[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have identified a temperature-sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (npl3) that accumulates polyadenylated RNA in the nucleus at 37 degrees C, as judged by in situ hybridization. The strong nuclear signal is not simply due to increased cytoplasmic turnover of mRNA, as reincubation at 37 degrees C with an RNA polymerase inhibitor shows no diminution in the in situ signal. Over several hours at 37 degrees C, the average poly(A) tail length increases and a characteristic ultrastructural alteration of the nucleoplasm occurs. Cloning and sequencing indicate that the corresponding gene is NPL3/NOP3, which codes for a nucleolar/nuclear protein implicated in protein import into the nucleus (Bossie et al. (1992). Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 875-893) and in rRNA maturation (Russell and Tollervey (1992). J. Cell Biol. 119, 737-747). NPL3 includes bipartite RNA recognition motifs (RRM) and a Gly-Arg repeat domain, as in several nucleolar proteins. A point mutation adjacent to one of the RRM has been identified in the ts copy of the gene. Although this protein is not concentrated in nuclear pores, NPL3 is implicated in both import and export from the nucleus. Judging from the site of the npl3 mutation and since the block in RNA export can be detected prior to an obvious nuclear import defect in npl3, the defect in RNA export may be primary. Since other mutants that interrupt RNA export do not block protein import, the NPL3 protein itself appears to be implicated in protein import.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have identified a set of genes that affect mRNA transport (mtr) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of these genes, MTR2, has been cloned and shown to encode a novel 21-kDa nuclear protein that is essential for vegetative growth. MTR2 shows limited homology to a protein implicated in plasmid DNA transfer in Escherichia coli. PolyA+RNA accumulates within the nucleus of mtr2-1 in two to three foci at 37 degrees C. mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA synthesis continue as do pre-mRNA splicing, tRNA processing, and rRNA export at 37 degrees C. Under these conditions the polyA tail length increases, and protein synthesis is progressively inhibited. Nucleolar antigens also redistribute to two to three nuclear foci at 37 degrees C, and this redistribution depends on ongoing transcription by RNA polymerase II. Surprisingly, these foci coincide with the sites of polyA+RNA accumulation. Comparable colocalization and dependance on RNA polymerase II transcription is seen for the mtr1-1 mutant. The disorganization of the nucleolus thus depends on mRNA accumulation in these mutants. We discuss the possible functions of MTR2 and the yeast nucleolus in mRNA export.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 12/1994; 5(11):1253-63. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the mechanisms of mRNA transport in eukaryotes, we have isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants which accumulate poly(A)+ RNA in the nucleus at the restrictive temperature. A total of 21 recessive mutants were isolated and classified into 16 complementation groups. Backcrossed mRNA transport-defective strains from each complementation group have been analyzed. A strain which is ts for heat shock transcription factor was also analyzed since it also shows nuclear accumulation of poly(A)+ RNA at 37 degrees C. At 37 degrees C the mRNA of each mutant is characterized by atypically long polyA tails. Unlike ts pre-mRNA splicing mutants, these strains do not interrupt splicing of pre-mRNA at 37 degrees C; however four strains accumulate oversized RNA polymerase II transcripts. Some show inhibition of rRNA processing and a further subset of these strains is also characterized by inhibition of tRNA maturation. Several strains accumulate nuclear proteins in the cytoplasm when incubated at semipermissive temperature. Remarkably, many strains exhibit nucleolar fragmentation or enlargement at the restrictive temperature. Most strains show dramatic ultrastructural alterations of the nucleoplasm or nuclear membrane. Distinct mutants accumulate poly(A)+ RNA in characteristic patterns in the nucleus.
The Journal of Cell Biology 09/1994; 126(3):649-59. · 10.82 Impact Factor