Ru Zhou

Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (16)50.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) displayed immunosuppressive activities both in vitro and in autoimmune disease models. Here, we aim to further clarify the effect of LLDT-8 on the immune responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Cell proliferation of human PBMC from healthy donors was evaluated by [3H]-thymidine uptake. NK cell cytotoxicity was assayed using K562 cells in a [3H] lysis assay. Cytokine production was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of cell surface molecules was detected with flow cytometry. The mRNA expression and the protein phosphorylation levels were detected by RT-PCR and Western immunoblot assay. LLDT-8 at 25 and 50 nM significantly inhibited the PHA- and recall antigens-induced T cell proliferation, and suppressed mixed lymphocyte reaction. LLDT-8 reduced cytokines production (IFN-gamma, IL-2, TNF-alpha) in PHA- and Sac-activated PBMC. LLDT-8 did not alter the increased expression of MHC class I/II and B7.1, but reduced B7.2 by approximately 30%. No effect of LLDT-8 was observed for the expression of T cell activation markers (CD69, CD154). However, LLDT-8 significantly reduced IFN-gamma-expressing T cell percentages and IFN-gamma mRNA transcription in PHA-activated T cells. It also inhibited the phosphorylation levels of JNK and p38. LLDT-8 did not affect NK cytotoxic activity against K562 cells. LLDT-8 was a promising immunosuppressant for human immune-related diseases.
    International Immunopharmacology 11/2008; 9(1):63-9. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2008.09.014 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CSA1M tumor-bearing mice exhibited a severe immune dysfunction but the underlying mechanism remained unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that the myeloid suppressor cell (Mac-1(+)Gr-1(+) cells)-(MSC) related T cell immunosuppression in this tumor-bearing model. In mice at the late stage of CSA1M tumor-bearing (Late TB [8-10 weeks after cell inoculation in male BALB/c mice]), the percentages for CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells decreased but Mac-1(+) cells increased in spleens with severe splenomegaly. There was no deficit for concanavalin A-induced CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin (IL)-4 production, but delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction were attenuated. Analysis of cytokine production in unfractionated spleen cells showed a significant reduction of IFN-gamma and a marked increase of IL-10 and IL-4. In Late-TB mice, splenic MSC number intensively accumulated; the mRNA expressions of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) were enhanced in MSC; the nitric oxide production and arginase enzyme activity increased in MSC as well. Furthermore, the concanavalin A-induced T cell proliferation was inhibited in the presence of lipopolysaccharide- or IFN-gamma-activated MSC from Late-TB mice, which could be reversed by the iNOS specific inhibitor L-NMMA. iNOS seemed to be required more than arginase for the suppressive activity of MSC. Taken together, our results suggest that the immune dysfunction in tumor-bearing mice might be causally associated with the accumulation of MSC and its tumor-favoring property.
    Cancer Science 07/2007; 98(6):882-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2007.00465.x · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Artemisinin and its derivatives exhibit potent immunosuppressive activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive effects of SM905, a new water-soluble artemisinin derivative, on T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and explore its potential mode of action. The results showed that SM905 had a high inhibitory activity in Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced splenocyte proliferation and mixed lymphocyte reaction, and a relatively low cytotoxicity in vitro. In ovalbumin-immunized mice, oral administration of SM905 dose-dependently suppressed T cell proliferative response to ovalbumin, and inhibited anti-ovalbumin interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by T cells. Further studies showed that SM905 inhibited TCR (T cell receptor)/CD3 plus CD28-mediated primary T cell proliferation and cytokine production (IL-2 and IFN-gamma), and exerted an inhibitory action on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the activation of Ras. The results of this study provided experimental evidence that the new artemisinin derivative SM905 had immunosuppressive effects both in vitro and in vivo. SM905 suppressed T cell activation, which was associated with the inhibition of MAP kinases and Ras activation. Our results suggested a potential of SM905 to be developed as a new type agent for treating T cell-mediated immune disorder.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 07/2007; 564(1-3):211-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.01.092 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the protective effects of a triptolide-derived, novel compound, (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8), on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice received an intratracheal injection of bleomycin and were then treated with LLDT-8 (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg, ip) once daily for 7 or 14 consecutive days. The body weight loss and lung index augmentation was observed; the inflammatory response including differential cells counts of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the lung homogenates was detected, and the fibrosis extent was evaluated by hydroxyproline content and histopathological changes in the lungs. In addition, the pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) production in the lungs were measured. LLDT-8 alleviated the body weight loss and lung index increase caused by bleomycin, reduced neutrophils and lymphocytes in the BALF, promoted SOD activity, decreased MDA production, and inhibited the hydroxyproline level and the amelioration of lung tissue histological damage. Moreover, LLDT-8 suppressed TNF-alpha, IL-4, and TGF-beta production in the lung homogenates. LLDT-8 showed protective effects against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, and the results suggested the potential role of LLDT-8 in the treatment of this disease.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 05/2007; 28(4):518-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-7254.2007.00524.x · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) displayed anti-arthritis and anti-allogenic transplantation rejection activities in our previous studies. Here, we aim to further clarify the effect of LLDT-8 on the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma. T cells were activated with anti-CD3 antibody or concanavalin A (ConA). The expression of cell surface molecules was detected with flow cytometry. Cells were labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) to test cell division. IFN-gamma production was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell proliferation was evaluated by [3H]-thymidine uptake. Mice were immunized with ovalbumin to assess the in vivo immune response. RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were applied to determine the mRNA expression. The protein phosphorylation levels were detected by Western immunoblot assay. LLDT-8 at 100 nmol/L did not change the CD25, CD69, and CD154 expressions in anti-CD3-stimulated T cells. LLDT-8 markedly blocked the cell division of CD4 and CD8 T cells after ConA stimulation. LLDT-8 inhibited T cell-derived IFN-gamma production. Moreover, LLDT-8 suppressed the ovalbumin-specific T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma generation. In anti-CD3-activated T cells, LLDT-8 abrogated the mRNA expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription1 (STAT1), T-box transcription factor, IL-12 receptor beta2, STAT4, and interferon regulatory factor 1 in the IFN-gamma expression pathway. Western blot analysis showed that LLDT-8 blocked the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28-activated T cells. In addition, LLDT-8 reduced the transcripts of macrophage inflammatory protein (Mip)-1alpha, Mip-1beta, regulated upon activation normally T-cell expressed and secreted, inducible protein-10, IFN-inducible T cell a chemoattractant, and monokine induced by IFN-gamma in IFN-gamma-stimulated murine macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 cells. LLDT-8 was a potential inhibitor for IFN-gamma-associated signaling.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 01/2007; 27(12):1616-21. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-7254.2006.00457.x · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (5R)-5-Hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) displays strong immunosuppressive activities both in vitro and in vivo in our previous studies. This study aims to investigate whether LLDT-8 has antiarthritic potential in a murine model of type II bovine collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) and to show the mechanism(s) of LLDT-8 action. DBA/1 mice were immunized with CII to induce arthritis and administered with LLDT-8. The severity of arthritis was evaluated according to the clinical score and joint damage. The effects of LLDT-8 on immune responses were determined by measurement of serum antibody levels, lymphocyte proliferation assay, cytokine assay, nitric oxide (NO) production, arginase activity assays, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of splenic Mac-1+ cells, as well as polymerase chain reaction analysis for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-related gene expression. We showed that LLDT-8 treatment significantly reduced the incidence and severity of CIA. The preventive and therapeutic effects of LLDT-8 are associated with 1) reduction of serum anti-CII immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgG2a, and IgG1 levels; 2) inhibition of CII-specific lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-gamma and interleukin-2 production; 3) blockade of gene expressions in IFN-gamma signaling, including IFN-gamma production pathways [signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1, T-box transcription factor, interleukin 12Rbeta2, and STAT4] and IFN-gamma-induced chemokine transcription [macrophage inflammatory protein (Mip)-1alpha, Mip-1beta, regulated on activation normally T cell expressed and secreted, and inducible protein 10]; and 4) retardation of the abnormal increase of NO via IFN-gamma/STAT1/interferon regulatory factor 1/inducible nitric-oxide synthase pathway and arginase activity. Moreover, the mRNA transcription of chemokine receptors was also suppressed [including C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 1, CCR5, and C-X-C chemokine receptor 3]. In conclusion, our data suggest that the antiarthritic effect of LLDT-8 is closely related to the blockade of IFN-gamma signaling. LLDT-8 may have a therapeutic value in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 08/2006; 318(1):35-44. DOI:10.1124/jpet.106.101113 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel triptolide derivative (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) has been shown to have potent immunosuppressive activities. Here LLDT-8 was evaluated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the model of multiple sclerosis (MS). LLDT-8 reduced the incidence and severity of EAE, which was associated with the inhibition of the MOG 35-55 lymphocyte recall response, anti-MOG 35-55 T cell responses, interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma production. In vitro, LLDT-8 inhibited primary T cells proliferation, division, IL-2 and IFN-gamma production stimulated with anti-CD3/28. These findings highlight the fact that LLDT-8 prevents EAE by suppressing T cell proliferation and activation, with a potential for treatment of MS.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 07/2006; 175(1-2):142-51. DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2006.03.011 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) exhibits strong immunosuppressive activities in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated the effects of LLDT-8 on concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. Liver damage was evaluated by serum alanine transaminase (ALT) level and liver histology. The effects of LLDT-8 were determined by measurement of serum cytokines, lymphocyte proliferation assay, flow cytometry analysis of splenic T cell percentage and apoptosis, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis for gene transcriptions. In LLDT-8-treated mice, serum ALT level and histological damage were markedly attenuated. The beneficial effect of LLDT-8 was closely associated with (i) reduction of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2, interleukin-12, and interleukin-6 levels; (ii) elimination of activated T cells by increasing proapoptotic genes signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) expression in spleens; (iii) blockade of mRNA expressions for chemokines (monokine induced by IFN-gamma, Mig; IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10, IP-10; IFN-inducible T cell-alpha chemoattractant, I-TAC), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and chemokine receptors (C-C chemokine receptor 1, CCR1; C-C chemokine receptor 5, CCR5; C-X-C chemokine receptor 3, CXCR3) in livers. These results suggested the therapeutic potential of LLDT-8 in IFN-gamma/STAT1/IRF-1 signaling- and inflammatory cytokines-mediated immune disorders.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 06/2006; 537(1-3):181-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.03.013 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reversible S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase inhibitor methyl 4-(adenin-9-yl)-2-hydroxybutanoate (DZ2002) suppresses macrophage activation and function. The effects of DZ2002 on T cell function, however, are still unclear. Here, we examined whether DZ2002 alters type 1 helper T cell (Th1) and/or type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immune responses, and whether these effects are associated with both the inhibition of AdoHcy hydrolase and intracellular elevation of endogenous AdoHcy. Male C57BL/6 mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) were treated with DZ2002 (1, 5, and 25 mg/kg/day) after which lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and IgG responses to OVA were monitored. Administration of DZ2002 dose dependently suppressed OVA-specific lymphocyte proliferation and anti-OVA IgG production compared with controls. Interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma as well as anti-OVA IgG2a and IgG3, indicators of Th1 immune responses, were markedly decreased in mice treated with DZ2002, whereas IL-4 and anti-OVA IgG1, indicators of Th2 immune responses, were only mildly suppressed. AdoHcy hydrolase activity in spleens of DZ2002-treated mice was substantially blocked, and not surprisingly, AdoHcy levels were significantly elevated compared with controls. Finally, similar immunosuppressive effects were also observed in mice treated with AdoHcy. These data strongly indicate that DZ2002 suppresses antigen-induced specific immune responses, particularly Th1 responses, through inhibition of AdoHcy hydrolase and elevation of endogenous AdoHcy.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 04/2006; 316(3):1229-37. DOI:10.1124/jpet.105.093369 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) is a new compound derived from triptolide, which is the major immunosuppressive fraction of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F (TWHF). Studies in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated that LLDT-8 had potent immunosuppressive activities. Here we tested LLDT-8 in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched cardiac transplantation and investigated the mechanisms underlying the prevention of transplant rejection. LLDT-8 was administered orally to recipients in Balb/c to C57BL/6 murine cardiac transplantation model. Allograft survival after transplantation was recorded in recipients. The T cell immunity and cytokine production were observed. Histological analysis was performed. The chemokine and its receptor were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on cardiac graft RNA. LLDT-8 administered orally significantly induced the survival prolongation of allogeneic cardiac graft. Histological results showed that LLDT-8 well preserved myocardium and significantly reduced infiltration of the graft with inflammatory cells. LLDT-8 decreased IL-2 production in recipient splenocytes stimulated by concanavalin A (ConA) ex vivo. LLDT-8 significantly inhibited the immunoreactivity of recipient to specific donor alloantigens, but preserved immunity to third-party alloantigens and mitogen. However, the flow cytometry analysis of the proportion of CD4+, CD8+ T cell subgroup in recipient spleens showed LLDT-8 had a normalizing effect on the splenic lymphocytes population. LLDT-8 decreased CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and their ligands macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1alpha) and beta (MIP-1beta) mRNA expressions in allografts. The results outline the great potential of LLDT-8 as a therapeutic tool in transplant rejection.
    Transplantation 04/2006; 81(6):927-33. DOI:10.1097/ · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Periploca sepium Bge, a traditional Chinese herb medicine, is used for treating rheumatoid arthritis in China. Followed the bioactivity-guided isolation, the most potent immunosuppressive compound, periplocoside E (PSE), a pregnane glycoside, had been identified from P. sepium Bge. We investigated the immunosuppressive effects of PSE in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that PSE in a dose-dependent manner significantly inhibited the proliferation of splenocytes induced by concanavalin A and mixed lymphocyte culture reaction at no cytotoxic concentrations (<5 microM). Administration of PSE suppressed a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, and ovalbumin (OVA) induced antigen-specific immune responses in mice. In vivo treatment with PSE dose dependently suppressed OVA-induced proliferation and cytokine [interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma] production from splenocytes in vitro. Purified T cells from OVA-immunized mice with PSE treatment showed its low ability for activation by OVA plus normal antigen presenting cell stimulation again in vitro. Further studies showed PSE dose dependently inhibited anti-CD3-induced primary T cell proliferation, activation for IL-2Ralpha (CD25) expression, and cytokine (IFN-gamma and IL-2) production also at the transcriptional level. PSE was highly specific and significantly inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase, whereas activation of p38 was not affected in T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. These results demonstrated that PSE is an immunosuppressive compound in P. sepium Bge, which directly inhibits T cell activation in vitro and in vivo. This study provided evidence to understand the therapeutic effects of P. sepium Bge and indicated that this herb is appropriate for treatment of T cell-mediated disorders, such as autoimmune diseases.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 02/2006; 316(2):662-9. DOI:10.1124/jpet.105.093732 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (5R)-5-Hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) is a novel analog of triptolide that has antiarthritic, hepatoprotective, and antiallogenic transplantation-rejective effects. In the present study, we report that LLDT-8 inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in macrophages. LLDT-8 significantly attenuated NO production, in a dose-dependent manner, in primary peritoneal macrophages and a macrophage cell line of Raw 264.7 cells following stimulation with interferon (IFN)-gamma, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and IFN-gamma plus LPS. It also reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha from LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. To further elucidate the mechanism responsible for the inhibition of NO, we examined the effect of LLDT-8 on IFN-gamma and LPS-induced iNOS expression. Indeed, LLDT-8 prevented NO generation by inhibiting iNOS expression at mRNA level and protein level, rather than by interfering its enzymatic activity. In IFN-gamma-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells, LLDT-8 suppressed the gene transcription of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1alpha and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1, but it displayed no apparent effect on IFN-gamma receptor level on cell surface. After LPS challenge, LLDT-8 further abrogated the expression of LPS receptor complex, including CD14, Toll-like receptor 4, and myeloid differentiation protein-2; decreased the LPS-induced phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); retarded the degradation of IkappaBalpha; and ameliorated the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) to nuclear proteins that accounts for transcriptional regulation of iNOS. Taken together, these results suggest that LLDT-8 reduces NO production and iNOS expression by inhibiting IFN-gamma-triggered IRF-1 expression and LPS-triggered MAPK phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 02/2006; 316(1):121-8. DOI:10.1124/jpet.105.093179 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of triptolide analogs have been successfully synthesized. In the present study we demonstrated one of them, (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8), showed low cytotoxicity and relative high immunosuppressive activities as compared with its parent compound triptolide in vitro. The CC50 values of triptolide and LLDT-8 were 2.1 ± 0.3 and 256.6 ± 73.8 nM, respectively. LLDT-8 significantly inhibited the proliferation of splenocytes induced by concanavalin A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), and the IC50 values were 131.7 ± 32.4, 171.5 ± 17.3, and 38.8 ± 5.1 nM, respectively. LLDT-8 (25, 50, 100 nM) dose-dependently reduced the production of Th1 type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2) and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) in vitro. Administration of LLDT-8 (at the low dose of 0.4 μg/kg, i.p.; 40 μg/kg, p.o.) intensively suppressed 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions. Treatment with LLDT-8 (40 μg/kg, i.p. and p.o.) also markedly inhibited the sheep red blood cell (SRBC)-induced antibody production in BLAB/c mice. Most importantly, comparing with triptolide, LLDT-8 significantly reduced toxicity, with a 122-fold lower cytotoxicity in vitro and 10-fold lower acute toxicity in vivo. The results suggested that LLDT-8 had immunosuppressive activities in both cellular and humoral immune responses. LLDT-8 might be a potential therapeutic agent for immune-related diseases.
    International Immunopharmacology 01/2006; 5(13-14-5):1895-1903. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2005.06.009 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) is a new compound derived from triptolide, which is the major immunosuppressive fraction of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F (TWHF). In this study, we demonstrated that administration of LLDT-8 (1 mg/kg/day, p.o.) effectively prevented weight loss and death induced by allo-BMT (BLAB/c, H-2d to C57BL/6, H-2b), and extended survival in allo-BMT model of aGVHD. Following days 7 to 28 after allo-BMT, the allogeneic graft survived by increasing the number of engrafted cells (H-2d) in spleens of recipient mice with LLDT-8 treatment. To construe the immunosuppressive effects of LLDT-8, the splenocytes (H-2d) of LLDT-8 treated recipients (H-2b) were tested for the proliferative responses to donor antigen (H-2d), host antigen (H-2b) and mitogen (ConA) stimulations, respectively, the results indicated that LLDT-8 induced the T cells' unresponsiveness to donor and host antigens, while still maintaining response to ConA; Compared with the vehicle group of GVHD mice, administration of LLDT-8 significantly inhibited T cells to produce IFN-gamma with or without host antigen or ConA stimulation. Further studies indicated LLDT-8 had a normalizing effect on the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells, and increased CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells with the Foxp3 expression in splenocytes from LLDT-8 treated mice. The results outline the great potential of LLDT-8 as a therapeutic tool to induce suppression in GVHD.
    International Immunopharmacology 01/2006; 5(13-14):1904-13. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2005.06.010 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the immunosuppressive activity of SM735 {[3-(12-beta-artemisininoxy)] phenoxyl succinic acid}, a synthetic artemisinin derivative with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug structure, with the aim of finding potential immunosuppressive agents. Concanavalin A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), were used to induce the proliferation of splenocytes, and [3H]-thymidine incorporation was used to evaluate the proliferation of splenocytes. Cytokine production was promoted with ConA, LPS, or PMA plus ionomycin, and was detected with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were used to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity and quantitative hemolysis of SRBC (QHS) mouse models, as criteria for the evaluation of in vivo immune activity. SM735 strongly inhibited the proliferation of splenocytes induced by ConA, LPS, or MLR, with IC(50) values of 0.33 micromol/L, 0.27 micromol/L, and 0.51 micromol/L, respectively. When compared with a CC(50) value of 53.1 micromol/L, SM735 had a favorable safety range. SM735 dose-dependently inhibited proinflammatory cytokine production [including interleukins (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-6] induced by LPS or PMA plus ionomycin. Upon ConA stimulation, SM735 suppressed IFN-gamma in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect IL-2 secretion. SM735 also strongly suppressed both T-cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and B-cell-mediated QHS reactions. SM735 had strong immunosuppressive activity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential role for SM735 as an immunosuppressive agent, and established the groundwork for further research on SM735.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2005; 26(11):1352-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-7254.2005.00232.x · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphocytes depend on transmethylation reactions for efficient activation and function. These reactions are primarily catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases, which convert S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine is then hydrolyzed by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase to prevent feedback inhibition of transmethylation reactions. By impeding S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, a build-up of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine occurs, and most intracellular transmethylation reactions cease. Thus, a nontoxic inhibitor of this enzyme might be a useful immunosuppressive therapeutic agent. We identified a potent reversible type III inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, DZ2002 [methyl 4-(adenin-9-yl)-2-hydroxybutanoate], and determined its cytotoxic and immunologic effects. We demonstrated that DZ2002 blocked S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase more effectively than a type I inhibitor, but cytotoxicity from DZ2002 was greatly reduced. Although DZ2002 did not prevent concanavalin A-induced T cell proliferation or interleukin (IL)-2 production, it significantly reduced both a mixed lymphocyte reaction and IL-12 production from in vitro-stimulated splenocytes. In addition, levels of CD80 and CD86 on human monocytic THP-1 cells were decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of 0.1 to 10 microM DZ2002, and decreases were also seen in IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from both mouse thioglycollate-stimulated peritoneal macrophages and THP-1 cells. In vivo, DZ2002 significantly suppressed a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction as well as antibody secretion. We conclude that DZ2002's immunosuppressive effects are likely not solely attributed to T cell inhibition but also to the obstruction of macrophage activation and function through reductions in cytokine output and/or T cell costimulation. These data suggest an important dual role for the S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase in both macrophage and T cell function.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/2005; 313(2):705-11. DOI:10.1124/jpet.104.080416 · 3.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

253 Citations
50.31 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2008
    • Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2006–2007
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • State Key Laboratory of Drug Research
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Osaka University
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan