[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tick Boophilus microplus represents a serious pathological constraint to livestock production in New Caledonia. Cattle ticks are controlled by chemical application of two acaricides that are currently used in New Caledonia; deltamethrin is used at 46% of the cattle production facilities and amitraz at the remaining 54% premises where resistance to deltamethrin has been identified. In 2003, a modified Larval Packet Test (LPT) was used to conduct a survey for amitraz resistance. Ticks were collected from 29 farms, including farms using deltamethrin (n=8) or amitraz (n=21). Of eighteen different tick populations, sixteen populations were defined susceptible to amitraz and two populations were considered amitraz-resistant. This is the first report of populations of B. microplus being resistant to amitraz, using the modified LPT in New Caledonia. A thorough survey of tick susceptibility to amitraz in cattle farms of the country should be conducted to assess the presence of amitraz-resistant populations. The emergence of amitraz resistance so soon after its introduction has some important implications for the strategy and organisation of tick control in New Caledonia, and this paper discusses some of the urgent actions that should be undertaken.