Steve Croft

CSU Mentor, Long Beach, California, United States

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Publications (46)134.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A number of different classes of stars, sub-stellar objects, and stellar remnants exhibit variability at radio wavelengths on time scales ranging from sub-seconds to hours. The direction toward the Galactic center not only has the highest stellar densities in the Galaxy, but also appears to have a range of interstellar scattering properties that may aid in the detection of new, radio-selected transient events. We have examined all archival VLA observations of the Galactic center field from 1985 to 2005 at 5 GHz and 8.4 GHz for a total of 214 hours of integration time, spanning 99 observations at 5 GHz with a typical area of 4.41E-4 square degrees and 116 observations at 8.4 GHz with a typical area of 8E-4 square degrees. We used a pipeline to search for transient events down to the shortest time scales allowed by the data (typically 10 seconds) by generating model-subtracted visibility data for each observation and then imaging the residual visibilities over short time intervals to search for outlier events. We present one radio transient event and at least 7 other promising candidates with significances ranging from 5.6 to 10.2 sigma that have passed all our tests, and discuss the possible source classes for these candidates and the event rate implications. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation for this work. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from a total of 459 repeated 3.1 GHz radio continuum observations (of which 379 were used in a search for transient sources) of the ELAIS-N1, Coma, Lockman Hole, and NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey fields as part of the Pi GHz Sky Survey (PiGSS). The observations were taken approximately once per day between 2009 May and 2011 April. Each image covers 11.8 square degrees and has 100 arcsecond FWHM resolution. Deep images for each of the four fields have rms noise between 180 and 310 uJy and the corresponding catalogs contain ~200 sources in each field. Typically 40 - 50 of these sources are detected in each single-epoch image. This represents one of the shortest cadence, largest area, multi-epoch surveys undertaken at these frequencies. We compare the catalogs generated from the combined images to those from individual epochs, and from monthly averages, as well as to legacy surveys. We undertake a search for transients, with particular emphasis on excluding false positive sources. We find no confirmed transients, defined here as sources that can be shown to have varied by at least a factor 10. However, we find one source which brightened in a single-epoch image to at least six times the upper limit from the corresponding deep image. We also find a source associated with a z = 0.6 quasar which appears to have brightened by a factor of about three in one of our deep images, when compared to catalogs from legacy surveys. We place new upper limits on the number of transients brighter than 10 mJy: fewer than 0.08 transients / sq. deg. with characteristic timescales of months to years; fewer than 0.02 / sq. deg. with timescales of months; and fewer than 0.009 / sq. deg with timescales of days. We also plot upper limits as a function of flux density for transients on the same timescales.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 762(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Searches for slow radio transients and variables have generally focused on extragalactic populations, and the basic parameters of Galactic populations remain poorly characterized. We present a large 3 GHz survey performed with the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) that aims to improve this situation: ASGARD, the ATA Survey of Galactic Radio Dynamism. ASGARD observations spanned 2 years with weekly visits to 23 deg^2 in two fields in the Galactic Plane, totaling 900 hr of integration time on science fields and making it significantly larger than previous efforts. The typical blind unresolved source detection limit was 10 mJy. We describe the observations and data analysis techniques in detail, demonstrating our ability to create accurate wide-field images while effectively modeling and subtracting large-scale radio emission, allowing standard transient-and-variability analysis techniques to be used. We present early results from the analysis of two pointings: one centered on the microquasar Cygnus X-3 and one overlapping the Kepler field of view (l = 76{\deg}, b = +13.5{\deg}). Our results include images, catalog statistics, completeness functions, variability measurements, and a transient search. Out of 134 sources detected in these pointings, the only compellingly variable one is Cygnus X-3, and no transients are detected. We estimate number counts for potential Galactic radio transients and compare our current limits to previous work and our projection for the fully-analyzed ASGARD dataset.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 762(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae and orphan afterglows of gamma ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of five seconds and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia 07/2012; 30. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from daily radio continuum observations of the Boötes field as part of the Pi GHz Sky Survey (PiGSS). These results are part of a systematic and unbiased campaign to characterize variable and transient sources in the radio sky. The observations include 78 individual epochs distributed over five months at a radio frequency of 3.1 GHz with a median rms image noise in each epoch of 2.8 mJy. We produce five monthly images with a median rms of 0.6 mJy. No transient radio sources are detected in the daily or monthly images. At 15 mJy, we set an upper limit (2σ) to the surface density of one-day radio transients at 0.025 deg–2. At 5 mJy, we set an upper limit (2σ) to the surface density of one-month radio transients at 0.18 deg–2. We also produce light curves for 425 sources and explore the variability properties of these sources. Approximately 20% of the sources exhibit some variability on daily and monthly timescales. The maximum rms fractional modulations on the one-day and one-month timescales for sources brighter than 10 mJy are 2 and 0.5, respectively. The probability of a daily fluctuation for all sources and all epochs by a factor of 10 is less than 10–4. We compare the radio to mid-infrared variability for sources in the field and find no correlation. Finally, we apply the statistics of transient and variable populations to constrain models for a variety of source classes.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2011; 739(2):76. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a 50 ks Chandra ACIS-I X-ray observation of the Bower et al. VLA archival field. The observations reach a limiting sensitivity of ~1E-4 counts/s, corresponding to a flux of a few times 1E-15 erg/s/cm^2 for the models we explore. The Chandra observations were undertaken to search for X-ray counterparts to the eight transient sources without optical counterparts, and the two transient sources with optical counterparts seen by Bower et al. Neither of the sources with optical counterparts was detected in X-rays. One of the eight optical non-detections is associated with a marginal (2.4 sigma) X-ray detection in our Chandra image. A second optically-undetected Bower et al. transient may be associated with a z=1.29 X-ray detected quasar or its host galaxy, or alternatively is undetected in X-rays and is a chance association with the nearby X-ray source. The X-ray flux upper limits, and the one marginal detection, are consistent with the interpretation of Ofek et al. that the optically-undetected radio transients are flares from isolated old Galactic neutron stars. The marginal X-ray detection has a hardness ratio which implies a temperature too high for a simple one-temperature neutron star model, but plausible multi-component fits are not excluded, and in any case the marginal X-ray detection may be due to cosmic rays or particle background. The X-ray flux upper limits are also consistent with flare star progenitors more distant than approximately 1 kpc (which would require the radio luminosity of the transient to be unusually high for such an object) or less extreme flares from brown dwarfs at distances of around 100 pc.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2011; 740(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a cm-wave interferometer in California, comprising 42 antenna elements with 6-m diameter dishes. We characterize the antenna optical accuracy using two-antenna interferometry and radio holography. The distortion of each telescope relative to the average is small, with RMS differences of 1% of beam peak value. Holography provides images of dish illumination, characterizing as-built mirror surfaces. Maximal distortions across ~ 2 meter lengths appear to result from mounting stresses or solar radiation. Experimental RMS errors are 0.7 mm at night and 3 mm under worst-case solar illumination. For frequencies 4, 10, and 15 GHz, the nighttime values indicate sensitivity losses of 1, 10 and 20%, respectively. ATA's wide-bandwidth receiver permits observations over a continuous range 0.5-11.2 GHz. We probe the antenna optical gain and beam pattern stability as a function of focus position and observation frequency, concluding that ATA can produce high fidelity images over a decade of simultaneous observation frequencies. We quantify solar heating effects on antenna sensitivity and pointing accuracy. We find that during the day, observations >;5 GHz will suffer some sensitivity loss and it may be necessary to make antenna pointing corrections on a 1-2 hourly basis.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 07/2011; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have observed 37 bright, polarized radio sources with the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) to present a novel analysis of their Faraday rotation properties. Each source was observed during the commissioning phase with two to four 100 MHz bands at frequencies ranging from 1 to 2 GHz. These observations demonstrate how the continuous frequency coverage of the ATA's log-periodic receiver can be applied to the study of Faraday rotation measures (RMs). We use RM synthesis to show that wide-bandwidth data can find multiple RM components toward a single source. Roughly a quarter of the sources studied have extra RM components with high confidence (brighter than 40 mJy), when observing with an RM resolution of roughly 100 rad m–2. These extra components contribute 10%-70% of the total polarized flux. This is the first time multiple RM components have been identified in a large sample of point sources. For our observing configuration, these extra RM components bias the measurement of the peak RM by 10-15 rad m–2; more generally, the peak RM cannot be determined more precisely than the RM beam size. Comparing our 1-2 GHz RM spectra to Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) polarimetric maps shows that both techniques can identify complicated Faraday structures in the sources. However, the RM values and fractional polarization are generally smaller at lower frequencies than in the higher frequency VLBA maps. With a few exceptions, the RMs from this work are consistent with that of earlier, narrow-bandwidth, all-sky surveys. This work also describes the polarimetry calibration procedure and that on-axis ATA observations of linear polarization can be calibrated to an accuracy of 0.2% of Stokes I. Future research directions include studying the time-dependent RM structure in active galactic nuclei and enabling accurate, wide-area RM surveys to test models of Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2011; 728(1):57. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present our second paper on the Allen Telescope Array Twenty-centimeter Survey (ATATS), a multi-epoch, ~700 deg2 radio image and catalog at 1.4 GHz. The survey is designed to detect rare, bright transients as well as to commission the ATA's wide-field survey capabilities. ATATS explores the challenges of multi-epoch transient and variable source surveys in the domain of dynamic range limits and changing (u, v) coverage. Here, we present images made using data from the individual epochs, as well as a revised image combining data from all ATATS epochs. The combined image has rms noise sigma = 3.96 mJy beam-1, with a circular beam of 150'' FWHM. The catalog, generated using a false detection rate algorithm, contains 4984 sources and is >90% complete to 37.9 mJy. The catalogs generated from snapshot images of the individual epochs contain between 1170 and 2019 sources over the 564 deg2 area in common to all epochs. The 90% completeness limits of the single-epoch catalogs range from 98.6 to 232 mJy. We compare the catalog generated from the combined image to those from individual epochs, and from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, a legacy survey at the same frequency. We are able to place new constraints on the transient population: fewer than 6 × 10-4 transients deg-2, for transients brighter than 350 mJy with characteristic timescales of minutes to days. This strongly rules out an astronomical origin for the ~1 Jy sources reported by Matsumura et al. based on their stated rate of 3.1 × 10-3 deg-2.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2011; 731. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Pi GHz Sky Survey (PiGSS) is a key project of the Allen Telescope Array. PiGSS is a 3.1 GHz survey of radio continuum emission in the extragalactic sky with an emphasis on synoptic observations that measure the static and time-variable properties of the sky. During the 2.5 year campaign, PiGSS will twice observe ~250,000 radio sources in the 10,000 deg2 region of the sky with b>30° to an rms sensitivity of ~1 mJy. Additionally, sub-regions of the sky will be observed multiple times to characterize variability on timescales of days to years. We present here observations of a 10 deg2 region in the Boötes constellation overlapping the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey field. The PiGSS image was constructed from 75 daily observations distributed over a 4 month period and has an rms flux density between 200 and 250 μJy. This represents a deeper image by a factor of 4-8 than we will achieve over the entire 10,000 deg2. We provide flux densities, source sizes, and spectral indices for the 425 sources detected in the image. We identify ~100 new flat-spectrum radio sources; we project that when completed PiGSS will identify 104 flat-spectrum sources. We identify one source that is a possible transient radio source. This survey provides new limits on faint radio transients and variables with characteristic durations of months.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2010; 725(2):1792. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Image quality in mosaicked observations from interferometric radio telescopes is strongly dependent on the accuracy with which the antenna primary beam is calibrated. The next generation of radio telescope arrays such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) have key science goals that involve making large mosaicked observations filled with bright point sources. We present a new method for calibrating the shape of the telescope’s mean primary beam that uses the multiple redundant observations of these bright sources in the mosaic. The method has an analytical solution for simple Gaussian beam shapes but can also be applied to more complex beam shapes through χ minimization. One major benefit of this simple, conceptually clean method is that it makes use of the science data for calibration purposes, thus saving telescope time and improving accuracy through simultaneous calibration and observation. We apply the method both to 1.43 GHz data taken during the ATA Twenty Centimeter Survey (ATATS) and to 3.14 GHz data taken during the ATA’s Pi Gigahertz Sky Survey (PiGSS). We find that the beam’s calculated full width at half-maximum (FWHM) values are consistent with the theoretical values, the values measured by several independent methods, and the values from the simulation we use to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data from future telescopes such as the expanded ATA and the SKA. These results are preliminary and can be expanded upon by fitting more complex beam shapes. We also investigate, by way of a simulation, the dependence of the accuracy of the telescope’s FWHM on antenna number. We find that the uncertainty returned by our fitting method is inversely proportional to the number of antennas in the array.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 12/2010; 122(898):1510-1517. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper introduces the Multi-wavelength Extreme Starburst Sample (MESS), a new catalog of 138 star-forming galaxies (0.1 < z < 0.3) optically selected from the SDSS using emission line strength diagnostics to have high absolute SFR (minimum 11 solar masses per year, with median SFR approx 61 solar masses per year based on a Kroupa IMF). The MESS was designed to complement samples of nearby star-forming galaxies such as the luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), and ultraviolet luminous galaxies (UVLGs). Observations using the multiband imaging photometer (MIPS; 24, 70, and 160{\mu}m channels) on the Spitzer Space Telescope indicate the MESS galaxies have IR luminosities similar to those of LIRGs, with an estimated median LTIR ~ 3e11 solar luminosities. The selection criteria for the MESS suggests they may be less obscured than typical far-IR selected galaxies with similar estimated SFRs. 20 out of 70 of the MESS objects detected in the GALEX FUV band also appear to be UV luminous galaxies. We estimate the SFRs based directly on luminosities to determine the agreement for these methods in the MESS. We compare to the emission line strength technique, since effective measurement of dust attenuation plays a central role in these methods. We apply an image stacking technique to the VLA FIRST survey radio data to retrieve 1.4 GHz luminosity information for 3/4 of the sample covered by FIRST including sources too faint, and at too high a redshift, to be detected in FIRST. We also discuss the relationship between the MESS and samples selected through alternative criteria. Morphologies will be the subject of a forthcoming paper. Comment: 59 pages, 19 figures, accepted for publication in AJ
    10/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The Pi GHz Sky Survey (PiGSS) is a key project of the Allen Telescope Array. PiGSS is a 3.1 GHz survey of radio continuum emission in the extragalactic sky with an emphasis on synoptic observations that measure the static and time-variable properties of the sky. During the 2.5-year campaign, PiGSS will twice observe ~250,000 radio sources in the 10,000 deg^2 region of the sky with b > 30 deg to an rms sensitivity of ~1 mJy. Additionally, sub-regions of the sky will be observed multiple times to characterize variability on time scales of days to years. We present here observations of a 10 deg^2 region in the Bootes constellation overlapping the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey field. The PiGSS image was constructed from 75 daily observations distributed over a 4-month period and has an rms flux density between 200 and 250 microJy. This represents a deeper image by a factor of 4 to 8 than we will achieve over the entire 10,000 deg^2. We provide flux densities, source sizes, and spectral indices for the 425 sources detected in the image. We identify ~100$ new flat spectrum radio sources; we project that when completed PiGSS will identify 10^4 flat spectrum sources. We identify one source that is a possible transient radio source. This survey provides new limits on faint radio transients and variables with characteristic durations of months. Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ; revision submitted with extraneous figure removed
    09/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Allen Telescope Array Twenty-centimeter Survey (ATATS), a multi-epoch (12 visits), 690 deg2 radio image and catalog at 1.4 GHz. The survey is designed to detect rare, very bright transients as well as to verify the capabilities of the ATA to form large mosaics. The combined image using data from all 12 ATATS epochs has rms noise σ = 3.94 mJy beam–1 and dynamic range 180, with a circular beam of 150'' FWHM. It contains 4408 sources to a limiting sensitivity of 5σ = 20 mJy beam–1. We compare the catalog generated from this 12 epoch combined image to the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS), a legacy survey at the same frequency, and find that we can measure source positions to better than ~20''. For sources above the ATATS completeness limit, the median flux density is 97% of the median value for matched NVSS sources, indicative of an accurate overall flux calibration. We examine the effects of source confusion due to the effects of differing resolution between ATATS and NVSS on our ability to compare flux densities. We detect no transients at flux densities greater than 40 mJy in comparison with NVSS and place a 2σ upper limit of 0.004 deg–2 on the transient rate for such sources. These results suggest that the 1 Jy transients reported by Matsumara et al. may not be true transients, but rather variable sources at their flux density threshold.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2010; 719(1):45. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Allen Telescope Array Twenty-centimeter Survey (ATATS), a multi-epoch (12 visits), 690 square degree radio image and catalog at 1.4GHz. The survey is designed to detect rare, very bright transients as well as to verify the capabilities of the ATA to form large mosaics. The combined image using data from all 12 ATATS epochs has RMS noise sigma = 3.94mJy / beam and dynamic range 180, with a circular beam of 150 arcsec FWHM. It contains 4408 sources to a limiting sensitivity of S = 20 mJy / beam. We compare the catalog generated from this 12-epoch combined image to the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS), a legacy survey at the same frequency, and find that we can measure source positions to better than ~20 arcsec. For sources above the ATATS completeness limit, the median flux density is 97% of the median value for matched NVSS sources, indicative of an accurate overall flux calibration. We examine the effects of source confusion due to the effects of differing resolution between ATATS and NVSS on our ability to compare flux densities. We detect no transients at flux densities greater than 40 mJy in comparison with NVSS, and place a 2-sigma upper limit on the transient rate for such sources of 0.004 per square degree. These results suggest that the > 1 Jy transients reported by Matsumura et al. (2009) may not be true transients, but rather variable sources at their flux density threshold. Comment: 41 pages, 19 figures, ApJ accepted; corrected minor typo in Table 1
    06/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper introduces the Multi-wavelength Extreme Starburst Sample (MESS), a new catalog of 138 star-forming galaxies (0.1 < z < 0.3) optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using emission line strength diagnostics to have a high absolute star formation rate (SFR; minimum 11 M sun yr-1 with median SFR ~ 61 M sun yr-1 based on a Kroupa initial mass function). The MESS was designed to complement samples of nearby star-forming galaxies such as the luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraviolet luminous galaxies (UVLGs). Observations using the Multi-band Imaging Photometer (24, 70, and 160 mum channels) on the Spitzer Space Telescope indicate that the MESS galaxies have IR luminosities similar to those of LIRGs, with an estimated median L TIR ~ 3 × 1011 L sun. The selection criteria for the MESS objects suggest they may be less obscured than typical far-IR-selected galaxies with similar estimated SFRs. Twenty out of 70 of the MESS objects detected in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band also appear to be UVLGs. We estimate the SFRs based directly on luminosities to determine the agreement for these methods in the MESS. We compare these estimates to the emission line strength technique, since the effective measurement of dust attenuation plays a central role in these methods. We apply an image stacking technique to the Very Large Array FIRST survey radio data to retrieve 1.4 GHz luminosity information for 3/4 of the sample covered by FIRST including sources too faint, and at too high a redshift, to be detected in FIRST. We also discuss the relationship between the MESS objects and samples selected through alternative criteria. Morphologies will be the subject of a forthcoming paper.
    The Astronomical Journal 01/2010; 140(6):2052-2069. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical spectroscopy, near-infrared (mostly K-band) and radio (151-MHz and 1.4-GHz) imaging of the first complete region (TOOT00) of the TexOx-1000 (TOOT) redshift survey of radio sources. The 0.0015-sr (~ 5 deg^2) TOOT00 region is selected from pointed observations of the Cambridge Low-Frequency Survey Telescope at 151 MHz at a flux density limit of ~= 100 mJy, ~ 5-times fainter than the 7C Redshift Survey (7CRS), and contains 47 radio sources. We have obtained 40 spectroscopic redshifts (~ 85% completeness). Adding redshifts estimated for the 7 other cases yields a median redshift z_med ~ 1.25. We find a significant population of objects with FRI-like radio structures at radio luminosities above both the low-redshift FRI/II break and the break in the radio luminosity function. The redshift distribution and sub-populations of TOOT00 are broadly consistent with extrapolations from the 7CRS/6CE/3CRR datasets underlying the SKADS Simulated Skies Semi-Empirical Extragalactic Database, S^3-SEX. Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRAS; 59 pages, 10 figures, 6 tables
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2009; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first 42 elements of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA-42) are beginning to deliver data at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in northern California. Scientists and engineers are actively exploiting all of the flexibility designed into this innovative instrument for simultaneously conducting surveys of the astrophysical sky and conducting searches for distant technological civilizations. This paper summarizes the design elements of the ATA, the cost savings made possible by the use of commercial off-the-shelf components, and the cost/performance tradeoffs that eventually enabled this first snapshot radio camera. The fundamental scientific program of this new telescope is varied and exciting; some of the first astronomical results will be discussed.
    Proceedings of the IEEE 09/2009; · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The time domain of the sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, recent discoveries from limited surveys and serendipitous discoveries indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have found not-yet identified radio transients without optical or high-energy hosts. In addition to the known classes of radio transients, possible other classes of objects include extrapolations from known classes and exotica such as orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, magnetars, and transmissions from extraterrestrial civilizations. Over the next decade, meter- and centimeter-wave radio telescopes with improved sensitivity, wider fields of view, and flexible digital signal processing will be able to explore radio transient parameter space more comprehensively and systematically.
    05/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: The Multi-wavelength Extreme Starburst Sample (MESS) is a new catalog of 148 star-forming galaxies (0.1 < z = 50M&sun; yr-1. The MESS was designed to complement other existing samples of starburst galaxies, such as the luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGS; Lir > 1011 L&sun;)and ULIRGs (> 1012 L&sun;), commonly selected from wide area infrared and submillimeter surveys. Observations using the multi-band imaging photometer (MIPS; 24, 70 and 160mu m channels) on the Spitzer Space Telescope have recently been completed, with results indicating the MESS galaxies have an estimated median Lfir ˜ 2.5*1011 L&sun;. These data combined with visible, near-IR, and radio observations are providing new insight into the LIRG and ULIRG phenomenon. Early imaging results in K-band indicate an intriguing number of disturbed morphologies not apparent from the SDSS. It is thought that dust obscuration plays an important role in a possible evolutionary process connecting LIRGS, ULIRGs, E+A galaxies, and for those objects containing AGN, QSOs. The selection criterion for the MESS suggests they may be less obscured than typical ULIRGs or LIRGs, making them possible candidates for a link between the latter and E+A galaxies. We will discuss this relationship between the MESS and samples selected through alternative criteria in terms of their spectroscopic, and visible through far-infrared morphological properties; and attempt to place them in this sequence.
    01/2009;

Publication Stats

260 Citations
134.62 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2009
    • Berkeley Earth
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2005–2008
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
      Livermore, California, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physics
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom