Robert A Rosenheck

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (759)3059.33 Total impact

  • Kathryn Hefner · Robert Rosenheck · Mehmet Sofuoglu
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabis use is common among patients taking prescription opioids, although rates of concomitant cannabis use disorder (CUD) have been largely unexamined. CUD may increase safety risks in those taking opioid pain medications but it is unknown whether cannabis and opioids function as substitutes (cannabis use is associated with less prescription opioid use), or rather as complements (cannabis is associated with increased use of prescription opioids). We examined rates of CUD in a national sample of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients (n = 1,316,464) with non-cancer pain diagnoses receiving opioid medications in fiscal year 2012. Using bivariate analysis to identify potentially confounding variables associated with CUD (eg, psychotropic medication, other substance use disorders) in this population, we then utilized logistic regression to examine rates of cannabis use disorder among individuals receiving different numbers of opioid prescriptions (0, 1-2, 3-10, 11-19, 20+). Descriptive analysis, largely confirmed by logistic regression, demonstrated that greater numbers of prescription opioid fills were associated with greater likelihood of CUD. This relationship was reduced somewhat for those receiving the most opioid prescriptions (20+) in the logistic regression, which controlled for potentially confounding variables. These results warrant increased attention to CUDs among patients receiving numerous opioid prescriptions. Increasing legalization of cannabis is likely to further increase use and abuse of cannabis in patients prescribed opioids. These findings suggest that clinicians should be alert to concomitant CUD and prescription opioid use, as these substances appear to complement each other. (Am J Addict 2015;XX:1-8). © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
    American Journal on Addictions 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/ajad.12260 · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Eric Hermes · Robert Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Using national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data, this study evaluated differences in psychotropic medication use between homeless and non-homeless adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who used VHA services in 2010. The adjusted mean number of psychotropic prescription fills associated with homeless individuals were identified using regression models adjusted for socio-demographics, diagnoses, and use of health services. Of the 876,989 individuals with SMI using VHA services, 7.2 % were homeless at some time during 2010. In bivariate analysis, homeless individuals filled more psychotropic medication prescriptions compared with non-homeless individuals. However, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables, homeless individuals were found to have filled 16.2 % fewer prescriptions than non-homeless individuals when all psychotropics were analyzed together (F = 6947.1, p < .001) and for most individual classes of psychotropics. Greater use of residential/inpatient mental health services by the homeless was the most important single factor associated with filling more psychotropic prescriptions than non-homeless individuals.
    Community Mental Health Journal 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10597-015-9904-2 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There continues to be an increase in the number of Vietnam-era veterans receiving a diagnosis of PTSD in the Veterans Health Administration, nearly four decades after Vietnam. In the present study, our aim was to better understand what prompts Vietnam-era veterans to present to a VHA mental health clinic, and to determine the meaning of this experience for them. Participants were interviewed regarding the experiences that prompted their visit to the mental health clinic at a VA medical center. Ensuing narratives were analyzed via phenomenological qualitative methods. Findings revealed that veterans did not hold a clear and determinate understanding of "PTSD" prior to attending the mental health clinic. Their engagement was instead the culmination of a long process wherein trusted others (e.g., family, other veterans, primary care doctors) suggested that their difficulties may be indicative of a problematic pattern that required attention beyond the everyday ways of dealing with them. In general, veterans suffered from a longstanding experience of social rejection, abandonment, and even betrayal following the war, including pervasive stigmatizations and perceived "weaknesses," and their own preferences for self-reliance over inattentive social and governmental institutions. Many veterans were newly focused on renewing meaning and purpose in their lives. The findings suggest the need to build stronger bridges between the VA and veterans' community supports, who greatly influenced veterans' care seeking. Further efforts to welcome Vietnam-era veterans home, validate their experiences of rejection and abandonment, and respectfully process their ensuing pain and anger are warranted.
    Psychiatric Quarterly 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11126-015-9382-2 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this project was to develop an evidence-based method to assess the ability of disabled persons to manage federal disability payments. This article describes the development of the Financial Incapability Structured Clinical Assessment done Longitudinally (FISCAL) measure of financial capability. The FISCAL was developed by an iterative process of literature review, pilot testing, and expert consultation. Independent assessors used the FISCAL to rate the financial capability of 118 participants (57% female, 58% Caucasian) who received Social Security disability payments, had recently been treated in acute care facilities for psychiatric disorders, and who did not have representative payees or conservators. Altogether, 48% of participants were determined financially incapable by the FISCAL, of whom 60% were incapable because of unmet basic needs, 91% were incapable because of spending that harmed them (e.g., on illicit drugs or alcohol), 56% were incapable because of both unmet needs and harmful spending, and 5% were incapable because of contextual factors. As expected, incapable individuals scored higher on a measure of money mismanagement (p < .001) compared with capable individuals. Interrater reliability for FISCAL capability determinations was very good (κ = .77) and interrater agreement was 89%. In this population, the FISCAL had construct validity; ratings demonstrated good reliability and correlated with a related measure. Potentially, the FISCAL can be used to validate other measures of capability and to help understand how people on limited incomes manage their funds. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Assessment 07/2015; DOI:10.1037/pas0000179 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    Kendell L Coker · Elina Stefanovics · Robert Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Substantial rates of substance use comorbidity have been observed among veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), highlighting the need to identify patient and program characteristics associated with improved outcomes for substance abuse. Data were drawn from 12,270 dually diagnosed veterans who sought treatment from specialized intensive Veterans Health Administration PTSD programs between 1993 and 2011. The magnitude of the improvement in Addiction Severity Index (ASI) alcohol and drug use composite scores from baseline was moderate, with effect sizes (ES) of -.269 and -.287, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that treatment in longer-term programs, being prescribed psychiatric medication, and planned participation in reunions were all associated with slightly improved outcomes. Reductions in substance use measures were associated with robust improvements in PTSD symptoms and violent behavior. These findings suggest not only synergistic treatment effects linking improvement in PTSD symptoms with substance use disorders among dually diagnosed veterans with PTSD, but also to reductions in violent behavior. Furthermore, the findings indicate that proper discharge planning in addition to intensity and duration of treatment for dually diagnosed veterans with severe PTSD may result in better outcomes. Further dissemination of evidence-based substance abuse treatment may benefit this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy 06/2015; DOI:10.1037/tra0000061 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    Ni Fan · Ke Xu · Yuping Ning · Daping Wang · Xiaoyin Ke · Yi Ding · Bin Sun · Chao Zhou · Xuefeng Deng · Robert Rosenheck · Hongbo He
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    ABSTRACT: Ketamine is an increasingly popular drug of abuse in China but there is currently no method for classifying the psychological effects of ketamine in individuals with ketamine dependence. Develop a scale that characterizes the acute and long-term psychological effects of ketamine use among persons with ketamine dependence. We developed a preliminary symptom checklist with 35 dichotomous ('yes' or 'no') items about subjective feelings immediately after ketamine use and about perceived long-term effects of ketamine use that was administered to 187 inpatients with ketamine dependence recruited from two large hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on a randomly selected half of thesample to reduce the items and to identify underlying constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the second half of the sample to assess the robustness of the identified factor structure. Among the 35 symptoms, the most-reported acute effects were 'floating or circling' (94%), 'euphoric when listening to rousing music' (86%), and 'feeling excited, talkative, and full of energy' (67%). The mostreported long-term symptoms were 'memory impairment' (93%), 'personality changes' (86%), and 'slowed reactions' (81%). EFA resulted in a final 22-item scale best modelled by a four-factor model: two factors representing chronic symptoms (social withdrawal and sleep disturbances), one about acute psychoticlike symptoms, and one that combined acute drug-related euphoria and longer-term decreased libido. CFA showed that these 4 factors accounted for 50% of the total variance of the final 22-item scale and that the model fit was fair (Goodness of Fit Index, GIF=83.3%; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, RMSEA=0.072). A four-factor model including social withdrawal, sleep disturbance, psychotic-like symptoms, and euphoria at the time of drug use provides a fair description of the short-term and long-term psychological symptoms associated with ketamine use. Future work on the 22-item version of the scale with larger samples is needed to confirm the validity of this 4-factor structure, to assess the scale's test-retest reliability, and to determine whether or not it can be useful in the differential diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of individuals with ketamine dependence.
    06/2015; 27(3):186-94. DOI:10.11919/j.issn.1002-0829.214158
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    ABSTRACT: No large-scale randomized trial has compared the effect of different second-generation antipsychotic drugs and any first-generation drug on alcohol, drug and nicotine use in patients with schizophrenia. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness study randomly assigned 1432 patients formally diagnosed with schizophrenia to four second-generation antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone quetiapine, and ziprasidone) and one first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) and followed them for up to 18 months. Secondary outcome data documented cigarettes smoked in the past week and alcohol and drug use severity ratings. At baseline, 61% of patients smoked, 35% used alcohol, and 23% used illicit drugs. Although there were significant effects of time showing reduction in substance use over the 18 months (all p < 0.0001), this study found no evidence that any antipsychotic was robustly superior to any other in a secondary analysis of data on substance use outcomes from a large 18-month randomized schizophrenia trial.
    The Journal of nervous and mental disease 06/2015; 203(7). DOI:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000317 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    Greg A. Greenberg · Robert A. Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Past research has found that veterans are at modestly greater risk than non-veterans for homelessness. Most attempts to explain these findings have focused on sociodemographic risk factors such as age, race, and prevalent mental illness. Less attention has been given to a potential proximate explanation of homelessness, housing status (i.e., home ownership and housing cost burden). We used data from the 2006 American Community Survey to examine whether male veterans in age-race/ethnic groups at greatest risk of homelessness are also less likely to own a home than matched male non-veterans, and whether they have a greater likelihood of experiencing housing cost burdens that could put them at risk of homelessness. Compared to non-veterans, recently discharged veterans and veterans from the immediate post-Vietnam era, veteran cohorts at greatest relative risk of homelessness were significantly less likely than their non-veteran peers to own their home while other cohorts of veterans were significantly more likely to own their home. However, veterans of virtually all ethnic and age groups were significantly and substantially less likely than their non-veteran peers to experience severe housing cost burdens. These data suggest that housing status does not explain the increased risk of homelessness among selected veteran subgroups.
    06/2015; 36(1):75-94. DOI:10.1080/08882746.2009.11430571
  • Jack Tsai · Robert A Rosenheck · Wesley J Kasprow · Vincent Kane
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    ABSTRACT: The study examined the number of homeless veterans with minor children in their custody ("children in custody"), compared sociodemographic and clinical characteristics among homeless veterans with and without children in custody, and observed differences in referral and admission patterns among veterans with and without children in custody for a variety of U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) programs for homeless veterans. Data were obtained from the VA Homeless Operations Management and Evaluation System for 89,142 literally homeless and unstably housed veterans. Sociodemographic, housing, health, and psychosocial characteristics of veterans were analyzed. Among literally homeless veterans, 9% of men and 30% of women had children in custody; among unstably housed veterans, 18% of men and 45% of women had children in custody. Both male and female veterans with children in custody were younger and less likely to have chronic general medical conditions and psychiatric disorders compared with other veterans, but, notably, 11% of homeless veterans with children in custody had psychotic disorders. Veterans with children in custody were more likely than other veterans to be referred and admitted to the VA's permanent supported housing program, and women were more likely than men to be admitted to the program. A substantial proportion of homeless veterans served by the VA have severe mental illness and children in custody, which raises concerns about the parenting environment for their children. Particular focus should be directed at VA's supported-housing program, and the practical and ethical implications of serving homeless parents and their children need to be considered.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 05/2015; DOI:10.1176/appi.ps.201400300 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Gihyun Yoon · Ismene L Petrakis · Robert A Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: This study assesses medical and psychiatric comorbidities, service utilization, and psychotropic medication prescriptions in veterans with comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) relative to veterans with MDD alone. Using cross-sectional administrative data (fiscal year [FY]2012: October 1, 2011-September 30, 2012) from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), we identified veterans with a diagnosis of current (12-month) MDD nationally (N = 309,374), 18.8% of whom were also diagnosed with current (12-month) AUD. Veterans with both MDD and AUD were compared to those with MDD alone on sociodemographic characteristics, current (12-month) medical and psychiatric disorders, service utilization, and psychotropic prescriptions. We then used logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of characteristics that were independently different between the groups. Dually diagnosed veterans with MDD and AUD, relative to veterans with MDD alone, had a greater number of comorbid health conditions, such as liver disease, drug use disorders, and bipolar disorder as well as greater likelihood of homelessness and higher service utilization. Dually diagnosed veterans with MDD and AUD had more frequent medical and psychiatric comorbidities and more frequently had been homeless. These data suggest the importance of assessing the presence of comorbid medical/psychiatric disorders and potential homelessness in order to provide appropriately comprehensive treatment to dually diagnosed veterans with MDD and AUD and indicate a need to develop more effective treatments for combined disorders. (Am J Addict 2015;XX:XX -XX). © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
    American Journal on Addictions 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/ajad.12219 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This quantitative study sought to compare beliefs about the manifestation, causes and treatment of mental illness and attitudes toward people with mental illness among health professionals from five countries: the United States, Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria, and China. A total of 902 health professionals from the five countries were surveyed using a questionnaire addressing attitudes towards people with mental illness and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. Chi-square and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare age and gender of the samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to confirm the structure and fit of the hypothesized model based on data from a previous study that identified four factors: socializing with people with mental illness (socializing), belief that people with mental illness should have normal roles in society (normalizing), non-belief in supernatural causes (witchcraft or curses), and belief in bio-psycho-social causes of mental illness (bio-psycho-social). Analysis of Covariance was used to compare four factor scores across countries adjusting for differences in age and gender. Scores on all four factors were highest among U.S. professionals. The Chinese sample showed lowest score on socializing and normalizing while the Nigerian and Ghanaian samples were lowest on non-belief in supernatural causes of mental illness. Responses from Brazil fell between those of the U.S. and the other countries. Although based on convenience samples of health professional robust differences in attitudes among health professionals between these five countries appear to reflect underlying socio-cultural differences affecting attitudes of professionals with the greater evidence of stigmatized attitudes in developing countries.
    Psychiatric Quarterly 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11126-015-9363-5 · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Eric D.A. Hermes · Jack Tsai · Robert Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined interest in computerized psychotherapies (CPTs) and its relation to use of information technology among individuals receiving Veterans Health Administration (VHA) outpatient treatment. Veterans receiving treatment in a VHA substance use disorder outpatient clinic completed a self-report questionnaire. The survey addressed recent experience using information technology and potential interest in using CPTs for symptoms/functional problems associated with substance use and mental health disorders. Demographic, diagnostic, and information technology use data were compared between those expressing interest in CPT and those not expressing an interest, as well as with nationally representative veteran data from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans (NSV). Of 151 respondents, 82% were interested in CPT for at least one problem, and 60% were interested for more than one. The most commonly selected CPTs were for substance use (46%), depression (45%), problem solving (43%), and insomnia (42%). None of the 23 measures of information technology use was associated with interest in CPTs. Compared with respondents not interested in any CPTs, those interested in CPT were older (t150=2.1, p=0.042) and more likely to be African American [χ(2)(1)=8.8, p=0.032], to have reported a drug use disorder [χ(2)(1)=4.2, p=0.041], and to have reported more than one substance use or psychiatric disorder [χ(2)(1)=8.5, p=0.014]. The majority of respondents reported use of Internet and e-mail (65% and 64%, respectively), proportions comparable to respondents to the NSV. Among veterans receiving outpatient substance use treatment, interest in CPT is high and unrelated to information technology use. Efforts to implement CPTs may interest this population.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 04/2015; DOI:10.1089/tmj.2014.0215 · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Carla Marienfeld · Robert A Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Co-morbidity and co-prescription patterns of people with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance may complicate their treatment and have not been studied. The goal of this study was to examine the care and characteristics of people with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatmentnationally in the Veterans health Administration (VHA). Using national VHA data from FY2012, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to compare veterans in methadone maintenance treatment who had a serious mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major affective disorder) to patients in methadone maintenance treatment without serious mental illness and patients with serious mental illness who were not in methadone maintenance treatment. Only a small fraction of patients with serious mental illness were receiving methadone maintenance treatment (0.65%), but a relatively large proportion in methadone maintenance treatment had a serious mental illness (33.2%). Compared to patients without serious mental illness, patients with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatment were more likely to have been homeless, have had a recent psychiatric hospitalization; more likely to be over 50% disabled, more fills for more classes of psychotropic drugs. Compared to other patients with serious mental illness, patients with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatment were more likely to have a drug abuse diagnosis and to reside in large urban areas. One third of patients in methadone maintenance treatment have serious mental illness have more frequent psychiatric comorbidity, and homelessness and are more likely to use psychiatric and general health services and fill more types of psychiatric prescriptions. Further study and clinical awareness of potential drug-drug interactions in this high medication and service using population are needed.
    Journal of Dual Diagnosis 03/2015; 11(2). DOI:10.1080/15504263.2015.1025024 · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used national data for fiscal year 2012 to examine demographic, psychiatric and medical diagnoses, indications for psychotropics, and service use correlates of psychotropic medication fills in Veterans with at least 10 opioid prescriptions during the year (the highest 29% of opioid users); and whether the Veteran was treated in a specialty mental health clinic. Of the 328,398 Veterans who filled at least 10 opioid prescriptions, 77% also received psychotropics, of whom: 74% received antidepressants, 55% anxiolytics/sedatives/hypnotics, and 26% three or more classes of psychotropic medications. Altogether, 87% had a psychiatric or medical indication; and 54% received mental health treatment. Veterans treated in a mental health clinic were prescribed more psychotropics and were more likely to have a documented psychiatric or medical indication than those treated solely in other settings. Indicated psychiatric diagnoses were the strongest predictors of specific class of psychotropics prescribed; anxiety disorder and insomnia were most strongly associated with anxioloytics/sedatives/hypnotics receipt. Since psychotropics and opioids can produce harmful side effects, especially when combined, and since they are likely prescribed by separate providers in different settings, coordinated consideration of the risks and benefits of co-prescribing these medications may be needed, along with further study of related adverse events. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    03/2015; 227(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.03.006
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    ABSTRACT: Comprehensive coordinated specialty care programs for first-episode psychosis have been widely implemented in other countries but not in the United States. The National Institute of Mental Health's Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode (RAISE) initiative focused on the development and evaluation of first-episode treatment programs designed for the U.S. health care system. This article describes the background, rationale, and nature of the intervention developed by the RAISE Early Treatment Program project-known as the NAVIGATE program-with a particular focus on its psychosocial components. NAVIGATE is a team-based, multicomponent treatment program designed to be implemented in routine mental health treatment settings and aimed at guiding people with a first episode of psychosis (and their families) toward psychological and functional health. The core services provided in the NAVIGATE program include the family education program (FEP), individual resiliency training (IRT), supported employment and education (SEE), and individualized medication treatment. NAVIGATE embraces a shared decision-making approach with a focus on strengths and resiliency and on collaboration with clients and family members in treatment planning and reviews. The NAVIGATE program has the potential to fill an important gap in the U.S. health care system by providing a comprehensive intervention specially designed to meet the unique treatment needs of persons recovering from a first episode of psychosis. A cluster-randomized controlled trial comparing NAVIGATE with usual community care has recently been completed.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 03/2015; 66(7):appips201400413. DOI:10.1176/appi.ps.201400413 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The premise of the National Institute of Mental Health Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) is to combine state-of-the-art pharmacologic and psychosocial treatments delivered by a well-trained, multidisciplinary team in order to significantly improve the functional outcome and quality of life for first-episode psychosis patients. The study is being conducted in non-academic (ie, real-world) treatment settings, using primarily extant reimbursement mechanisms. We developed a treatment model and training program based on extensive literature review and expert consultation. Our primary aim is to compare the experimental intervention to "usual care" on quality of life. Secondary aims include comparisons on remission, recovery, and cost-effectiveness. Patients 15-40 years old with a first episode of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified, or brief psychotic disorder according to DSM-IV and no more than 6 months of treatment with antipsychotic medications were eligible. Patients are followed for a minimum of 2 years, with major assessments conducted by blinded, centralized raters using live, 2-way video. We selected 34 clinical sites in 21 states and utilized cluster randomization to assign 17 sites to the experimental treatment and 17 to usual care. Enrollment began in July 2010 and ended in July 2012 with 404 subjects. The results of the trial will be published separately. The goal of the article is to present both the overall development of the intervention and the design of the clinical trial to evaluate its effectiveness. We believe that we have succeeded in both designing a multimodal treatment intervention that can be delivered in real-world clinical settings and implementing a controlled clinical trial that can provide the necessary outcome data to determine its impact on the trajectory of early phase schizophrenia. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01321177. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 03/2015; 76(3):240-6. DOI:10.4088/JCP.14m09289 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment guidelines suggest distinctive medication strategies for first-episode and multiepisode patients with schizophrenia. To assess the extent to which community clinicians adjust their usual treatment regimens for first-episode patients, the authors examined prescription patterns and factors associated with prescription choice in a national cohort of early-phase patients. Prescription data at study entry were obtained from 404 participants in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Project's Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP), a nationwide multisite effectiveness study for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Treatment with antipsychotics did not exceed 6 months at study entry. The authors identified 159 patients (39.4% of the sample) who might benefit from changes in their psychotropic prescriptions. Of these, 8.8% received prescriptions for recommended antipsychotics at higher than recommended dosages; 32.1% received prescriptions for olanzapine (often at high dosages), 23.3% for more than one antipsychotic, 36.5% for an antipsychotic and also an antidepressant without a clear indication, 10.1% for psychotropic medications without an antipsychotic, and 1.2% for stimulants. Multivariate analysis showed evidence for sex, age, and insurance status effects on prescription practices. Racial and ethnic effects consistent with effects reported in previous studies of multiepisode patients were found in univariate analyses. Despite some regional variations in prescription practices, no region consistently had different practices from the others. Diagnosis had limited and inconsistent effects. Besides prescriber education, policy makers may need to consider not only patient factors but also service delivery factors in efforts to improve prescription practices for first-episode schizophrenia patients.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 03/2015; 172(3):237-48. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13101355 · 13.56 Impact Factor
  • Jack Tsai · Robert A Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: There has long been concern that public support payments are used to support addictive behaviors. This study examined the amount of money homeless veterans spend on alcohol and drugs and the association between public support income, including VA disability compensation, and expenditures on alcohol and drugs. Methods: Data were from 1,160 veterans from 19 sites on entry into the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric analyses were conducted. Results: About 33% of veterans reported spending money on alcohol and 22% reported spending money on drugs in the past month. No significant association was found between public support income, VA disability compensation, and money spent on alcohol and drugs. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of homeless veterans spend some income on alcohol and drugs, but disability income, including VA compensation, does not seem to be related to substance use or money spent on addictive substances.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 03/2015; 66(6):appips201400245. DOI:10.1176/appi.ps.201400245 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    Hongbo He · Yanling Zhou · Bin Sun · Yaoguang Guo · Robert A Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Caregiver burden is an important issue that needs to be addressed when developing management programs for persons with chronic mental illnesses, but there is, as yet, no reliable way for assessing this in China. Assess the validity and reliability of a brief adapted Chinese version of the Family Experience Interview Schedule (FEIS) among caregivers of inpatients with mental disorders in China. We first translated and back-translated the original 114-item FEIS and administered it to 606 primary caregivers of psychiatric inpatients. After excluding 9 items about sociodemographic variables and 9 items that over 15% of respondents were unable to answer, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis using a random half of the sample on the remaining 96 items and, based on the results of the factor analysis, selected the items to be included in the final shortened scale. Correlation analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and internal consistency measures were used to assess the reliability and validity of the final scale using data from the second half of the sample. The final scale included 28 items that loaded on five dimensions: (a) patients' violent behavior; (b) patients' suicidal tendency; (c) caregivers' depression and anxiety; (d) disruption of caregivers' daily routines; and (e) caregivers' satisfaction with health services. These five dimensions explained 50.5% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis found reasonable fit of this 5-factor model (χ (2) /df=2.94, p<0.001, goodness-of-fit index [GFI]=0.85, comparative fit index [CFI]=0.85, root-mean-square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.08). The correlation coefficients between each item and the corresponding factor were all above 0.5. The Cronbach α coefficient of the entire scale was 0.76 and that for the five dimensions varied between 0.71 and 0.84. The five dimensions of family burden assessed by the 28-item brief Chinese version of FEIS have good internal consistency and, thus, appear to assess valid dimensions of family burden in Chinese caregivers of persons with serious mental illnesses. Further work is needed to assess the test-retest reliability of this scale and its sensitivity to change over time.
    02/2015; 27(1):55-61. DOI:10.11919/j.issn.1002-0829.214138
  • Jack Tsai · Robert A Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    Epidemiologic Reviews 01/2015; 37(1). DOI:10.1093/epirev/mxu004 · 7.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

24k Citations
3,059.33 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2015
    • Boston University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Southern California
      • Marshall School of Business
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • Hospital Nuestra Señora del Rosario
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1990–2015
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1997–2014
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2011
    • University of South Florida
      Tampa, Florida, United States
  • 2010
    • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
      • Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Centers - MIRECC
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      • Gerontology Institute
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2002–2010
    • West Haven University
      West Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • California State University, Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2009
    • Penn State Hershey Medical Center and Penn State College of Medicine
      • Public Health Sciences
      Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New York, New York, United States
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 2007
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Manhattan, NY, United States
    • Emory University
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Sociology
      Amherst Center, MA, United States
  • 2003
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001
    • Boston College, USA
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998–2001
    • United States Department of Veterans Affairs
      Бедфорд, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1997–2001
    • University of Connecticut
      • Department of Psychology
      Storrs, Connecticut, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1999
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Wesleyan University
      • Department of Psychology
      Middletown, CT, United States
  • 1993–1998
    • National Center for PTSD
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1992–1997
    • Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Hospital
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States