such inoculations do not provide biologically significant protection against colonization by the parental strain.
    Avian Diseases 07/2001; 45(3):549-57. DOI:10.2307/1592894 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    M E Konkel · SA Gray · B J Kim · S G Garvis · J Yoon
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans. Infection with C. jejuni or C. coli is commonly acquired by eating undercooked chicken. The goal of this study was to develop specific detection assays for C. jejuni and C. coli isolates based on the cadF virulence gene and its product. The cadF gene from C. jejuni and C. coli encodes a 37-kDa outer membrane protein that promotes the binding of these pathogens to intestinal epithelial cells. A fragment of approximately 400 bp was amplified from 38 of 40 (95%) C. jejuni isolates and 5 of 6 (83.3%) C. coli isolates with primers designed to amplify an internal fragment of the cadF gene. PCR was then used to amplify Campylobacter DNA from store-bought chickens. A 400-bp band was amplified from 26 of the 27 chicken carcasses tested by the PCR-based assay. The CadF protein was detected in every C. jejuni and C. coli isolate tested, as judged by immunoblot analysis with a rabbit anti-C. jejuni 37-kDa serum. In addition, methanol-fixed samples of whole-cell C. jejuni and C. coli were detected with the rabbit anti-37-kDa serum by using an indirect-immunofluorescence microscopy assay. These findings indicate that the cadF gene and its product are conserved among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates and that a PCR assay based on the cadF gene may be useful for the detection of Campylobacter organisms in food products.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/1999; 37(3):510-7. · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • S A Gray · M E Konkel
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram negative, microaerophilic pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans. The genome of C. jejuni is AT-rich, with a mol% G + C of 30.4. This high AT content was hypothesized to result in unique codon usage. In the present study, we analyzed the codon usage of sixty-seven C. jejuni genes and generated a codon frequency table. As predicted, the codon usage of C. jejuni revealed a strong bias towards codons ending in A or U. In addition to determining codon usage frequencies, the relative synonymous codon usage values were calculated to identify rare and optimal codons. Seventeen codons were identified as optimal and twelve codons as rare. Thirty-two codons exhibited little or no bias. A plot of the effective number of codons versus the third position %G + C values for the sixty-seven genes revealed that C. jejuni uses an average of 39 of the 61 codons to encode proteins. These data will be useful for various molecular analyses including selection of degenerate primers to screen C. jejuni-genomic DNA libraries.
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 02/1999; 473:231-5. · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • John D Klena · Sean A Gray · Michael E Konkel
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are common causes of gastrointestinal disease and a proportion of C. jejuni infections have been shown to be associated with the Guillain–Barré syndrome. The waaC gene from Campylobacter coli, involved in lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis, was cloned by complementation of a heptose-deficient strain of Salmonella typhimurium, as judged by novobiocin sensitivity, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific phage sensitivity, and polyacrylamide-resolved lipopolysaccharide profiles. The C. jejuni waaC gene was subsequently cloned using the waaC gene isolated from C. coli as a probe. The C. jejuni and C. coli waaC genes are capable of encoding proteins of 342 amino acids with calculated molecular masses of 39 381 Da and 39 317 Da, respectively. Sequence and in-vitro analyses suggested that the C. coli waaC gene may be transcribed from its own promoter. Translation of the C. coli waaC gene in a cell-free system yielded a protein with a Mr of 39 000. The waaC gene was detected in every C. jejuni and C. coli isolate tested as judged by dot-blot hybridization analysis. Southern hybridization analysis indicated that both Campylobacter species contain a single copy of the waaC gene. Unlike Escherichia coli and S. typhimurium isolates, the waaC gene in C. jejuni and C. coli isolates does not appear to be linked to the waaF (rfaF) gene.
    Gene 12/1998; 222(2-222):177-185. DOI:10.1016/S0378-1119(98)00501-0 · 2.08 Impact Factor