[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most important form of viral encephalitis in Asia. The critical factors determining mortality and severity of JE virus (JEV) infection remain unclear. We identified brain-infiltrating T cells associated with a fatal outcome of JEV infection in mice. Dying mice were defined as those that lost more than 25 % of their body weight by day 13 and died by day 21, while surviving mice were defined as those that lost less than 10 % by day 13, based on the result of the survival time course study. Two groups of five mice that demonstrated brain virus titers of >1 × 10(6) pfu/g were randomly selected from the dying and surviving groups and used in the analyses. Cytokine patterns in brains were first examined, revealing a higher ratio of Th1-related cytokine genes in dying mice. The expression levels of CD3, CD8, CD25, and CD69 increased in JEV-infected mice relative to mock-infected mice. However, expression levels of these cell-surface markers did not differ between the two groups. T-cell receptor (TCR) usage and complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences were analyzed in the brain-infiltrating T cells. T cells expressing VA8-1, VA10-1, and VB2-1 increased in both groups. However, the dominant T-cell clones as defined by CDR3 amino acid sequence differed between the two groups. The results indicate that the outcome of JEV infection, death or survival, was determined by qualitative differences in infiltrating T-cell clones with unique CDR3 amino acid sequences.
Archives of Virology 01/2015; 160(3). · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes acute central nervous system disease. Here, we investigated the roles of the TNF-α, IL-10 and other cytokines in appropriate KO mice following infection with Oshima and Sofjin strains of TBEV. Following infection with the Oshima strain, mortality rates were significantly increased in TNF-α KO and IL-10 KO mice compared with wild type (WT) mice. These results suggested that TNF-α and IL-10 play protective roles against fatal infection due to Oshima strain infection. However, viral loads and proinflammatory cytokine levels in the brain of TNF-α KO andIL-10 KO mice were not significantly different compared with those of WT mice. On the other hand, all WT, TNF-α KO and IL-10 KO mice died following infection with Sofjin strain. Interestingly, Sofjin-infected mice did not exhibit an up-regulated mRNA level of IL-2 in the spleen in all groups of mice, whereas Oshima-infected mice showed significantly increased level of IL-2 compared with mock-infected mice. From these results, we suggest that TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-2 are key factors for disease remission from fatal encephalitis due to infection with Oshima strain of TBEV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The natural killer group 2 membrane D (NKG2D) receptor is an NK-activating receptor that plays an important role in host defense against tumors and viral infections. Although the marmoset is an important and reliable animal model, especially for the study of human-specific viral infections, functional characterization of NKG2D on marmoset NK cells has not previously been conducted. In the present study, we investigated a subpopulation of marmoset NK cells that express NKG2D and exhibit cytolytic potential. Based on their CD16 and CD56 expression patterns, marmoset NK cells can be classified into three subpopulations: CD16(+)CD56(-), CD16(-)CD56(+), and CD16(-)CD56(-) cells. NKG2D expression on marmoset CD16(+)CD56(-) and CD16(-)CD56(+) splenocytes was confirmed using an NKG2D ligand comprised of an MHC class I chain-related molecule A (MICA)-Fc fusion protein. When marmoset splenocytes were cultured with IL-2 for 4 days, NKG2D expression was retained on CD16(+)CD56(-) and CD16(-)CD56(+). In addition, CD16(+)CD56(+) cells within the marmoset NK population appeared which expressed NKG2D after IL-2 stimulation. IL-2-activated marmoset NK cells showed strong cytolytic activity against K562 and MICA stably-expressing target cells. Further, the cytolytic activity of marmoset splenocytes was significantly reduced after addition of MICA-Fc fusion protein. Thus NKG2D functions as an activating receptor on marmoset NK cells that possesses cytotoxic potential, and phenotypic profiles of marmoset NK cell subpopulations are similar to that seen in humans.
International Immunology 05/2014; · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
This study investigated the expression of CD44 and CD133, the two surface markers most commonly used to identify cancer stem cells (CSCs), as predictive markers for clinicopathological progression and lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
OSCC primary tumor specimens obtained from 29 patients with OSCC who underwent resection as well as the normal oral mucosa samples of 14 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. We studied expression of CD133 and CD44 using real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis in primary OSCC, and investigated the correlation of clinicopathological factors.
Although CD133 protein expression was not obviously detected, CD133 mRNA expression in primary OSCC tissues significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, depth of invasion, extranodal invasion, and clinical stage.
CD133 mRNA over-expression in OSCC primary tumors could be a novel independent prognostic marker that correlates with tumor progression and lymph node metastasis.
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology. 04/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World monkey that is used frequently as a model for various human diseases. However, detailed knowledge about the MHC is still lacking. In this study, we sequenced and annotated a total of 854 kb of the common marmoset MHC region that corresponds to the HLA-A/G/F segment (Caja-G/F) between the Caja-G1 and RNF39 genes. The sequenced region contains 19 MHC class I genes, of which 14 are of the MHC-G (Caja-G) type, and 5 are of the MHC-F (Caja-F) type. Six putatively functional Caja-G and Caja-F genes (Caja-G1, Caja-G3, Caja-G7, Caja-G12, Caja-G13, and Caja-F4), 13 pseudogenes related either to Caja-G or Caja-F, three non-MHC genes (ZNRD1, PPPIR11, and RNF39), two miscRNA genes (ZNRD1-AS1 and HCG8), and one non-MHC pseudogene (ETF1P1) were identified. Phylogenetic analysis suggests segmental duplications of units consisting of basically five (four Caja-G and one Caja-F) MHC class I genes, with subsequent expansion/deletion of genes. A similar genomic organization of the Caja-G/F segment has not been observed in catarrhine primates, indicating that this genomic segment was formed in New World monkeys after the split of New World and Old World monkeys.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2014; · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) have been considered to play a key role in the defense system of the small intestine. Its mechanism has not been made sufficiently clear. Studies on IELs have been extremely limited to functions of αβ T-cell receptor (αβTCR) IELs (αβ-IELs). Since, in the mouse duodenum and jejunum, γδ-IELs consist 75 % of IELs, it thus would be inappropriate to argue the mechanism without extensive discussions over the functions of γδ-IELs. In previous studies, we found that the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) injection induced DNA fragmentation in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and DNA repair immediately after, that these responses were reproduced by anti-γδTCR mAb not by anti-αβTCR mAb and that the DNA fragmentation was induced by Granzyme B secreted by IELs, totally independent of Perforin. To further explore the functions of IELs in situ, we undertook experiments exclusively focused on IELs, on their changes and ultimate fate after the stimulation in mouse in vivo system. The current study demonstrated that the injected anti-CD3 mAb bound to CD3 on IELs, that the mAb activated γδ-IELs, leading to their degranulation, that changes occurred irreversibly in IELs and finally that activated IELs died in situ. γδ-IELs could be considered to respond to various stimulations most likely without the need of accessory cells ("always ready for rapid response"), to die in situ ("disposable") and thus to respond to the stimulation only once ("a one-shot responder"). These characteristics of γδ-IELs are important to further elucidate the functions of γδ-IELs in the intestinal defense system.
Cell and Tissue Research 02/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromium (Cr) causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions possibly mediated by accumulating T cells into allergic inflamed skin, which are called irritants or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is not available. This study aimed to elucidate the skewing of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and cytokine profiles in accumulated T cells in inflamed skin during elucidation of Cr allergy. A novel model of Cr allergy was induced by two sensitizations of Cr plus lipopolysaccharide solution into mouse groin followed by single Cr challenge into the footpad. TCR repertoires and nucleotide sequences of complementary determining region 3 were assessed in accumulated T cells from inflamed skin. Cytokine expression profiles and T-cell phenotypes were determined by qPCR. CD3+CD4+ T cells accumulated in allergic footpads and produced increased T helper 1 (Th1) type cytokines, Fas, and Fas ligand in the footpads after challenge, suggesting CD4+ Th1 cells locally expanded in response to Cr. Accumulated T cells included natural killer (NK) T cells and Cr-specific T cells with VA11-1/VB14-1 usage, suggesting metal-specific T cells driven by invariant NKT cells might contribute to the pathogenesis of Cr allergy.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85983. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nickel, cobalt, and chromium are well known to be causal agents of allergic contact dermatitis. Palladium (Pd) can also cause allergic disease and exposure results from wide use of this metal in dental restorations and jewelry. Metal allergy is categorized as a delayed-type hypersensitivity, and metal-responsive T cell clones have been isolated from allergic patients. However, compared to nickel, little is known about the pathology of allergic disease mediated by Pd, and pathogenic T cells are poorly understood. To identify the pathogenic T cells that are responsible for onset of Pd allergy, we enriched metal-responsive lymphocytes by sequential adoptive transfer of involved lymph node cells. Here we show that sequential adoptive transfer gradually increased the incidence and the intensity of Pd allergy, and CD8(+) T cells are responsible for the disease as CD8(+) T cell-depleted mice and β2-microglobulin-deficient mice did not develop Pd allergy. In addition, we found that draining lymph node cells skewed toward CD8(+) T cells in response to Pd challenge in 8th adoptive transferred recipient mice. The CD8(+) T cells expressed NKG2D, a costimulatory molecule involved in the production of IFN-γ. NKG2D ligand was also induced in Pd-injected tissues. Furthermore, both NKG2D ligand-transgenic mice, where NKG2D is downmodulated, and IFN-γ-deficient mice showed impaired Pd allergy. Taken together, these results indicate that IFN-γ-producing NKG2D(+) CD8(+) T cells are responsible for Pd allergy and suggest that NKG2D is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of metal allergy.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e86810. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metal allergy is categorized as a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, and is characterized by the recruitment of lymphocytes into sites of allergic inflammation. Because of the unavailability of suitable animal models for metal allergy, the role of T cells in the pathogenesis of metal allergy has not been explored. Thus, we developed a novel mouse model for metal allergy associated with infiltration of T cells by multiple injections of palladium (Pd) plus lipopolysaccharide into the footpad. Using this model, we characterized footpad-infiltrating T cells in terms of phenotypic markers, T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires and cytokine expression. CD3+ CD4+ T cells accumulated in the allergic footpads 7 days after Pd challenge. The expression levels of CD25, interleukin-2, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor, but not interleukin-4 and interleukin-5, increased in the footpads after challenge, suggesting CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1) cells locally expanded in response to Pd. Infiltrated T cells in the footpads frequently expressed AV18-1 and BV8-2 T cell receptor (TCR) chains compared with T cells in the lymph nodes and exhibited oligoclonality. T-cell clones identified from Pd-allergic mouse footpads shared identical CDR3 sequences containing AV18-1 and BV8-2. These results suggest that TCR AV18-1 and BV8-2 play dominant and critical parts in the antigen specificity of Pd-specific Th1 cells.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e76385. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes acute central nervous system (CNS) disease in humans, in whom the clinical symptoms vary from febrile illness to meningitis and encephalitis. However, the mechanism of severe encephalitis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, using a mouse model, we investigated the pathogenetic mechanisms that correlate with fatal JEV infection. Following extraneural infection with the JaOArS982 strain of JEV, infected mice exhibited clinical signs ranging from mild to fatal outcome. Comparison of the pathogenetic response between severe and mild cases of JaOArS982-infected mice revealed increased levels of TNF-α in the brains of severe cases. However, unexpectedly, the mortality rate of TNF-α KO mice was significantly increased compared with that of WT mice, indicating that TNF-α plays a protective role against fatal infection. Interestingly, there were no significant differences of viral load in the CNS between WT and TNF-α KO mice. However, exaggerated inflammatory responses were observed in the CNS of TNF-α KO mice. Although these observations were also obtained in IL-10 KO mice, the mortality and enhanced inflammatory responses were more pronounced in TNF-α KO mice. Our findings therefore provide the first evidence that TNF-α has an immunoregulatory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNS during JEV infection and consequently protects the animals from fatal disease. Thus, we propose that the increased level of TNF-α in severe cases was the result of severe disease, and secondly that immunopathological effects contribute to severe neuronal degeneration resulting in fatal disease. In future, further elucidation of the immunoregulatory mechanism of TNF-α will be an important priority to enable the development of effective treatment strategies for Japanese encephalitis.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71643. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nickel (Ni) can cause delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are thought to be mediated by the accumulation of T cells into inflamed skin. Accumulated T cells at the developmental stages in metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model has not been established. To investigate the accumulated T cells in allergic inflamed skin, we generated a novel murine model of Ni-induced allergy. The murine model of Ni allergy was induced by two sensitizations of Ni plus lipopolysaccharide solution into the groin followed by three challenges with Ni solution into the footpad. Here we show that a specific TCR repertoire bearing Vα14Jα18, called natural killer (NK) T cells, was expanded monoclonally in BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice. Accumulation of NKT cells was characterized as CD4(+) or CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells. These results suggested that NKT cells are major pathogenic T cells at the elicitation phase of Ni allergy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigate the expression profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, which comprises EGFR/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, HER3/ErbB3 and HER4/ErbB4 in oral leukoplakia (LP). The expression of four epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family genes and their ligands were measured in LP tissues from 14 patients and compared with levels in 10 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and normal oral mucosa (NOM) from 14 healthy donors by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Synchronous mRNA coexpression of ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 was detected in LP lesions. Out of the receptors, only ErbB4 mRNA and protein was more highly expressed in LP compared with NOM tissues. These were strongly expressed by epithelial keratinocytes in LP lesions, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Regarding the ligands, the mRNA of Neuregulin2 and 4 were more highly expressed in OLP compared with NOM tissues. Therefore, enhanced ErbB4 on the keratinocytes and synchronous modulation of EGFR family genes may contribute to the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of LP.International Journal of Oral Science (2013) 5, doi:10.1038/ijos.2013.10; published online 15 March 2013.
International Journal of Oral Science 03/2013; 5. · 2.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The common marmoset () is considered a novel experimental animal model of non-human primates. However, due to antibody unavailability, immunological and pathological studies have not been adequately conducted in various disease models of common marmoset. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool to examine gene expression levels. Recent reports have shown that selection of internal reference housekeeping genes are required for accurate normalization of gene expression. To develop a reliable qPCR method in common marmoset, we used applets to evaluate the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes (, , , , , , and ) in various tissues from laboratory common marmosets. analysis showed that , , and were generally ranked high in stability followed by . In contrast, , and exhibited lower expression stability than other genes in most tissues analyzed. Furthermore, by using the improved qPCR with selected reference genes, we analyzed the expression levels of CD antigens (CD3ε, CD4, CD8α and CD20) and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12β, IL-13, IFN-γ and TNF-α) in peripheral blood leukocytes and compared them between common marmosets and humans. The expression levels of CD4 and IL-4 were lower in common marmosets than in humans whereas those of IL-10, IL-12β and IFN-γ were higher in the common marmoset. The ratio of Th1-related gene expression level to that of Th2-related genes was inverted in common marmosets. We confirmed the inverted ratio of CD4 to CD8 in common marmosets by flow cytometric analysis. Therefore, the difference in Th1/Th2 balance between common marmosets and humans may affect host defense and/or disease susceptibility, which should be carefully considered when using common marmoset as an experimental model for biomedical research.
PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e56296. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously found that an i.p. injection of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) into mice caused DNA fragmentation in the intestinal villous epithelial cells (IVECs) of the duodenum and the jejunum. In this study, in order to elucidate the mechanism of DNA fragmentation in IVECs, we searched for the inducer(s) of DNA fragmentation by using immunohistochemistry. The release of cytoplasmic granules from intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and the formation of large gaps between IELs and IVECs were observed electron microscopically after antibody administration. The presence and distribution pattern of Granzyme B (GrB), a serine protease in cytolytic granules present in cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells and considered to be the responsible molecule for DNA fragmentation in target cells, was examined in detail in intestinal villi by immunohistology. GrB was detected in cytoplasmic granules in nearly all IELs. The time-kinetics of granule release from IELs after mAb injection coincided not only with that of the extracellular diffusion of GrB, but also with that of DNA fragmentation in IVECs. On the other hand, perforin (Pfn), assumed to cooperate with GrB in DNA fragmentation, could not be detected in IELs, and its release was not confirmed after the anti-CD3 mAb injection. Anti-CD3 mAb injection also induced DNA fragmentation in IVECs in Pfn-knockout mice. These results support the notion that DNA fragmentation in IVECs by the stimulated IELs in the present study is induced by a mechanism involving GrB, but independent of Pfn.
Cell and Tissue Research 01/2013; 352(2). · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells (MCs) are developed from hematopoietic progenitor cells and play an important role in inflammation. Study of the kinetics of development and accumulation of primate MC in vivo is crucial for the control of human inflammatory diseases, as evolution of the immune system is quite rapid and inflammation including MC response is considered to be different between mouse and human. In the present study, we examined the development of MC from hematopoietic progenitors of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset), an experimental animal of nonhuman primates. Bone marrow cells were fractionated for the expression of CD34 and CD117 by cell sorting. MCs were developed in vitro or by transplanting the cells to NOD/SCID/IL-2γc knockout (NOG) mice. In vitro culture of CD34(+)CD117(+) (double positive, DP) cells with stem cell factor could generate high-affinity Fc epsilon receptor (FcεR)-expressing CD117(+) cells with typical granules. The developed MC released β-hexosaminidase and produced leukotriene C(4) after the stimulation of FcεRI. Transplantation of DP cells gave rise to a marked expansion of CD34(-)CD45(+)CD117(+)FcεR(+) cells in NOG mice. They expressed transcripts encoding chymase 1 and tryptase β. Differentiation of CD34(-)CD117(+) cells to MCs was relatively limited compared with the DP cells, similarly to human MCs. These results suggest that this marmoset system provides a good model for human MC development.
International Immunology 07/2012; 24(9):593-603. · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is one of the smallest primates and is increasingly used for an experimental nonhuman primate model in many research fields. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires is a powerful tool to investigate T cell immunity in terms of antigen specificity and variability of TCR expression. However, monoclonal antibodies specific for many TCR Vα or Vβ chains have not been created. We have recently identified a large number of TCRα chain variable (TRAV) and TCRβ chain variable (TRBV) sequences from a cDNA library of common marmosets. The purpose of this study is to develop a new method for analysis of TCR repertoires in the common marmoset using this sequence information. This method is based on a microplate hybridization technique using 32 TRAV-specific and 32 TRBV-specific oligoprobes following an adaptor-ligation PCR. This enables the easy quantitation of the respective TRAV and TRBV expression levels. No cross-hybridization among specific-oligoprobes and very low variances in repeated measures of the same samples was found, demonstrating high specificity and reproducibility. Furthermore, this method was validated by an antihuman Vβ23 antibody which specifically bound to marmoset Vβ23. Using this method, we analyzed TCR repertoires from various tissue samples (PBMCs, spleen, lymph node and thymus) and isolated T cell subpopulations (CD4⁺CD8⁺, CD4⁺CD8⁻ and CD4⁻CD8⁺) from the thymus of 10 common marmosets. Neither tissue-specific nor T cell subpopulation-specific differences was found in TRAV and TRBV repertoires. These results suggest that, unlike mice, TCR repertoires in the common marmoset are not affected by endogenous superantigens and are conserved among individuals, among tissues, and among T cell subpopulations. Thus, TCR repertoire analysis with high specificity and reproducibility is a very useful technique, with the potential to replace flow cytometric analysis using a panel of TRV-specific antibodies, many of which remain unavailable.
Journal of immunological methods 07/2012; 384(1-2):81-91. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to explore important inflammatory mediators for synovial chondromatosis in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) by analysing synovial fluid. Samples were collected from 10 patients with unilateral synovial chondromatosis of the TMJ. Control samples were obtained from 11 subjects with no symptoms in the TMJ. Concentrations of aggrecan, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 (CXCL8), IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A were measured in the samples of synovial fluid, and the results in the two groups compared. The tissues from the affected TMJ were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. Of the proteins evaluated, the concentrations of aggrecan, IL-6, and VEGF-A were significantly higher in the group with synovial chondromatosis. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that the synovial cells around the osteocartilaginous nodules were vigorously expressing VEGF-A. IL-6 and VEGF-A are thought to have important roles in the pathology of synovial chondromatosis of the TMJ.
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 04/2012; · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue virus (DENV) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Dengue virus infection induces specific CD4+CD8- and CD8+CD4- T cells in humans. In primary infection, T-cell responses to DENV are serotype cross-reactive, but the highest response is to the serotype that caused the infection. The epitopes recognized by DENV-specific T cells are located in most of the structural and non-structural proteins, but NS3 is the protein that is most dominantly recognized. In patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) caused by secondary DENV infection, T cells are highly activated in vivo. These highly activated T cells are DENV-specific and oligoclonal. Multiple kinds of lymphokines are produced by the activated T cells, and it has been hypothesized that these lymphokines are responsible for induction of plasma leakage, one of the most characteristic features of DHF. Thus, T-cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of DHF and in the recovery from DENV infection.
Tropical Medicine and Health 12/2011; 39(4 Suppl):45-51.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes play critical roles in the clearance of West Nile virus (WNV) from the brains of mice. We characterized brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes by analyzing the TCR α- and β-chain repertoires, T cell clonality, and CDR3 sequences. CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells were localized in the WNV-infected brains. The expression of CD3, CD8, CD25, CD69, perforin, and granzymes positively correlated with viral RNA levels, and high levels of expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 were detected in the brains, suggesting that Th1-like cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are expanded in the brains in response to WNV infection. The brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes dominantly used TCR genes, VA1-1, VA2-1, VB5-2, and VB8-2, and exhibited a highly oligoclonal TCR repertoire. Interestingly, the brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes had different patterns of TCR repertoire usages among WNV-, Japanese encephalitis virus-, and tick-borne encephalitis virus-infected mice. Moreover, CD8(+) T cells isolated from the brains of WNV-infected mice produced IFN-γ and TNF-α after in vitro stimulation with peritoneal cells infected with WNV, but not with Japanese encephalitis virus. The results suggest that the infiltrating CD8(+) T cells were WNV-specific, but not cross-reactive among flaviviruses. T cells from the WNV-infected brains exhibited identical or similar CDR3 sequences in TCRα among tested mice, but somewhat diverse sequences in TCRβ. The results indicate that WNV-specific CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells expanding in the infected brains are highly oligoclonal, and they suggest that TCR α-chains play a dominant and critical role in Ag specificity of WNV-specific T cells.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2011; 187(8):3919-30. · 5.36 Impact Factor