[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report progression of primary angle closure suspects (PACS) to primary angle closure (PAC) at the 5 year follow up of a population based sample.
82 of 118 PACS who could be contacted and 110 randomly selected normals from a population based survey in 1995 were invited for a follow up examination in 2000. Progression to PAC was based on the development of raised IOP or synechiae in a PACS.
50 of the 82 PACS contacted were examined. 11 (22%; 95% CI 9.8 to 34.2) developed PAC (seven synechial and four appositional); all were bilateral PACS. Two of 50 people previously diagnosed as PACS were reclassified as normal. One person among the 110 normals progressed to PAC. The relative risk of progression among PACS was 24 (95% CI 3.2 to 182.4). There was no significant difference in axial length, anterior chamber depth, or lens thickness between those who progressed and those who did not. None of the patients developed optic disc or field damage attributable to angle closure. One angle closure suspect was diagnosed to have normotensive glaucoma.
In this population based study of PACS the 5 year incidence of PAC was 22%; none developed functional damage. Bilateral PACS was a clinical risk factor for progression.
British Journal of Ophthalmology 05/2003; 87(4):450-4. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ophthalmologists are frequently confronted with treatment options that claim to be better than those currently in use. Statistically significant P values are invariably provided by way of proof. For many ophthalmologists a simple look at this revered P value is enough evidence that a statistically significant result has indeed been obtained. Unfortunately, traditional interpretation of a study based on the P value at an arbitrary cut-off (P<0.05 or any other value) limits the ability to fully appreciate clinical implications. In this article the authors introduce the reader to and illustrate the use of "confidence intervals" as opposed to P values in examining the applicability of study results. Further, what is statistically significant may not necessarily be clinically significant; perhaps not enough for the practitioner to change from the currently preferred method of treatment. To resolve this, the authors have also used common ophthalmic examples to introduce the "number needed to treat", as a simple clinical approach for the practising ophthalmologist wishing to assess the clinical significance of treatment options.
Journal of the Indian Medical Association 10/2001; 99(10):561-4, 566.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the ability of frequency doubling perimetry to detect "neuro-ophthalmic" field defects, characterize them as hemianopic or quadrantanopic, and differentiate glaucomatous from "other" neuro-ophthalmic field defects.
Sixty eyes of 30 normal subjects, 50 eyes of 29 patients with glaucomatous defects, and 138 eyes of 103 patients with "typical" neuro-ophthalmic field defects underwent automated perimetry using the Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm and frequency doubling perimetry. The sensitivity and specificity for identification of a field defect (frequency doubling perimetry 20-5 and 20-1 screening tests), or to characterize hemianopia/quadrantanopia (full threshold test) were determined. Ability to discriminate glaucomatous defects was determined by comparing frequency doubling perimetry full threshold test in glaucoma to pooled results of normal and neuro-ophthalmic groups.
On frequency doubling perimetry, a single point depressed to less than 1% probability had a sensitivity of 97.1% (20-5 test) and 95.7% (20-1 test) for detecting a neuro-ophthalmic visual field defect. The corresponding specificities were 95% using pooled results in normal subjects and patients with glaucoma and "other" neuro-ophthalmic field defects. In 20-5 screening a single abnormal point depressed to less than 2% probability level had a sensitivity of 98.6% (specificity 85%). Two abnormal points in the 20-1 screening depressed to less than 1% probability level had a specificity of 100% (sensitivity 84.8%). In frequency doubling perimetry full threshold, sensitivity and specificity for detection of hemianopia were 86.8% and 83.2%; for quadrantanopia they were 79.2% and 38.6%. The sensitivity and specificity for categorizing a defect as glaucomatous were 86% and 74.7%.
Frequency doubling perimetry is a sensitive and specific test for detecting "neuro-ophthalmic" field defects. The presence of two abnormal points (20-1 screening program) "rules in" the presence of a field defect. A normal 20-5 program (absence of a single abnormal point) almost "rules out" a defect. Frequency doubling perimetry could not accurately categorize hemianopic, quadrantanopic, or glaucomatous defects.
American Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2001; 131(6):734-41. · 3.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visual field testing is mandatory for many ophthalmic conditions including glaucoma. The current gold standard for visual field testing is automated perimetry. In this article we familiarize the reader with the components of an automated perimetry printout. We describe a systematic approach that leads to a thorough interpretation of the printout. With the help of examples the reader should be able to learn to identify a normal field, detect the presence of a field defect, determine whether it is due to glaucoma, and establish progression, if any.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2001; 49(2):125-40. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (1) To determine the agreement between optical and ultrasound pachometry for central corneal thickness measurements used to "correct" applanation intraocular pressure (IOP) readings. (2) To determine the inter- and intra-observer variability of optical and ultrasound pachometry.
Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured in a masked manner using optical and ultrasound pachometry in 50 normal eyes. To assess intra- and inter-observer variability, multiple masked measurements were obtained in 51 eyes (optical pachometry) and 34 eyes (ultrasound pachometry). Agreement was determined by a published technique that uses the mean of the differences, standard error (SE) and standard deviation (SD).
The mean difference in CCT between optical and ultrasound pachometry was 0.001 mm (SD 0.031 mm; SE 0.00439 mm). The mean inter-observer difference for the optical pachometer was 0.019 mm (SD 0.049 mm; SE 0.0069); the mean intra-observer difference was 0.003 mm (SD 0.017; SE 0.0.0024). The mean inter-observer difference for ultrasound pachometry was 0.001 mm (SD 0.009; SE 0.0015) and the mean intra-observer difference was 0.002 mm (SD 0.011; SE 0.0019).
Ultrasound pachometry is the more reliable method for the measurement of central corneal thickness used to correct applanation IOP values. Optical pachometry had good intra-observer variability. The range of error in IOP correction for corneal thickness (inter-observer) that can occur using the ultrasound pachometer is -1.2 mmHg to +1.4 mmHg as compared to -5.6 mmHg to +8.5 mmHg with the optical pachometer.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2001; 48(4):279-83. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether the use of pattern standard deviation instead of corrected pattern standard deviation, as part of Anderson's criteria, makes a difference in categorizing a single field printout using the full threshold strategy on the Humphrey's Field Analyzer.
Forty-eight patients with glaucomatous field defects of varying severity underwent full threshold perimetry on the Humphrey's Field Analyzer. The third field of one eye was used for the study. The agreement between CPSD and PSD alone was determined. Each field was then categorized using Anderson's criteria first using CPSD and then PSD. The kappa statistic was used to determine agreement in both situations.
The agreement between CPSD and PSD alone, as determined by kappa, was 0.77. The kappa statistic for categorization using Anderson's criteria was 0.82; the weighted kappa was 0.92.
There was almost perfect agreement using the PSD instead of CPSD as part of Anderson's criteria. This substitution seems valid for the spectrum of field defects used in this series, at least for the full threshold programs.
Journal of Glaucoma 01/2001; 9(6):480-2. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ophthalmologists are often confronted with difficult clinical management problems. In such cases, even published experience may be limited; consequently multiple, generally unproven management options are usually available. When placed in such situations, most of us decide on the most appropriate course of action based on intuition or (limited) previous experience. In this article, we use examples to introduce the concept of decision analysis, a method of generating objective decisions for complex clinical problems.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 04/1999; 47(1):41-8. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of central corneal thickness (CCT) on the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) and on the resultant reclassification of patients as having primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), normal tension glaucoma (NTG), or ocular hypertension (OHT).
Intraocular pressure (Goldmann applanation tonomety) and CCT (ultrasound pachymetry) were measured in 22 patients with NTG, 49 with POAG, 44 with OHT and in 18 control subjects. The CCT was used to obtain a corrected value for the IOP and to reclassify the type of glaucoma.
There was no significant difference in CCT between controls (552 +/- 35 microns) and patients with POAG (543 +/- 35 microns), but the CCT in the group with NTG (521 +/- 31 microns) was significantly lower than that in the control group or the group with POAG (P < .001), and the CCT in the group with OHT (583 +/- 34 microns) was significantly higher than in controls or patients with POAG (P < .001). Correcting IOP for corneal thickness, 31% of the patients with NTG could be reclassified as having POAG, and 56% of the patients with OHT as normal.
Patients with NTG have a thinner CCT than do patients with POAG or controls. Underestimation of the IOP in patients with POAG who have thin corneas may lead to a misdiagnosis of NTG, while overestimation of the IOP in normal subjects who have thick corneas may lead to a misdiagnosis of OHT.
Archives of Ophthalmology 02/1999; 117(1):14-6. · 3.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We retrospectively analyzed 135 eyes with phacolytic glaucoma. A trabeculectomy was added to standard cataract surgery if symptoms endured for more than seven days, or if preoperative control of intraocular pressure (IOP) with maximal medical treatment was inadequate. In the early postoperative period, IOP was significantly lower in the combined surgery group (89 eyes) compared to the cataract surgery group (46 eyes) (p < 0.001). At 6 months there was no difference in IOP or visual acuity between the two groups. There were no serious complications related to trabeculectomy. It is reasonable to conclude that in eyes with a long duration of phacolytic glaucoma, addition of a trabeculectomy to cataract surgery is safe, prevents postoperative rise in intraocular pressure and decreases the need for systemic hypotensive medications. A randomized trial is on to further address this question.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 09/1998; 46(3):139-43. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is fast emerging as a major cause of blindness in India. In order to estimate the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in an urban South Indian population, we examined 972 individuals aged 30-60 years, chosen using a cluster sampling technique from 12 census blocks of Vellore town. They underwent a complete ocular examination, including applanation tonometry and gonioscopy, at the Medical College Hospital. Characteristic field defects on automated perimetry was a diagnostic requisite for POAG. Prevalence (95% CI) of POAG, PACG, and ocular hypertension were 4.1 (0.08-8.1), 43.2 (30.14-56.3), and 30.8 (19.8-41.9) per 1,000, respectively. All the PACG cases detected were of the chronic type. Hitherto unavailable community-based information on primary glaucoma in our study population indicates that PACG is about five times as common as POAG.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 07/1998; 46(2):81-6. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of artificial drainage devices (ADDs) or "setons" in glaucoma surgery is generally restricted to patients with refractory glaucoma at high risk for failure from conventional filtration surgery. ADDs, both valved and nonvalved are currently available in this country. Recently, some of these devices have been propogated as primary treatment even for primary glaucomas. This article examines the role of ADDs in the modern management of the glaucomas. Specific indications for ADDs and methods to reduce the complication of overfiltration are discussed. The use of antimitotics, such as 5-fluorouracil or mitomycin, with traditional filtration has decreased the indications for ADDs. The literature and our experience confirm that currently there is no role for use of ADDs as a primary procedure in most glaucomas.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 04/1998; 46(1):41-6. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing popularity of phacoemulsification in our country raises important training issues. We prospectively analyzed the incidence of complications and visual outcomes in the initial 70 phacoemulsifications (70 patients) performed by the first two residents learning phacoemulsification in our training programme. Both were experienced in standard (manual) extracapsular cataract extraction. Postoperative follow up of 6 weeks or longer was available in 59 eyes. The 11 patients (11 eyes) lost to follow up did not have any intra-operative complications. The overall incidence of vitreous loss was 10%, similar to the frequency of this complication (determined retrospectively) in the first 70 standard extracapsular cataract extractions performed by the same residents. Intraocular lenses (IOL) were successfully implanted in 62 eyes, as planned. One IOL dislocated into the vitreous was successfully repositioned. Other complications encountered included superior corneal edema (3 eyes), iris damage inferiorly (7 eyes) and clinical cystoid macular edema (5 eyes). A best corrected visual acuity of 6/12 or better was obtained in 56 (94.8%) of the 59 eyes available for the six week follow up. In the eyes with vitreous loss, 6 out of 7 had visual acuity better than 6/12. No nuclei were lost into the vitreous. The rate of surgical complications for residents learning phacoemulsification in a supervised manner can be acceptably low.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 01/1998; 45(4):215-9. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When considering the results of a study that reports one treatment to be better than another, what the practicing ophthalmologist really wants to know is the magnitude of the difference between treatment groups. If this difference is large enough, we may wish to offer the new treatment to our own patients. Even in well executed studies, differences between the groups (the sample) may be due to chance alone. The "p" value is the probability that the difference observed between the groups could have occurred purely due to chance. For many ophthalmologists assessing this difference means a simple look this "p" value to convince ourselves that a statistically significant result has indeed been obtained. Unfortunately traditional interpretation of a study based on the "p" value at an arbitrary cut-off (of 0.05 or any other value) limits our ability to fully appreciate the clinical implications of the results. In this article we use simple examples to illustrate the use of "confidence intervals" in examining precision and the applicability of study results (means, proportions and their comparisons). An attempt is made to demonstrate that the use of "confidence intervals" enables more complete evaluation of study results than with the "p" value.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 07/1997; 45(2):119-23. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contrast sensitivity has been recommended as a screening and diagnostic test in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). We tested contrast sensitivity (CS) using Vistech charts in 184 eyes of 95 patients. Three groups were examined--established primary open angle glaucoma, glaucoma suspects and age matched controls. The distribution of contrast sensitivities amongst the three groups were similar. The median contrast sensitivity of glaucoma suspects and controls were well within normal limits while that of the POAG group fell along the lower limit of normal. In all three groups the younger subjects scored better than the older, indicating a depression of contrast sensitivity with increasing age. Even if depression of any one spatial frequency was considered abnormal, the test yielded a sensitivity of 55.4% and specificity of 69.5%. Similarly contrast sensitivity testing was found to be of little use in detecting field defects a maximum sensitivity of 47.3% and specificity of 73.3%. Vistech contrast sensitivity testing is not a useful test in POAG screening or diagnosis.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 07/1997; 45(2):99-103. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective review of 154 trabeculectomies with releasable sutures was performed to assess the effect of suture release on intraocular pressure (IOP) at various postoperative periods. Release of the suture was necessary in 38% of cases. The immediate reduction in IOP was significant (p < 0.01) when the suture was released during the first three postoperative weeks. Seventy percent of eyes had a reduction in IOP more than 5 mmHg if released within the first week compared to 20% after the third week. With suture release after the third postoperative week, there was no clinically significant decrease in IOP. The decrease in IOP was similar in eyes undergoing trabeculectomy alone or when cataract extraction through a separate corneal incision was undertaken simultaneously. The period during which release of suture was effective was not prolonged by use of antimetabolites. Complications included a typical windshield-wiper keratopathy (18 eyes), failure to release the suture (13 eyes), epithelial abrasion (6 eyes) and a sub-conjunctival bleed (1 eye).
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 03/1997; 45(1):37-41. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracapsular cataract extraction is still the most common type of operation performed in India, especially in eye camps, and most of these are done without magnification. To assess the surgical outcome of intracapsular cataract surgery in a rural hospital with various magnifying systems, 121 consecutive eyes (121 patients) with uncomplicated cataract were randomly allocated to surgery with the operating microscope, binocular loupe or unaided eye. The surgery was performed by either consultants or first year residents. The best corrected vision at least four weeks post-operatively was compared among the three groups. The performance between the consultants and the junior residents was also compared. The improvement of surgical outcome with magnification was statistically significant (p = 0.0045); and clinically important with a relative risk reduction of 60.6%. The comparison between microscope and loupe magnification did not show a significant difference (p = 0.24). However, with an operating microscope, the consultants performed significantly better than the junior residents. These findings suggest that the use of magnification in intracapsular cataract extraction provides a definite advantage over an unaided eye and that the binocular loupe is a good alternative to the operating microscope in this kind of surgery.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 10/1996; 44(3):179-82. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the reliability and validity of the flashlight test and van Herick's test in detecting occludable anterior chamber angles.
The flashlight test, van Herick's test and gonioscopy were performed independently by two observers on 96 consecutive new patients in our outpatient clinic. Interobserver agreement was determined using the weighted Kappa statistic. Using the glaucoma specialist's assessment of occludability of the angle (assessed by gonioscopy) as a gold standard, the sensitivities and specificities of the two tests were calculated.
All three tests showed good agreement (Kappa more than 0.75). The sensitivity and specificity on the flashlight test were 45.5% and 82.7% respectively. For the van Herick's test they were 61.9% and 89.3%.
The flashlight test and van Herick's test are of limited use as screening tests for occludable angles.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 09/1996; 24(3):251-6.