[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An outbreak of severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurred in 1988 in Pozarevac, Serbia, Yugoslavia. The disease was diagnosed in 4 children and 1 adult, and 1 of the children died. Rodents were captured from the same area and virus isolation attempted. A hantavirus, POZ-M1, was isolated from lung tissues of hantavirus antigen-positive Mus musculus. Serology and restriction enzyme digestion of polymerase chain reaction-amplified segments from this virus showed that it was a strain of Puumala (PUU) virus, the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica. While Clethrionomys glareolus is the major rodent host for PUU virus, these results suggest that M. musculus may also play an important role in harboring and transmitting PUU-like viruses. The serologic association of this virus with patients with severe HFRS reaffirms that PUU-like viruses may cause severe disease in addition to the generally mild form normally associated with nephropathia epidemica.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/1994; 169(1):204-7. DOI:10.1093/infdis/169.1.204 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A nationwide epidemic of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurred in Yugoslavia in 1989. Sera from 609 hospitalized patients, from all six Republics (Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro Serbia, Slovenia) and two Provinces (Kosovo and Vojvodina), who had signs and symptoms suggestive of HFRS, and sera and lung tissues from 544 small mammals belonging to 13 species were studied for evidence of hantavirus infection. Of the 226 patients with serologically confirmed HFRS, 182 resided in Bosnia and Hercegovina or in Serbia. The severity of disease differed from region to region, with an overall fatality of 6.6% (15/226). Patients from southern Yugoslavia tended to have more severe disease and exhibited two types of antibody patterns, while approximately equal numbers of clinically severe and mild cases of HFRS were registered in central Yugoslavia, where four types of antibody patterns were found. Two of these antibody patterns suggested the existence of hantaviruses which are antigenically distinct from those reported to date. Two seasonal peaks of disease, one during the summer and the other in late autumn, were found. Hantaviral antibodies and/or antigens were detected most often in the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) (88/189), the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) (28/146), the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) (10/64), the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) (36/63), the house mouse (Mus musculus) (14/29), and the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) (14/21). Five other species of rodents and insectivores were infrequently infected.
European Journal of Epidemiology 10/1992; 8(6):816-825. DOI:10.1007/BF00145326 · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small mammals were collected in natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, and a hantavirus was isolated from the lungs of an Apodemus flavicol lis captured in Dobrava village. This new isolate, Dobrava virus, was compared with representative strains of the Hantavirus genus by serological and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. It was found by cross immunofluorescent and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays that antigenic properties of Dobrava virus were different from those of other hantaviruses. The RNA of this virus was successfully amplified with hantavirus genus reactive primer sets by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); however, PCR-RFLP analysis of the amplified product was shown to be unique among those of the known hantaviruses, further indicating that Dobrava virus represents a new hantavirus serotype.
Journal of Medical Virology 10/1992; 38(2):132-7. DOI:10.1002/jmv.1890380211 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two biologically and genetically distinct hantaviruses were isolated from blood and urine specimens collected from four Yugoslavian patients with clinically severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Viral isolates from three patients, designated strains Belgrade 1-3, were distinct from Hantaan, Seoul, Puumala, and Prospect Hill viruses as determined by plaque-reduction neutralization tests and restriction analysis of enzymatically amplified M-segment fragments. The fourth isolate, called Kraljevo, was indistinguishable from Hantaan virus. Strains Belgrade 1 and 2, like the Kraljevo strain, caused a fatal meningoencephalitis in newborn mice inoculated with 100 pfu of virus intracerebrally and intraperitoneally. Strain Belgrade 3 was much less neurovirulent, requiring 30,000 pfu of virus to cause fatal disease in mice. These data indicate that two distinct hantaviruses, one of which constitutes a new serotype, cause clinically severe HFRS in Yugoslavia.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/1992; 166(1):113-20. DOI:10.1093/infdis/166.1.113 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 263 fasting female Ixodes ricinus were examined for Borrelia burgorferi, the vector of Lyme borreliosis. Female ticks were collected by flagella in the biotopes (Belgrade and Osijek) in which ticks bite patients with Lyme borreliosis. Borrelia burgorferi was proved in 58 (22%) of 263 female ticks in the native preparations of the intestinal contents by darkfield microscopy. In macerates of two groups of 5 female ticks each, Borrelia burgorferi was isolated by cultivation in the modified Kelly nutrient media for borrelia. The supposition that Ixodes ricinus is the vector of Lyme borreliosis in Yugoslavia is confirmed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) incidence in SFRY 1950-1988 were analysed. Information sources were published papers and official reports of Federal and Republic Institutions for Public Health. Indirect immunofluorescence technique was used in testing 1.842 organs of small wild mammals to the presence of HFRS viral antigen. This antigen was found in the lungs of 11 species. Average incidence of the carrier state was 10.4% Registered were 613 cases within the period 1951-1988. Morbidity rate was 0.05-10.6:1.00.000 for years. Disease have been registered during the whole year with maximum incidence rate in summer months. Men most capable of working were the most frequently affected: farmers, wood workers, soldiers. Average lethality was 5.2%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An epidemic of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurred in Yugoslavia May-November 1986; all Republics and Provinces were involved. Serum samples were received from 260 of 276 persons with symptoms clinically compatible with a diagnosis of HFRS. Presumptive infection with a hantavirus was determined serologically for 161 of these. Many patients with serious clinical pictures, including severe renal insufficiency and shock, were hospitalized; 11 died. Indirect fluorescent antibody tests with antigens of 4 hantaviruses (Hantaan, Fojnica, Puumala, and the Vranica strain of Puumala virus) showed that greater than 1 serotype was circulating during this epidemic. Hantavirus antigens were detected in the lungs of 86 of 302 (28.5%) wild-caught small mammals.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 08/1989; 41(1):102-8. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hantavirus antigens were detected in lung tissues of 8/113 Apodemus flavicollis and 2/17 Clethrionomys glareolus captured in 1984 in Fojnica, a region of Yugoslavia endemic for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; hantavirus antigens were not detected in lung tissues from 126 other mammals collected in Fojnica. Three hantaviruses, 2 from A. flavicollis and 1 from C. glareolus, were isolated directly in Vero E6 cells and were partially characterized. The isolates from A. flavicollis, designated Fojnica virus, were antigenically similar but not identical to Hantaan virus strain 76-118, whereas the isolate from C. glareolus was antigenically indistinguishable from Puumala virus, strain Hällnäs B1. These data are consistent with previous studies that indicate the existence of at least 2 hantavirus serotypes in Yugoslavia.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 08/1989; 41(1):109-15. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung tissues from 547 rodents and 26 insectivores captured between 1981 and 1984 in central Bosnia (Fojnica) and central Serbia (Cacak), 2 regions known to be endemic for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), were examined for hantaviral antigen by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique. Antigen was detected in 17/231 Apodemus flavicollis, 3/187 A. sylvaticus, 1/46 A. agrarius, 4/32 Mus musculus, and 3/28 Clethrionomys glareolus. In addition, antibodies against Hantaan and Puumala viruses were found in serum pooled from 2 C. glareolus captured in Fojnica and 6 Pitimys subterraneus caught in Cacak. Sera of 27 HFRS patients from different parts of Yugoslavia were tested against 3 serotypes of hantavirus. Patients from Bosnia and Serbia had highest titers against Hantaan virus, while patients from Croatia had highest titers against Puumula virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica.