Christopher W Pleydell-Pearce

University of Bristol, Bristol, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (11)21.9 Total impact

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    Jeffrey S Bowers, Christopher W Pleydell-Pearce
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    ABSTRACT: Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22341. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Guy Peryer, Jan M. Noyes, Christopher W. Pleydell-Pearce, Nick J. A. Lieven
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    ABSTRACT: The principal role of the auditory interface on civil aircraft is to inform pilots of dangerous or potentially dangerous system states. Efficient alerts provide information that is uniquely identifiable with one aspect of the aircraft's behavior and do not form a nuisance by being too intrusive and overly persistent. It is known that excessive auditory alert intensity can impair human performance; however, simply lowering alert intensity is not sufficient because there is a need to ensure detection and safety are not compromised. In an attempt to address this problem, an automated alert system, the Intelligent Alert Presentation system, was constructed. The system analyzes flight deck noise in real time, and alerts are then presented at a fixed ratio above the noise (+10 dBA). The system has alert muting capabilities that can be activated following detection. The intensity is attenuated to −5 dBA below the noise level, where the signal is partially masked but remains detectable and comprehensive, according to the findings of 2 experiments reported here. It is suggested that this would provide the pilot with a more suitable environment for carrying out higher order cognitive, more demanding tasks.
    International Journal of Aviation Psychology 01/2010; 20(2):183-196. · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    Sven L Mattys, Christopher W Pleydell-Pearce, James F Melhorn, Sharron E Whitecross
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we introduce pause detection (PD) as a new tool for studying the on-line integration of lexical and semantic information during speech comprehension. When listeners were asked to detect 200-ms pauses inserted into the last words of spoken sentences, their detection latencies were influenced by the lexical-semantic information provided by the sentences. Listeners took longer to detect a pause when it was inserted within a word that had multiple potential endings, rather than a unique ending, in the context of the sentence. An event-related potential (ERP) variant of the PD procedure revealed brain correlates of pauses as early as 101 to 125 ms following pause onset and patterns of lexical-semantic integration that mirrored those obtained with PD within 160 ms of pause onset. Thus, both the behavioral and the electrophysiological responses to pauses suggest that lexical and semantic processes are highly interactive and that their integration occurs rapidly during speech comprehension.
    Psychological Science 01/2006; 16(12):958-64. · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Martin A Conway, Christopher W Pleydell-Pearce, Sharron E Whitecross, Helen Sharpe
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in slow cortical potentials within EEG were monitored while autobiographical memories of experienced and imagined event were generated and then held in mind for a short period. The generation of both kinds of memory led to significantly larger negative dc shifts over left versus right frontal regions, and this was interpreted as a reflection of substantial left frontal activation. The generation phase was also associated with greater right versus left negative dc shifts over posterior occipital regions. This pattern replicates and extends previous findings from our laboratory. In addition, however, experienced memories were associated with significantly larger negative dc shifts over occipito-temporal regions than imagined events. Furthermore, during the hold-in-mind period, imagined events led to larger negative dc shifts over left frontal regions than experienced events. These findings suggest that memories for imagined and experienced events may share control processes that mediate construction of memories but that they differ in the types of content of the memories: memories of experienced events contain sensory-perceptual episodic knowledge stored in occipital networks whereas memories for imagined events contain generic imagery generated from frontal networks.
    Neuropsychologia 02/2003; 41(3):334-40. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes analysis of EEG data collected while participants performed a gauge-monitoring task which simulated an industrial process. Participants performed the task on two separate occasions, and the mean interval between sessions was 13 weeks. Analysis of EEG involved derivation of 5166 separate dependent variables, and these included measures of inter-electrode correlation, spectral power, coherence, cross phase and cross power. A central aim was to identify those EEG measures which provided the most reliable prediction of task demand. In particular, a major question was whether each participant might have unique aspects of their EEG which predicted cognitive load. This stemmed from a concern that attention to individual differences might provide a means for improving prediction. Results indicated that there were idiosyncratic aspects of physiological response which were highly predictive of task load. Furthermore, the predictive power of these variables survived across sessions despite the mean 3 month interval between them. Analyses also indicated the presence of EEG predictors which were common to all participants. It is concluded that idiosyncratic aspects of EEG patterns reflect genuine and reproducible individual differences. Such differences may prove a valuable tool for improving prediction. Furthermore, exploration of these variables may result in a deeper understanding of different types of cognitive style
    01/2003;
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    Sandra P. Marshall, Christopher W. Pleydell-Pearce, Blair T. Dickson
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a case study to introduce a new technique for identifying and comparing cognitive strategies. The technique integrates eye movements with the Index of Cognitive Activity, a psychophysiological measurement of cognitive workload derived from changes in pupil dilation. The first part of the paper describes the technique and its constituent elements. The second part describes the task used in this study. The task has been used extensively in previous studies with electrophysiological recordings of EEG, EOG, and EMG and is know to elicit different levels of cognitive workload. The third part of the paper shows the results and provides detail about three separate strategies that emerged in the subject performance. The strategies are first identified from differences in the Index of Cognitive Activity and corroborated through detailed analyses of the participant eye movements as he performed the task.
    System Sciences, 2003. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on; 01/2003
  • Source
    C.W. Pleydell-Pearce, S.E. Whitecross, B.T. Dickson
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes analysis of EEG data collected while participants performed a gauge-monitoring task which simulated an industrial process. Participants performed the task on two separate occasions, and the mean interval between sessions was 13 weeks. Analysis of EEG involved derivation of 5166 separate dependent variables, and these included measures of inter-electrode correlation, spectral power, coherence, cross phase and cross power. A central aim was to identify those EEG measures which provided the most reliable prediction of task demand. In particular, a major question was whether each participant might have unique aspects of their EEG which predicted cognitive load. This stemmed from a concern that attention to individual differences might provide a means for improving prediction. Results indicated that there were idiosyncratic aspects of physiological response which were highly predictive of task load. Furthermore, the predictive power of these variables survived across sessions despite the mean 3 month interval between them. Analyses also indicated the presence of EEG predictors which were common to all participants. It is concluded that idiosyncratic aspects of EEG patterns reflect genuine and reproducible individual differences. Such differences may prove a valuable tool for improving prediction. Furthermore, exploration of these variables may result in a deeper understanding of different types of cognitive style.
    System Sciences, 2003. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on; 01/2003
  • Martin A. Conway, Christopher W. Pleydell-Pearce, Sharon Whitecross, Helen Sharpe
    Psychology of Learning and Motivation - PSYCH LEARN MOTIV-ADV RES TH. 01/2002; 41:229-263.
  • Martin A. Conway, Christopher W. Pleydell-Pearce, Sharron E. Whitecross
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in slow cortical potentials recorded at the scalp were tracked while participants retrieved autobiographical memories and then held them in mind. During retrieval extensive areas over left frontal scalp exhibited marked negative dc shifts and a similar though smaller effect was also observed over right frontal regions. As a memory was formed and then held in mind, electrodes located over posterior temporal and occipital regions exhibited marked negative shifts. It is proposed that the left frontal negativity primarily reflects cortical activation associated with the operation of a complex retrieval process, whereas the later temporal and occipital negativity (the result of the retrieval process) reflects activation corresponding to the formation and maintenance of a detailed memory.
    Journal of Memory and Language. 01/2001;
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    M A Conway, C W Pleydell-Pearce
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    ABSTRACT: The authors describe a model of autobiographical memory in which memories are transitory mental constructions within a self-memory system (SMS). The SMS contains an autobiographical knowledge base and current goals of the working self. Within the SMS, control processes modulate access to the knowledge base by successively shaping cues used to activate autobiographical memory knowledge structures and, in this way, form specific memories. The relation of the knowledge base to active goals is reciprocal, and the knowledge base "grounds" the goals of the working self. It is shown how this model can be used to draw together a wide range of diverse data from cognitive, social, developmental, personality, clinical, and neuropsychological autobiographical memory research.
    Psychological Review 05/2000; 107(2):261-88. · 9.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Jeffrey S Bowers, Christopher W Pleydell-Pearce