R J Davenport

Medical Research Council (UK), Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (9)19.24 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Changes in the numbers of human cardiac adrenoceptors (ARs) are associated with various diseases, such as myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy and hypertension. There is a clear need for capability to assess human cardiac ARs directly in vivo. Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging technique that provides this possibility, if effective radioligands can be developed for the targeted ARs. Here, the status of myocardial AR radioligand development for PET is described. Currently, there exist effective radioligands for imaging beta-ARs in human myocardium. One of these, [11C](S)-CGP 12177, is applied extensively to clinical research with PET, sometimes with other tracers of other aspects of the noradrenalin system. Alternative radioligands are in development for beta-ARs, including beta 1-selective radioligands. A promising radioligand for imaging myocardial alpha 1-ARs, [11C]GB67, is now being evaluated in human PET experiments.
    Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae 04/2000; 74(2-3):191-200.
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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system underlies a number of myocardial disorders. Positron emission tomography (PET) offers a way of assessing receptor function non-invasively in humans, but there are no PET radioligands for assessing myocardial alpha-adrenoceptors. GB67, a structural and pharmacological analogue of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, was labelled with positron-emitting carbon-11 (t1/2 = 20.4 min) by 11C-methylation of N-desmethylamido-GB67 (GB99). [11C]GB67 was injected intravenously into conscious rats. Serial arterial blood samples were taken. Rats were killed and tissues removed to determine radioactivity. The percentages of unchanged [11C]GB67 and its radioactive metabolites in plasma and tissues were assessed by HPLC. Plasma clearance of radioactivity was rapid. Myocardial uptake was maximal at 1-2 min and decreased slowly during 60 min. Predosing with adrenoceptor antagonists demonstrated selectivity for myocardial alpha 1-adrenoceptors. GB67 and prazosin blocked uptake of radioactivity; the non-selective antagonist, phentolamine, partially blocked uptake; the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, RX 821002, only blocked uptake at high dose and the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, CGP 12177, had no effect. Additionally, injection of prazosin at 20 min after radioligand displaced radioactivity. In vivo competition curves obtained by injecting [11C]GB67 with varying amounts of either unlabelled GB67 or its precursor GB99 were fitted to a competitive binding model to provide estimates of the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) and half saturation doses (K) for myocardium. Assuming a tissue protein content of 10%, the values of Bmax [approximately 13 pmol.(g tissue)-1[ were similar to those ]50-170 fmol.(mg protein)-1] reported for myocardial alpha 1-adrenoceptors assessed in vitro. Both GB67 and its precursor GB99 had high affinity for alpha 1-adrenoceptors [KGB67 = 1.5 nmol.(kg body weight)-1, KGB99 = 4.8 nmol.(kg body weight)-1]. HPLC demonstrated four radioactive metabolites in plasma. [11C]GB67 was 80% of the radioactivity at 5 min and 50% at 45 min. No radioactive metabolites were detected in myocardium up to 60 min after injection. [11C]GB67 was assessed in two male human volunteers. PET demonstrated high myocardial uptake. The profile of radioactive metabolites in plasma was comparable to that in the rat, although metabolism was slower in humans. Thus, [11C]GB67 is a promising radioligand for assessing alpha 1-adrenoceptors in human myocardium with PET.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2000; 27(1):7-17.
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    ABSTRACT: . Dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system underlies a number of myocardial disorders. Positron emission tomography (PET) offers a way of assessing receptor function non-invasively in humans, but there are no PET radioligands for assessing myocardial α-adrenoceptors. GB67, a structural and pharmacological analogue of the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, was labelled with positron-emitting carbon-11 (t 1/2=20.4 min) by 11C-methylation of N-desmethylamido-GB67 (GB99). [11C]GB67 was injected intravenously into conscious rats. Serial arterial blood samples were taken. Rats were killed and tissues removed to determine radioactivity. The percentages of unchanged [11C]GB67 and its radioactive metabolites in plasma and tissues were assessed by HPLC. Plasma clearance of radioactivity was rapid. Myocardial uptake was maximal at 1–2 min and decreased slowly during 60 min. Predosing with adrenoceptor antagonists demonstrated selectivity for myocardial α1-adrenoceptors. GB67 and prazosin blocked uptake of radioactivity; the non-selective antagonist, phentolamine, partially blocked uptake; the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, RX 821002, only blocked uptake at high dose and the β-adrenoceptor antagonist, CGP 12177, had no effect. Additionally, injection of prazosin at 20 min after radioligand displaced radioactivity. In vivo competition curves obtained by injecting [11C]GB67 with varying amounts of either unlabelled GB67 or its precursor GB99 were fitted to a competitive binding model to provide estimates of the maximum number of binding sites (B max) and half saturation doses (K) for myocardium. Assuming a tissue protein content of 10%, the values of B max [∼13 pmol(g tissue)–1] were similar to those [50–170 fmol(mg protein)–1] reported for myocardial α1-adrenoceptors assessed in vitro. Both GB67 and its precursor GB99 had high affinity for α1-adrenoceptors [K GB67=1.5 nmol(kg body weight)–1, K GB99=4.8 nmol (kg body weight)–1]. HPLC demonstrated four radioactive metabolites in plasma. [11C]GB67 was 80% of the radioactivity at 5 min and 50% at 45 min. No radioactive metabolites were detected in myocardium up to 60 min after injection. [11C]GB67 was assessed in two male human volunteers. PET demonstrated high myocardial uptake. The profile of radioactive metabolites in plasma was comparable to that in the rat, although metabolism was slower in humans. Thus, [11C]GB67 is a promising radioligand for assessing α1-adrenoceptors in human myocardium with PET.
    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 01/2000; 27(1):7-17. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biodistribution and metabolism of [N-methyl-11C]m-hydroxyephedrine ([11C]mHED), an analogue of noradrenaline, were assessed in rats. Pretreatment with desipramine, an uptake blocker, reduced uptake of radioactivity in myocardium but not in lung, liver, kidney, and muscle. Brain uptake was negligible. HPLC showed six radioactive metabolites in plasma and liver but none in myocardium. Co-injection of unlabelled mHED or metaraminol with [11C]mHED demonstrated no difference between the in vivo binding potentials for mHED and metaraminol in myocardium.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 08/1997; 24(5):417-24. · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Raymond J. Davenport, Keith Dowsett, Victor W. Pike
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    ABSTRACT: A simple technique is described for the automated production of [1-11C]acetate, an important radiopharmaceutical for studies of human myocardial oxygen metabolism with positron emission tomography. The technique is based on the 11C-carboxylation of a small quantity of commercial methylmagnesium bromide solution contained within a narrow-bore low-volume Teflon™ tube, the use of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid to flush the radioactivity out of the tube through a millipore filter and into saturated sodium chloride solution, and purification of the product by reverse phase HPLC with isotonic saline as eluent. The [1-11C]acetate is collected in a small volume (ca. 3 mL) and after sterile filtration is ready for intravenous injection into human subjects. The product is obtained in high radiochemical yield (average 72%, decay-corrected) and radiochemical purity (>99%) within 16 min from radionuclide production. Since the procedure avoids phase extraction or distillation, it was easily automated using valves and equipment that were switched from a programmable logic controller.
    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 08/1997; 48(8):1117-1120. · 1.18 Impact Factor
  • R J Davenport, V W Pike, K Dowsett, D R Turton, K Poole
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    ABSTRACT: Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is under development as a therapeutic for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease and chronic heart failure. Three methods were examined for labelling PLC in its propionyl group with positron-emitting carbon-11 (t12 = 20.3 min), one chemical and two chemoenzymatic. The former was based on the preparation of [11C]propionyl chloride as labelling agent via 11C-carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with cyclotron-produced [11C]carbon dioxide and subsequent chlorination. Reaction of carrier-added [11C]propionyl chloride with L-carnitine in trifluoroacetic acid gave [11C]PLC in 12% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from cyclotron-produced [11C]carbon dioxide. However, the radiosynthesis was unsuccessful at the no-carrier-added (NCA) level of specific radioactivity. [11C]Propionate, as a radioactive precursor for chemoenzymatic routes, was prepared via carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with [11C]carbon dioxide and hydrolysis. NCA [11C]PLC was prepared in 68 min in 14% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from [11C]propionate via sequential conversions catalysed by acetate kinase, phosphotransacetylase and carnitine acetyltransferase. A superior chemoenzymatic synthesis of NCA [11C]PLC was developed, based on the use of a novel supported Grignard reagent for the synthesis of [11C]propionate and conversions by S-acetyl-CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase. This gave an overall radiochemical yield of 30-48% (decay-corrected). This synthesis was automated for radiation safety and provides pure NCA [11C]PLC in high radioactivities ready for intravenous administration within 25 min from radionuclide production. The [11C]PLC is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in human subjects with PET and the elucidation of the fate of the propionyl group of PLC in vivo.
    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 08/1997; 48(7):917-24. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the uptake of propionyl-L-carnitine from plasma by the myocardium in 10 human subjects using positron emission tomography. Propionyl-L-carnitine was labeled in the N-methyl position with carbon-11 (T1/2 = 20.4 min) and administered i.v. in trace amounts. The uptake of the radiolabel by the myocardium was then scanned over a period of 1 1/2 h. The activity-time course of the tracer in blood and plasma and the exchange of the label in plasma between propionyl carnitine, acetyl carnitine and free carnitine was followed during the scans. Myocardial blood flow was also measured in the same subjects. The results show an exchange of the tracer between the myocardium and plasma, and they show an apparently irreversible component of uptake, a result consistent with the incorporation of the label into relatively large intracellular carnitine pools.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 05/1996; 277(1):511-7. · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • R J Davenport, M P Law, V W Pike, S Osman, K G Poole
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    ABSTRACT: The prospective therapeutic, propionyl-L-carnitine, was labelled in the N-methyl position with the positron-emitter, carbon-11 (t1/2 = 20.4 min), with a view to studying its pharmacokinetics in humans using PET. Labelling was achieved by methylating nor-propionyl-L-carnitine hydrochloride with no-carrier-added [11C]iodomethane (produced from cyclotron-produced [11C]carbon dioxide) in ethanol in the presence of 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidine. HPLC of the reaction mixture on a strong cation exchange column provided high purity [N-methyl-11C]propionyl-L-carnitine in 62% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected from [11C]iodomethane), ready for intravenous administration within 35 min from the end of radionuclide production. [N-methyl-11C]Propionyl-L-carnitine, given intravenously to rats, cleared rapidly from plasma. A slow uptake of radioactivity into myocardium and striated muscle was observed. In plasma, unchanged tracer represented 84% of the radioactivity at 2.5 min and 2.5% of the radioactivity at 60 min. In heart, unchanged tracer represented 18% of radioactivity at 2.5 min and 2.4% at 15 min. The remainder of radioactivity detected in plasma and heart was identified as [N-methyl-11C]L-carnitine and [N-methyl-11C]acetyl-L-carnitine.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 09/1995; 22(6):699-709. · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 01/1995; 2(2). · 2.85 Impact Factor