[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Efforts to improve the outcome of liver surgery by combining curative resection with chemotherapy have failed to demonstrate definite overall survival benefit. This may partly be due to the fact that these studies often involve strict inclusion criteria. Consequently, patients with a high risk profile as characterized by Fong’s Clinical Risk Score (CRS) are often underrepresented in these studies. Conceptually, this group of patients might benefit the most from chemotherapy. The present study evaluates the impact of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk patients with primary resectable colorectal liver metastases, without extrahepatic disease. Our hypothesis is that adding neo-adjuvant chemotherapy to surgery will provide an improvement in overall survival (OS) in patients with a high-risk profile.
CHARISMA is a multicenter, randomized, phase III clinical trial. Patients will be randomized to either surgery alone (standard treatment, arm A) or to 6 cycles of neo-adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, followed by surgery (arm B). Patients must be ≥ 18 years of age with liver metastases of histologically confirmed primary colorectal carcinoma. Patients with extrahepatic metastases are excluded. Liver metastases must be deemed primarily resectable. Only patients with a CRS of 3–5 are eligible. The primary study endpoint is OS. Secondary endpoints are progression free survival (PFS), quality of life, morbidity of resection, treatment response on neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and whether CEA levels can predict treatment response.
CHARISMA is a multicenter, randomized, phase III clinical trial that will provide an answer to the question if adding neo-adjuvant chemotherapy to surgery will improve OS in a well-defined high-risk patient group with colorectal liver metastases.
The CHARISMA is registered at European Union Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT), number: 2013-004952-39, and in the “Netherlands national Trial Register (NTR), number: 4893.
BMC Cancer 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1199-8 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For gastric cancer patients, surgical resection with en-bloc lymphadenectomy is the cornerstone of curative treatment. Open gastrectomy has long been the preferred surgical approach worldwide. However, this procedure is associated with considerable morbidity. Several meta-analyses have shown an advantage in short-term outcomes of laparoscopic gastrectomy compared to open procedures, with similar oncologic outcomes. However, it remains unclear whether the results of these Asian studies can be extrapolated to the Western population. In this trial from the Netherlands, patients with resectable gastric cancer will be randomized to laparoscopic or open gastrectomy.
The study is a non-blinded, multicenter, prospectively randomized controlled superiority trial. Patients (≥18 years) with histologically proven, surgically resectable (cT1-4a, N0-3b, M0) gastric adenocarcinoma and European Clinical Oncology Group performance status 0, 1 or 2 are eligible to participate in the study after obtaining informed consent. Patients (n = 210) will be included in one of the ten participating Dutch centers and are randomized to either laparoscopic or open gastrectomy. The primary outcome is postoperative hospital stay (days). Secondary outcome parameters include postoperative morbidity and mortality, oncologic outcomes, readmissions, quality of life and cost-effectiveness.
In this randomized controlled trial laparoscopic and open gastrectomy are compared in patients with resectable gastric cancer. It is expected that laparoscopic gastrectomy will result in a faster recovery of the patient and a shorter hospital stay. Secondly, it is expected that laparoscopic gastrectomy will be associated with a lower postoperative morbidity, less readmissions, higher cost-effectiveness, better postoperative quality of life, but with similar mortality and oncologic outcomes, compared to open gastrectomy. The study started on 1 December 2014. Inclusion and follow-up will take 3 and 5 years respectively. Short-term results will be analyzed and published after discharge of the last randomized patient.
BMC Cancer 12/2015; 15(1):556. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1551-z · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary complications are frequently observed after transthoracic oesophagectomy. These complications may be reduced by sparing the vagus nerve branches to the lung. However, current descriptions of the regional anatomy are insufficient. Therefore, we aimed to provide a highly detailed description of the course of the pulmonary vagus nerve branches. In six fixed adult human cadavers, bilateral microscopic dissection of the vagus nerve branches to the lungs was performed. The level of branching and the number, calibre and distribution of nerve branches were described. Nerve fibres were identified using neurofilament immunohistochemistry, and the nerve calibre was measured using computerized image analysis. Both lungs were supplied by a predominant posterior and a smaller anterior nerve plexus. The right lung was supplied by 13 (10-18) posterior and 3 (2-3) anterior branches containing 77% (62-100%) and 23% (0-38%) of the lung nerve supply, respectively. The left lung was supplied by a median of 12 (8-13) posterior and 3 (2-4) anterior branches containing 74% (60-84%) and 26% (16-40%) of the left lung nerve supply, respectively. During transthoracic oesophagectomy with en bloc lymphadenectomy and transection of the vagus nerves at the level of the azygos vein, 68-100% of the right lung nerve supply and 86-100% of the inferior left lung lobe nerve supply were severed. When vagotomy was performed distally to the last large pulmonary branch, 0-8% and 0-13% of the nerve branches to the right middle/inferior lobes and left inferior lobe, respectively, were lost. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed description of the extensive pulmonary nerve supply provided by the vagus nerves. During oesophagectomy, extensive mediastinal lymphadenectomy denervates the lung to a great extent; however, this can be prevented by performing the vagotomy distal to the caudalmost large pulmonary branch. Further research is required to determine the feasibility of sparing the pulmonary vagus nerve branches without compromising the completeness of lymphadenectomy.
Journal of Anatomy 09/2015; 227(4):431-439. DOI:10.1111/joa.12366 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strategies for the treatment of recurrence after initial curative esophagectomy are increasingly being recognized. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors that affect survival in patients with recurrence and to evaluate treatment strategies.
A prospective database (2003-2013) was used to collect consecutive patients with esophageal carcinoma treated with initial curative esophagectomy. Locations, symptoms, and treatment of recurrence were registered. Post-recurrence survival was defined as the time between the first recurrence and death or last follow-up.
Of the 335 selected patients, 171 (51 %) developed recurrence. Multivariable analysis identified distant recurrence as opposed to locoregional recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) 2.15, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.27-3.65; p = 0.005], more than three recurrent locations (HR 2.42, 95 % CI 1.34-4.34; p = 0.003), and treatment (HR 0.29, 95 % CI 0.20-0.44; p < 0.001) as independent prognostic factors associated with post-recurrence survival. Primary tumor characteristics, including neoadjuvant therapy, histological type, pTN stage, and radicality, did not independently influence post-recurrence survival. Treatment was initiated in 62 patients (37 %) and included chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and/or surgery. Median post-recurrence survival of all patients was 3.0 months (range 0-112). In total, six patients (4 %) were still disease-free following treatment, indicating cure.
In patients treated for esophageal cancer at curative intent, distant recurrence and more than three recurrent locations were independent prognostic factors associated with worse post-recurrence survival, irrespective of primary tumor characteristics. Although survival after recurrence was poor, treatment can prolong survival and can even lead to cure in selected patients.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 09/2015; DOI:10.1245/s10434-015-4840-5 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resection of breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) combined with systemic treatment is increasingly accepted as a therapeutic option; however, the potential benefit of repeat hepatectomy for recurrent BCLM is unknown.
All consecutive female patients who underwent liver resection for BCLM at our center between January 1985 and December 2012 were included. Patients who had a single hepatectomy (N = 120) were compared with those who also underwent repeat hepatectomy (N = 19). Patients were selected for repeat hepatectomy based on operability and disease control. Prognostic factors of survival after repeat hepatectomy were determined.
Median overall survival since first hepatectomy was 35 months, with a 3- and 5-year survival rate of 50 and 38 %, respectively. Overall survival following repeat hepatectomy was 64 and 46 % at 3 and 5 years, respectively. From the time of first hepatectomy, patients who underwent repeat hepatectomy had a better survival than those who had only one hepatectomy (95 and 84 vs. 50 and 38 % at 3 and 5 years, respectively) (p = 0.002). Median survival was 35 and 100 months, respectively, and median survival since the diagnosis of BCLM was 51 and 112 months in the single and repeat hepatectomy groups, respectively. Since the time of diagnosis, overall 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 75, 57, and 44 %, respectively, for all 139 patients. Improved overall survival after repeat hepatectomy was related to a time interval between breast cancer diagnosis and first hepatectomy of >2 years, a limited hepatectomy, solitary liver metastasis, positive progesterone receptor status, and chemotherapy following repeat hepatectomy. Patients with single BCLM at first hepatectomy had a 3- and 5-year overall survival rate of 76 and 76 % compared with 51 and 17 % in patients with multiple metastases (p = 0.023).
In selected patients with BCLM, repeat hepatectomy for liver recurrence combined with systemic treatment provided survival rates comparable to those after first hepatectomy.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 08/2015; DOI:10.1245/s10434-015-4785-8 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: - Liver metastases have the poorest prognosis of all types of breast cancer metastases, with a 5-year survival rate of 0 to 12%.- In comparison, the 5-year overall survival rate of patients with colorectal liver metastases undergoing curative liver resection is approximately 30 to 40% and even 50% in selected patients.- Partial liver resection in combination with systemic treatment for patients with hepatogenic metastases from breast cancer may lead to improved survival rates for selected patients.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 07/2015; 159:A8453.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results from the recent CROSS trial showed that neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) significantly increased survival as compared to surgery alone in patients with potentially curable esophageal cancer. Furthermore, in the nCRT arm 49% of patients with a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 23% of patients with an adenocarcinoma (AC) had a pathologically complete response in the resection specimen. These results provide a rationale to reconsider and study the timing and necessity of esophagectomy in (all) patients after application of the CROSS regimen.
We propose a "surgery as needed" approach after completion of nCRT. In this approach, patients will undergo active surveillance after completion of nCRT. Surgical resection would be offered only to those patients in whom residual disease or a locoregional recurrence is highly suspected or proven. However, before a surgery as needed approach in oesophageal cancer patients (SANO) can be tested in a randomized controlled trial, we aim to determine the accuracy of detecting the presence or absence of residual disease after nCRT (preSANO trial).
This study is set up as a prospective, single arm, multicenter, diagnostic trial. Operable patients with potentially curable SCC or AC of the esophagus or esophagogastric junction will be included. Approximately 4-6 weeks after completion of nCRT all included patients will undergo a first clinical response evaluation (CRE-I) including endoscopy with (random) conventional mucosal biopsies of the primary tumor site and of any other suspected lesions in the esophagus and radial endo-ultrasonography (EUS) for measurement of tumor thickness and area. Patients in whom no locoregional or disseminated disease can be proven by cytohistology will be offered a postponed surgical resection 6-8 weeks after CRE-I (ie, approximately 12-14 weeks after completion of nCRT). In the week preceding the postponed surgical resection, a second clinical response evaluation (CRE-II) will be planned that will include a whole body PET-CT, followed again by endoscopy with (random) conventional mucosal biopsies of the primary tumor site and any other suspected lesions in the esophagus, radial EUS for measurement of tumor thickness and area, and linear EUS plus fine needle aspiration of PET-positive lesions and/or suspected lymph nodes. The main study parameter is the correlation between the clinical response assessment during CRE-I and CRE-II and the final pathological response in the resection specimen.
The first patient was enrolled on July 23, 2013, and results are expected in January 2016.
If this preSANO trial shows that the presence or absence of residual tumor can be predicted reliably 6 or 12 weeks after completion of nCRT, a randomized trial comparing nCRT plus standard surgery versus chemoradiotherapy plus "surgery as needed" will be conducted (SANO trial).
Netherlands Trial Register: NTR4834; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4834 (archived by Webcite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Ze7mn67B).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose. Sealing esophageal anastomoses with a sealant patch (TachoSil) containing human fibrinogen and thrombin may improve mechanical strength. The aim was to evaluate the technical feasibility of the application of a sealant patch in upper gastrointestinal surgery. Methods. In total 15 patients, 18-80 years old, undergoing thoracolaparoscopic esophagectomy with esophagogastrostomy or laparoscopic total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was included. Different techniques of anastomotic TachoSil patch application were tested and recorded on video. Results. TachoSil was successfully applied to the esophagogastrostomy () and to the esophagojejunostomy (). A median of 2 (1-6) attempts was necessary to reach successful application. The median duration was 7 (3-26) minutes before successful application was accomplished. The best technique in esophagectomy was the application of TachoSil with the use of 2 cellophane sheets. For total gastrectomy, the patch was folded into a harmonica shape and wrapped around the esophagojejunostomy. Although not significant, the number of attempts and time to success showed a decreasing trend along with the increased experience. Conclusion. Application of TachoSil as a sealant of esophageal anastomoses was technically feasible. Future studies may investigate the value of TachoSil application on the prevention of anastomotic leakage.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice 06/2015; 2015:1-6. DOI:10.1155/2015/534080 · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Open transthoracic esophagectomy is the worldwide gold standard in the treatment of resectable esophageal cancer. Robot-assisted minimally invasive thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy (RAMIE) for esophageal cancer may be associated with reduced blood loss, shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and less cardiopulmonary morbidity; however, long-term oncologic results have not been reported to date.
Between June 2007 and September 2011, a total of 108 patients with potentially resectable esophageal cancer underwent RAMIE at the University Medical Centre Utrecht, with curative intent. All data were recorded prospectively.
Median duration of the surgical procedure was 381 min (range 264-636). Pulmonary complications were most common and were observed in 36 patients (33 %). Median ICU stay was 1 day, and median overall postoperative hospital stay was 16 days. In-hospital mortality was 5 %. The majority of patients (78 %) presented with T3 and T4 disease, and 68 % of patients had nodal-positive disease (cN1-3). In 65 % of patients, neoadjuvant treatment (chemotherapy 57 %, chemoradiotherapy 7 %, radiotherapy 1 %) was administered, and in 103 (95 %) patients, a radical resection (R0) was achieved. The median number of lymph nodes was 26, median follow-up was 58 months, 5-year overall survival was 42 %, median disease-free survival was 21 months, and median overall survival was 29 months. Tumor recurrence occurred in 51 patients and was locoregional only in 6 (6 %) patients, systemic only in 31 (30 %) patients, and combined in 14 (14 %) patients.
RAMIE was shown to be oncologically effective, with a high percentage of R0 radical resections and adequate lymphadenectomy. RAMIE provided good local control with a low percentage of local recurrence at long-term follow up.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2015; DOI:10.1245/s10434-015-4544-x · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3) families with diagnoses of both DGC and LBC (one diagnosis before the age of 50). Additionally, CDH1 testing could be considered in patients with bilateral or familial LBC before the age of 50, patients with DGC and cleft lip/palate, and those with precursor lesions for signet ring cell carcinoma. Given the high mortality associated with invasive disease, prophylactic total gastrectomy at a centre of expertise is advised for individuals with pathogenic CDH1 mutations. Breast cancer surveillance with annual breast MRI starting at age 30 for women with a CDH1 mutation is recommended. Standardised endoscopic surveillance in experienced centres is recommended for those opting not to have gastrectomy at the current time, those with CDH1 variants of uncertain significance and those that fulfil hereditary DGC criteria without germline CDH1 mutations. Expert histopathological confirmation of (early) signet ring cell carcinoma is recommended. The impact of gastrectomy and mastectomy should not be underestimated; these can have severe consequences on a psychological, physiological and metabolic level. Nutritional problems should be carefully monitored.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Journal of Medical Genetics 05/2015; 52(6). DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103094 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E-cadherin, β-catenin, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), neuronal cadherin (N-cadherin) and Cyclin D1 are involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the prognostic significance of EMT markers in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) is unknown. Aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of, and the association between different EMT markers in OAC.
Tumour cores of 154 patients with OAC were included in a tissue microarray. Scoring criteria was based on immunohistochemical staining intensity.
EMT-associated markers were expressed in OAC: reduced membranous E-cadherin and β-catenin were seen in 11.4% and 51.7%, nuclear β-catenin in 19.1% and EGFR and Cyclin D1 overexpression in 56.5% and 27.4% of tumours. Mesenchymal marker N-cadherin was not expressed in OAC. A positive correlation was seen between membranous β-catenin and E-cadherin expression (R=0.209, p=0.001) and between EGFR and Cyclin D1 (R=0.257, p=0.002). In univariate analysis, EGFR overexpression and membranous β-catenin staining were significantly associated with a poor survival (HR 2.145; 95% CI 1.429 to 3.218, p<0.001 and HR 1.665; 95% CI 1.114 to 2.488; p=0.013). However, Cyclin D1 (HR 1.092; 95% CI 0.702 to 1.698; p=0.697), nuclear β-catenin (HR 1.322; 95% CI 0.799 to 2.189; p=0.277) and E-cadherin (HR 1.012; 95% CI 0.554 to 1.851; p=0.968) were not associated with survival. In multivariate analysis, EGFR overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for poor survival (HR 1.678; 95% CI 1.055 to 2.668; p=0.029) together with T stage (HR 2.759; 95% CI 1.356 to 5.576; p=0.005).
This study supports the presence of EMT in OAC. Moreover, EGFR overexpression was independently associated with a poor survival.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Perioperative epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine (ECC) chemotherapy was evaluated in patients who underwent esophageal resection for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ).
A cohort of 93 consecutive patients was analyzed. The median follow-up period was 60 months. Source data verification of adverse events was performed by two independent observers.
All three planned preoperative chemotherapy cycles were administered to 65 patients (69.9 %). Only 27 % of the patients completed both pre- and postoperative chemotherapy. The reasons for not receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy could be separated in two main problems: toxicity of the preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative problems involving difficulty in recovery and postoperative complications. Finally, 25 patients (27 %), completed three preoperative and three postoperative cycles. Grades 3 and 4 nonhematologic adverse events of preoperative chemotherapy mainly consisted of thromboembolic events (16.2 %) and cardiac complications (7.5 %). A history of cardiac and vascular disease was independently associated with discontinuation of preoperative chemotherapy and the occurrence of grade 3 or higher adverse events. Surgery was performed for 94 % of all the patients who started with ECC chemotherapy. A radical resection (R0) was achieved in 93 % of the patients. A complete pathologic response was observed in 8 % of the patients. During a median follow-up period of 60 months, the median disease-free survival time was 28 months, and the median overall survival time was 36 months. The 3-year overall survival rate was 50 %, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 42 %.
For patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or GEJ, six cycles of ECC-based perioperative chemotherapy is associated with a relatively high number of adverse events. Although this toxicity did not affect the esophageal resectability rate, this regimen should be used with caution in this patient population.