R L Bornschein

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States

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Publications (11)25.5 Total impact

  • L S Rafales, R L Bornschein, V Caruso
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    ABSTRACT: The onset of acrylamide related toxicity and indications of recovery were evaluated using several behavioral tasks. Rats were chronically housed and tested for the first 15 weeks of the study in running wheels where food and water consumption and activity were continuously monitored. Separate groups of animals were repeatedly tested on at least one additional behavioral task: an operant schedule FR20 GO/NO-GO, spontaneous and drug-induced locomotor activity, drug-induced asymmetric rotation, or splaying of the hindlimbs. Animals were administered acrylamide monomer in their drinking water (100 ppm) for a six week period. Behavioral evaluations were initiated up to six weeks prior to acrylamide exposure and continued up to 12 weeks after termination of the exposure. Operant behavior and spontaneous locomotor activity in an open field were not affected by acrylamide exposure. Nocturnal activity in running wheels was decreased, and hindlimb splay increased by exposure to acrylamide. Subsequent to injections of d-amphetamine locomotor activity in an "open field" was markedly increased following exposure to acrylamide. d-Amphetamine induced asymmetric rotation was also altered following acrylamide exposure. It is suggested that this altered pharmacological response was due to an effect of acrylamide on hepatic mechanisms or on central dopaminergic function.
    Neurobehavioral toxicology and teratology 01/1982; 4(3):355-64.
  • R L Bornschein, L Hastings, J M Manson
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    ABSTRACT: Rats divided in four treatment groups were exposed to dichloromethane (DCM) (4500 ppm) or filtered air before and/or during gestation in order to assess the occurrence and extent of toxic effects on developing offspring. The progeny of dams exposed to DCM either prior to and/or during gestation exhibited altered rates of behavioral habituation to novel environments. No simple relationship between exposure period and behavioral outcome was observed. Each of the treatment groups showed effects as a function of age at testing and the behavioral task used. Treatment effects were detectable in offspring as early as 10 days of age and were still demonstrable in 150-day-old male rats. Treatment effects were observed in rats of both sexes in preweaning tests but were not seen in adult female rats. No effects of subacute DCM exposure were evident in growth rate, long-term food and water consumption, wheel running activity, or avoidance learning. This study, which should be viewed as preliminary, is cf interest since altered rates of habituation to novel environments were observed in the absence of overt maternal toxicity, or teratogenicity. The effects cannot be definitely attributed to a direct effect of DCM since elevated maternal carboxyhemoglobin (COHb)- or DCM-induced changes in maternal-litter interactions could have been contributing factors. The findings do suggest that the functional development of progency of DCM-exposed dams should be further investigated.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 02/1980; 52(1):29-37. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Female rats were exposed by inhalation to trichloroethylene (TCE) vapors at a concentration of 1800 +/- 200 ppm to determine whether exposure before mating and during pregnancy is more detrimental to reproductive outcome than exposure either before mating alone or during pregnancy alone. Four treatment groups were utilized in a two by two factorial design: exposure to TCE for 2 weeks before mating and during the first 20 days of pregnancy; TCE before mating and filtered air during pregnancy; filtered air before mating and TCE during pregnancy; and filtered air before and during pregnancy. Significant elevations in skeletal and soft tissue anomalies, indicative of developmental delay in maturation rather than teratogenesis, were observed in the group exposed during pregnancy alone. The mixed function oxidase enzymes, ethoxycoumarin and ethoxyresorufin, indicative of cytochrome P-450 and P-448 activities, respectively, were measured in maternal and fetal livers, as well as livers of non-pregnant females, and showed variable levels of activity not uniformly related to treatment or pregnancy. Behavioral evaluation of offspring indicated a lack of treatment effect in tests of general activity levels at 10, 20 and 100 days of age. However, a reduction in postnatal body weights was seen in offspring from mothers with pregestational exposure. No results indicative of treatment-related maternal toxicity, embryotoxicity, severe teratogenicity or significant behavioral deficits were obtained in any of the treatment groups.
    Toxicology 11/1979; 14(2):153-66. · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • B B Gelman, I A Michaelson, R L Bornschein
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    ABSTRACT: Neonatal rats were given aqueous lead acetate intragastrically from d 2-20 of life at doses of 0, 10, 50, and 225 mg Pb/kg.d. Blood Pb concentrations on d 21 were (mean +/- SE) 23 +/- 3 (control), 63 +/- 19, 246 +/- 55, and 994 +/- 223 microgram/100 ml, and brain Pb concentrations were 14 +/- 2, 60 +/- 5, 114 +/- 15, and 275 +/- 26 microgram/100 g, respectively. Growth was significantly depressed only in rats given the highest dose of Pb (225 mg/kg.d). Solvent-extractable lipofuscin pigment concentration of brain tissue progressively decreased over the 21-d duration of the experiment but was not significantly altered at any dose of Pb. Brain glutathione peroxidase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activities were stimulated on d 20 at the maximal dose of Pb, but the activities of brain superoxide dismutases and catalase were not altered by Pb exposure. Locomotor activity was significantly increased in the male animals on d 20, but only at the highest dose of Pb. These results indicate that Pb toxicity in neonatal rats is not associated with accelerated in vivo lipid peroxidation in the brain, but that certain oxidant defense mechanisms in the brain are stimulated by Pb.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 08/1979; 5(4):683-98. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rats exposed to lead via the maternal milk were tested at maturity on three different visual discrimination tasks. Starting at parturition the dams were given either tap water, 0.20% sodium acetate, 0.02% lead acetate, or 0.20% lead acetate in the drinking water. At weaning, the pups from all the groups were placed on normal chow and tap water. At 20 days of age, the concentration of lead in the blood and brain of the high lead-exposed offspring was approximately 6 times that of controls (11 microgram% vs 66 microgram%). A significant deficit was found in the ability of the high lead-exposed group to acquire a simultaneous visual discrimination task conducted in an operant chamber. No significant differences were observed in the ability of lead-exposed rats to acquire either a successive visual discrimination task or a cued go/no-go discrimination. Thee results suggest that early lead exposure can affect certain behavioral processes and that the effects may persist even after the rat has reached maturity.
    Neurobehavioral toxicology 02/1979; 1(3):227-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Three interrelated studies were conducted to examine the locomotor activity of lead-exposed mice. The effects of lead were examined as a function of the dose and duration of exposure. Exposure during the first three weeks occurred via the maternal milk supply. Exposure following weaning was achieved via the water supply. Mice received challenges with various pharmaceutical agents, including d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, apomorphine and phenobarbital. The spontaneous activity prior to injection and the drug-induced activity were monitored. Lead-exposed mice usually displayed spontaneous activity which was indistinguishable from that of the control animals. In only one set of observations did lead exposure result in a modest increase in spontaneous activity. The drug-induced activity varied in a complex manner as a function of the magnitude and duration of the lead exposure. Depressed body weight, which was concurrent with high lead exposure (0.5% Pb(Ac)2) was also a significant parameter affecting both the spontaneous and drug-induced activity.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 02/1979; 10(1):95-104. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • I A Michaelson, L S Rafales, R L Bornschein, R K Loch
    Psychopharmacology bulletin 08/1978; 14(3):48-50. · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • R K Loch, L S Rafales, I A Michaelson, R L Bornschein
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of neonatal growth retardation on subsequent spontaneous activity and activity following d-amphetamine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was studied in CD-1 mice. Different growth rates were obtained by raising mice in litters of either 8 or 16 sucklings per lactating dam. The testing protocol was specifically designed to duplicate a procedure used to assess the influence of neonatal lead exposure on locomotor activity. At 35 to 37 days of age mice were individually tested for general locomotor activity and drug response. Developmental growth retardation influenced their pattern of habituation to the test apparatus and their locomotor response to emphetamine. It was concluded that growth retardation may partially account for behavioral effects previously attributed to the neurotoxic effects of viruses, 6-hydroxydopamine or inorganic lead.
    Life Sciences 07/1978; 22(22):1963-70. · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • T E Levine, R L Bornschein, I A Michaelson
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    ABSTRACT: An automated technique for the study of visual discrimination learning in mice has been developed. The technique utilizes a nose-poke as the operant response. The nose-poke response requires no shaping, has a relatively high operant level and can be used to measure preacquisition exploratory behavior. CD-1 mice acquired a simultaneous brightness discrimination readily but a successive brightness discrimination proved more difficult. A 20 sec intertrial interval was optimal for acquisition of the simultaneous discrimination. Reversal learning was slow. This procedure should prove useful in the study of the effects of pharmacologic and toxic agents on learning and performance in both weanlings and adult mice.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 01/1978; 7(6):567-70. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rats exposed to lead via maternal milk were tested at various stages of development on a number of behavioral tasks. Beginning at paturition, the dams were given either tap water, 0.02%, or 0.10% lead acetate in the drinking water. Pups from all three groups were weaned to normal chow and tap water at 21 days of age. The mean lead concentration of the dam's blood and of neonatal (20 days of age) brain and blood were all below 50 microgram/100 ml. No significant differences were found between the high lead-exposed group and controls in general as measured by wheel running over a 21 day period beginning at 30 days of age. However, there was a significant difference in wheel running behavior during the first three hr of testing. Both lead-exposed groups were found to display significantly less aggressive behavior as measured by the shock-elicited aggression test. Low level lead exposure had no discernable effect on the acquisition and subsequent reversal of a successive brightness discrimination task. Lead exposure under these conditions appears to affect some aspects of emotional behavior, while having little effect on general activity or cognitive function.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 08/1977; 7(1):37-42. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • R L Bornschein, D A Fox, I A Michaelson
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the concentration of lead in milk on a specific day of lactation and volume consumed enables estimation of total daily lead exposure. There are limited data available on volume of milk consumed per 24 hr by a neonatal rat. The volume of milk consumed each day can, however, be estimated with knowledge of the caloric requirements necessary to maintain normal daily growth and caloric value of milk during lactation. Average caloric requirements per gram body weight in neonatal rats in approximately 0.40 kcal/g/day. Caloric values of milk range from 2.62 to 1.48 kcal/ml on Day 1 through Day 18 of lactation. Estimated milk consumption increases from 0.65 ml/pup on Day 1 to 15.51 ml on Day 18. Using these values, one can estimate daily lead intake by pups drinking lead-contaminated milk. A 24-hr cross-fostering study in 13-day-old rats indicated that theoretical estimates of lead body burden were 100 ± 5% of the actual lead body burden.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 07/1977; 40(3):577-87. · 3.98 Impact Factor