R Jakes

University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany

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Publications (92)581.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Filamentous inclusions made of α-synuclein are found in nerve cells and glial cells in a number of human neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. The assembly and spreading of these inclusions are likely to play an important role in the etiology of common dementias and movement disorders. Both α-synuclein and the homologous β-synuclein are abundantly expressed in the central nervous system; however, β-synuclein is not present in the pathological inclusions. Previously, we observed a poor correlation between filament formation and the presence of residues 73-83 of α-synuclein, which are absent in β-synuclein. Instead, filament formation correlated with the mean β-sheet propensity, charge, and hydrophilicity of the protein (global physicochemical properties) and β-strand contiguity calculated by a simple algorithm of sliding averages (local physicochemical property). In the present study, we rendered β-synuclein fibrillogenic via one set of point mutations engineered to enhance global properties and a second set engineered to enhance predominantly β-strand contiguity. Our findings show that the intrinsic physicochemical properties of synucleins influence their fibrillogenic propensity via two distinct but overlapping modalities. The implications for filament formation and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2010; 285(49):38555-67. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lewy bodies (LBs) appear in the brains of nondemented individuals and also occur in a range of neurodegenerative disorders, such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease. A number of people with a definite diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) also exhibit these intraneuronal inclusions in allo- and/or neocortical areas. The latter, referred to as Lewy body variant of AD (LBV), bears a clinical resemblance to AD in terms of age at onset, duration of illness, cognitive impairment, and illness severity. Since the presence of LBs is accompanied by neuronal cytoskeleton changes, it is possible that the latter may influence neuronal connectivity via alterations to the synaptic network. To address this, we examined the expression of synaptic proteins (synaptophysin, syntaxin, SNAP-25, and alpha-synuclein) and two cytoskeletal proteins (tau and MAP2) in the brain tissue of subjects enrolled in a population-based autopsy study (n = 47). They were divided into groups with no memory problems (control group, n = 15), LBV (n = 5), AD devoid of LBs (n = 17), cerebrovascular dementia (n = 3), and mixed dementia (n = 7). The LBV and AD groups had a similar degree of cognitive impairment and neuropathological staging in terms of Braak staging and CERAD score. In comparison with the control group and the dementia groups without LBs, the LBV group had significantly lower levels of syntaxin and SNAP-25 (23%) in the neocortex, and depletion of MAP2 (64%), SNAP-25 (34%), and alpha-synuclein (44%) proteins in the medial temporal lobes. These findings suggest that the t-SNARE complex deficit present in LBV may be associated with the presence of LB-related pathology and may explain the more profound cholinergic loss seen in these patients.
    The Scientific World Journal 01/2009; 9:1463-75. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by the presence of filamentous inclusions in nerve cells. These filaments are amyloid fibrils that are made of the protein alpha-synuclein, which is genetically linked to rare cases of PD and DLB. beta-Synuclein, which shares 60% identity with alpha-synuclein, is not found in the inclusions. Furthermore, while recombinant alpha-synuclein readily assembles into amyloid fibrils, beta-synuclein fails to do so. It has been suggested that this may be due to the lack in beta-synuclein of a hydrophobic region that spans residues 73-83 of alpha-synuclein. Here, fibril assembly of recombinant human alpha-synuclein, alpha-synuclein deletion mutants, beta-synuclein and beta/alpha-synuclein chimeras was assayed quantitatively by thioflavin T fluorescence and semi-quantitatively by transmission electron microscopy. Deletion of residues 73-83 from alpha-synuclein did not abolish filament formation. Furthermore, a chimera of beta-synuclein with alpha-synuclein(73-83) inserted was significantly less fibrillogenic than wild-type alpha-synuclein. These findings, together with results obtained using a number of recombinant synucleins, showed a correlation between fibrillogenesis and mean beta-strand propensity, hydrophilicity and charge of the amino acid sequences. The combination of these simple physicochemical properties with a previously described calculation of beta-strand contiguity allowed us to design mutations that changed the fibrillogenic propensity of alpha-synuclein in predictable ways.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 12/2007; 374(2):454-64. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In humans, three genes encode the related alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synucleins, which function as lipid-binding proteins in vitro. They are being widely studied, mainly because of the central involvement of alpha-synuclein in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. In these diseases, the normally soluble alpha-synuclein assembles into abnormal filaments. Here, we have identified and characterized the synuclein gene family from the pufferfish Fugu rubripes. It consists of four genes, which encode alpha-, beta-, gamma1-, and gamma2-synucleins. They range from 113 to 127 amino acids in length and share many of the characteristics of human synucleins, including the presence of imperfect amino-terminal repeats of 11 amino acids, a hydrophobic middle region, and a negatively charged carboxy-terminus. All four synucleins are expressed in the Fugu brain. Recombinant Fugu synucleins exhibited differential liposome binding, which was strongest for alpha-synuclein, followed by beta-, gamma2-, and gamma1-synucleins. In assembly experiments, Fugu alpha-, gamma1-, and gamma2-synucleins formed filaments more readily than human alpha-synuclein. Fugu beta-synuclein, by contrast, failed to assemble in bulk. Filament assembly of synucleins was directly proportional to their degree of hydrophobicity and their tendency to form beta-sheet structure, and correlated inversely with their net charge.
    Biochemistry 03/2006; 45(8):2599-607. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation regulates both normal and pathological Tau functioning. This microtubule-associated protein plays a role in the organization and integrity of the neuronal cytoskeleton under normal conditions and becomes hyperphosphorylated and aggregated in a number of neurodegenerative diseases referred to as tauopathies. In this study, we identify and compare the residues in human Tau phosphorylated in vitro by all four p38 MAPK isoforms, and study the regulation of the phosphorylation of Thr50, under conditions where p38 MAPKs are active in cells. Through biochemical analysis, loss of function studies and analysis of endogenous and overexpressed Tau proteins, we show that SAPK4/p38delta is the major kinase phosphorylating Thr50 in Tau, when cells are exposed to osmotic stress. We also show that mutation of Thr50 to glutamic acid, which mimics phosphorylation, increases the ability of Tau to promote tubulin polymerisation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we show that Thr50 is phosphorylated in filamentous Tau from Alzheimer's disease brain. These findings suggest a role for Tau in the adaptative response of neurons to stress and indicate that SAPK4/p38delta and/or SAPK3/p38delta may contribute to the hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the human tauopathies.
    Journal of Cell Science 02/2005; 118(Pt 2):397-408. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    Michel Goedert, Ross Jakes
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    ABSTRACT: Tau is the major component of the intracellular filamentous deposits that define a number of neurodegenerative diseases. They include the largely sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Pick's disease and argyrophilic grain disease, as well as the inherited frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). For a long time, it was unclear whether the dysfunction of tau protein follows disease or whether disease follows tau dysfunction. This was resolved when mutations in Tau were found to cause FTDP-17. Currently, 32 different mutations have been identified in over 100 families. About half of the known mutations have their primary effect at the protein level. They reduce the ability of tau protein to interact with microtubules and increase its propensity to assemble into abnormal filaments. The other mutations have their primary effect at the RNA level and perturb the normal ratio of three-repeat to four-repeat tau isoforms. Where studied, this resulted in a relative overproduction of tau protein with four microtubule-binding domains in the brain. Individual Tau mutations give rise to diseases that resemble progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration or Pick's disease. Moreover, the H1 haplotype of Tau has been identified as a significant risk factor for progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration. At a practical level, the new work is leading to the production of experimental animal models that reproduce the essential molecular and cellular features of the human tauopathies, including the formation of abundant filaments made of hyperphosphorylated tau protein and nerve cell degeneration.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2005; 1739(2-3):240-50. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Missense mutations (A30P and A53T) in alpha-synuclein and the overproduction of the wild-type protein cause familial forms of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Alpha-synuclein is the major component of the filamentous Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites that define these diseases at a neuropathological level. Recently, a third missense mutation (E46K) in alpha-synuclein was described in an inherited form of dementia with Lewy bodies. Here, we have investigated the functional effects of this novel mutation on phospholipid binding and filament assembly of alpha-synuclein. When compared to the wild-type protein, the E46K mutation caused a significantly increased ability of alpha-synuclein to bind to negatively charged liposomes, unlike the previously described mutations. The E46K mutation increased the rate of filament assembly to the same extent as the A53T mutation. Filaments formed from E46K alpha-synuclein often had a twisted morphology with a cross-over spacing of 43 nm. The observed effects on lipid binding and filament assembly may explain the pathogenic nature of the E46K mutation in alpha-synuclein.
    FEBS Letters 11/2004; 576(3):363-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Filamentous tau deposits are a defining feature of a number of human neurodegenerative diseases. Apes and monkeys have been reported to be differentially susceptible to developing tau pathology. Despite this, only little is known about the organisation and sequence of Tau from nonhuman primates. Here we have sequenced Tau exons 1-13, including flanking intronic regions, and the region in intron 9 that contains Saitohin in chimpanzees, gorillas, and gibbons. Partial sequences were obtained for cynomolgus macaque and green monkey. Chimpanzee brain tau was 100% identical to human tau. Identities were 99.5% for gorilla tau and 99.0% for gibbon tau. Chimpanzee DNA was polymorphic for a repeat in intron 9, which was present in human and gorilla tau, and for the nucleotide at position +29 of the intron that follows exon 10. As was the case of the other nonhuman primates examined, chimpanzee DNA was homozygous for nucleotides used to define the H2 haplotype in human Tau. These differences between human and chimpanzee Tau may contribute to the apparent resistance of chimpanzee brain to developing tau pathology. Sequencing of Saitohin revealed an intact open reading frame in chimpanzee and gorilla, but not in gibbon or macaque.
    Gene 11/2004; 341:313-22. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical and neuropathological characteristics of an atypical form of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are described. The proband experienced difficulties in her school performance at 13 years of age. Neurological examination revealed cognitive dysfunction, dysarthria, parkinsonism and myoclonus. By age 14 years, the symptoms had worsened markedly and the proband died at age 15 years. On neuropathological examination, the brain was severely atrophic. Numerous intracytoplasmic and intraneuritic Lewy bodies, as well as Lewy neurites, were present throughout the cerebral cortex and subcortical nuclel; vacuolar changes were seen in the upper layers of the neocortex and severe neuronal loss and gliosis were evident in the cerebral cortex and substantia nigra. Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites were strongly immunoreactive for alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin. Lewy bodies were composed of filamentous and granular material and isolated filaments were decorated by alpha-synuclein antibodies. Immunohistochemistry for tau or beta-amyloid yielded negative results. The etiology of this atypical form of DLB is unknown, since there was no family history and since sequencing of the exonic regions of alpha-Synuclein, beta-Synuclein, Synphilin-1, Parkin, Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 and Neurofilament-M failed to reveal a pathogenic mutation. This study provides further evidence of the clinical and pathological heterogeneity of DLB.
    Brain Pathology 05/2004; 14(2):137-47. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of mutations in the Tau gene in frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) has made it possible to express human tau protein with pathogenic mutations in transgenic animals. Here we report on the production and characterization of a line of mice transgenic for the 383 aa isoform of human tau with the P301S mutation. At 5-6 months of age, homozygous animals from this line developed a neurological phenotype dominated by a severe paraparesis. According to light microscopy, many nerve cells in brain and spinal cord were strongly immunoreactive for hyperphosphorylated tau. According to electron microscopy, abundant filaments made of hyperphosphorylated tau protein were present. The majority of filaments resembled the half-twisted ribbons described previously in cases of FTDP-17, with a minority of filaments resembling the paired helical filaments of Alzheimer's disease. Sarkosyl-insoluble tau from brains and spinal cords of transgenic mice ran as a hyperphosphorylated 64 kDa band, the same apparent molecular mass as that of the 383 aa tau isoform in the human tauopathies. Perchloric acid-soluble tau was also phosphorylated at many sites, with the notable exception of serine 214. In the spinal cord, neurodegeneration was present, as indicated by a 49% reduction in the number of motor neurons. No evidence for apoptosis was obtained, despite the extensive colocalization of hyperphosphorylated tau protein with activated MAP kinase family members. The latter may be involved in the hyperphosphorylation of tau.
    Journal of Neuroscience 12/2002; 22(21):9340-51. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease is the presence of intracellular inclusions, Lewy bodies, and Lewy neurites, in the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and several other brain regions. Filamentous alpha-synuclein is the major component of these deposits and its aggregation is believed to play an important role in Parkinson's disease and several other neurodegenerative diseases. Two homologous proteins, beta- and gamma-synucleins, are also abundant in the brain. The synucleins are natively unfolded proteins. beta-Synuclein, which lacks 11 central hydrophobic residues compared with its homologs, exhibited the properties of a random coil, whereas alpha- and gamma-synucleins were slightly more compact and structured. gamma-Synuclein, unlike its homologs, formed a soluble oligomer at relatively low concentrations, which appears to be an off-fibrillation pathway species. Here we show that, although they have similar biophysical properties to alpha-synuclein, beta- And gamma-synucleins inhibit alpha-synuclein fibril formation. Complete inhibition of alpha-synuclein fibrillation was observed at 4:1 molar excess of beta- and gamma-synucleins. No significant incorporation of beta-synuclein into the fibrils was detected. The lack of fibrils formed by beta-synuclein is most readily explained by the absence of a stretch of hydrophobic residues from the middle region of the protein. A model for the inhibition is proposed.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2002; 277(14):11970-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: tau gene mutations cause frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). Here we have used Xenopus oocyte maturation as an indicator of microtubule function. We show that wild-type four-repeat Tau protein inhibits maturation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas three-repeat Tau has no effect. Of the seven four-repeat Tau proteins with FTDP-17 mutations tested, five (G272V, DeltaK280, P301L, P301S, and V337M) failed to interfere significantly with oocyte maturation, demonstrating a greatly reduced ability to interact with microtubules. One mutant protein (R406W) almost behaved like wild-type Tau, and one (S305N) inhibited maturation more strongly than wild-type Tau. With the exception of R406W, wild-type Tau and all the mutants studied were similarly phosphorylated during the Xenopus oocyte maturation, and this was independent of their effects on this process. Data obtained with R406W and S305N may be related to charge changes (phosphorylation and basic amino acids). Our results demonstrate variable effects of FTDP-17 mutations on microtubules in an intact cell situation. Those findings establish Xenopus oocyte maturation as a system allowing the study of the functional effects of tau gene mutations in a quantitative manner.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2002; 277(11):9199-205. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The casein milk proteins and the brain proteins alpha-synuclein and tau have been described as natively unfolded with random coil structures, which, in the case of alpha-synuclein and tau, have a propensity to form the fibrils found in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. New insight into the structures of these proteins has been provided by a Raman optical activity study, supplemented with differential scanning calorimetry, of bovine beta- and kappa-casein, recombinant human alpha-, beta- and gamma-synuclein, together with the A30P and A53T mutants of alpha-synuclein associated with familial cases of Parkinson's disease, and recombinant human tau 46 together with the tau 46 P301L mutant associated with inherited frontotemporal dementia. The Raman optical activity spectra of all these proteins are very similar, being dominated by a strong positive band centred at approximately 1318 cm(-1) that may be due to the poly(l-proline) II (PPII) helical conformation. There are no Raman optical activity bands characteristic of extended secondary structure, although some unassociated beta strand may be present. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed no thermal transitions for these proteins in the range 15-110 degrees C, suggesting that the structures are loose and noncooperative. As it is extended, flexible, lacks intrachain hydrogen bonds and is hydrated in aqueous solution, PPII helix may impart a rheomorphic (flowing shape) character to the structure of these proteins that could be essential for their native function but which may, in the case of alpha-synuclein and tau, result in a propensity for pathological fibril formation due to particular residue properties.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 02/2002; 269(1):148-56. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The casein milk proteins and the brain proteins -synuclein and tau have been described as natively unfolded with random coil structures, which, in the case of -synuclein and tau, have a propensity to form the fibrils found in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. New insight into the structures of these proteins has been provided by a Raman optical activity study, supplemented with differential scanning calorimetry, of bovine β- and κ-casein, recombinant human -, β- and -synuclein, together with the A30P and A53T mutants of -synuclein associated with familial cases of Parkinson's disease, and recombinant human tau46 together with the tau46 P301L mutant associated with inherited frontotemporal dementia. The Raman optical activity spectra of all these proteins are very similar, being dominated by a strong positive band centred at ≈ 1318 cm−1 that may be due to the poly(l-proline) II (PPII) helical conformation. There are no Raman optical activity bands characteristic of extended secondary structure, although some unassociated β strand may be present. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed no thermal transitions for these proteins in the range 15–110 °C, suggesting that the structures are loose and noncooperative. As it is extended, flexible, lacks intrachain hydrogen bonds and is hydrated in aqueous solution, PPII helix may impart a rheomorphic (flowing shape) character to the structure of these proteins that could be essential for their native function but which may, in the case of -synuclein and tau, result in a propensity for pathological fibril formation due to particular residue properties.
    European Journal of Biochemistry. 12/2001; 269(1):148 - 156.
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    ABSTRACT: The substrate specificity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is unusual in that efficient phosphorylation only occurs if another phosphoserine or phosphothreonine residue is already present four residues C-terminal to the site of GSK3 phosphorylation. One such substrate is the epsilon-subunit of rat eukaryotic protein-synthesis initiation factor 2B (eIF2Bepsilon), which is inhibited by the GSK3-catalysed phosphorylation of Ser(535). There is evidence that GSK3 is only able to phosphorylate eIF2Bepsilon at Ser(535) if Ser(539) is already phosphorylated by another protein kinase. However, no protein kinases capable of phosphorylating Ser(539) have so far been identified. Here we show that Ser(539) of eIF2Bepsilon, which is followed by proline, is phosphorylated specifically by two isoforms of dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylated and regulated kinase (DYRK2 and DYRK1A), but only weakly or not at all by other 'proline-directed' protein kinases tested. We also establish that phosphorylation of Ser(539) permits GSK3 to phosphorylate Ser(535) in vitro and that eIF2Bepsilon is highly phosphorylated at Ser(539) in vivo. The DYRK isoforms also phosphorylate human microtubule-associated protein tau at Thr(212) in vitro, a residue that is phosphorylated in foetal tau and hyperphosphorylated in filamentous tau from Alzheimer's-disease brain. Phosphorylation of Thr(212) primes tau for phosphorylation by GSK3 at Ser(208) in vitro, suggesting a more general role for DYRK isoforms in priming phosphorylation of GSK3 substrates.
    Biochemical Journal 06/2001; 355(Pt 3):609-15. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The most common degenerative diseases of the human brain are characterized by the presence of abnormal filamentous inclusions in affected nerve cells and glial cells. These diseases can be grouped into two classes, based on the identity of the major proteinaceous components of the filamentous assemblies. The filaments are made of either the microtubule-associated protein tau or the protein alpha-synuclein. Importantly, the discovery of mutations in the tau gene in familial forms of frontotemporal dementia and of mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene in familial forms of Parkinson's disease has established that dysfunction of tau protein and alpha-synuclein can cause neurodegeneration.
    Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 03/2001; 356(1406):213-27. · 6.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The substrate specificity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is unusual in that efficient phosphorylation only occurs if another phosphoserine or phosphothreonine residue is already present four residues C-terminal to the site of GSK3 phosphorylation. One such substrate is the epsilon-subunit of rat eukaryotic protein-synthesis initiation factor 2B (eIF2Bepsilon), which is inhibited by the GSK3-catalysed phosphorylation of Ser(535). There is evidence that GSK3 is only able to phosphorylate eIF2Bepsilon at Ser(535) if Ser(539) is already phosphorylated by another protein kinase. However, no protein kinases capable of phosphorylating Ser(539) have so far been identified. Here we show that Ser(539) of eIF2Bepsilon, which is followed by proline, is phosphorylated specifically by two isoforms of dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylated and regulated kinase (DYRK2 and DYRK1A), but only weakly or not at all by other 'proline-directed' protein kinases tested. We also establish that phosphorylation of Ser(539) permits GSK3 to phosphorylate Ser(535) in vitro and that eIF2Bepsilon is highly phosphorylated at Ser(539) in vivo. The DYRK isoforms also phosphorylate human microtubule-associated protein tau at Thr(212) in vitro, a residue that is phosphorylated in foetal tau and hyperphosphorylated in filamentous tau from Alzheimer's-disease brain. Phosphorylation of Thr(212) primes tau for phosphorylation by GSK3 at Ser(208) in vitro, suggesting a more general role for DYRK isoforms in priming phosphorylation of GSK3 substrates.
    Journal of Biochemistry - J BIOCHEM. 01/2001; 355.
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder (1). Neuropathologically, it is defined by nerve cell loss in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites (2,3). In many cases, Lewy bodies are also found in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the nucleus basalis of Meynert, the locus coeruleus, the raphe nuclei, the midbrain Edinger-Westphal nucleus, the cerebral cortex, the olfactory bulb, and some autonomic ganglia (4).
    Methods in molecular medicine 01/2001; 62:33-59.
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    ABSTRACT: Coding region and intronic mutations in the tau gene cause frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). We have previously reported that ABalphaC, a major form of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in brain, binds tightly to tau protein in vitro and is a major tau phosphatase in vivo. Using in vitro assays, we show here that the FTDP-17 mutations G272V, DeltaK280, P301L, P301S, S305N, V337M, G389R, and R406W inhibit by approximately 20-95% the binding of recombinant three-repeat and four-repeat tau isoforms to the ABalphaC holoenzyme and the AC core enzyme of PP2A. Reduction in binding was maximal for tau proteins with the G272V, DeltaK280, and V337M mutations. We also show that tau protein can be specifically coimmunoprecipitated with endogenous PP2A from both rat brain and transfected cell extracts. It is significant that, by using similar coimmunoprecipitation assays, we show that all FTDP-17 mutations tested, including the N279K mutation, alter the ability of tau to associate with cellular PP2A. Taken together, these results indicate that FTDP-17 mutations induce a significant decrease in the binding affinity of tau for PP2A in vivo. We propose that altered protein-protein interactions between PP2A and tau may contribute to FTDP-17 pathogenesis.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 12/2000; 75(5):2155-62. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exonic and intronic mutations in Tau cause neurodegenerative syndromes characterized by frontotemporal dementia and filamentous tau protein deposits. Here we describe a K257T missense mutation in exon 9 of Tau. The proband, a 47-yr-old male, presented with severe personality changes followed by semantic memory loss. A diagnosis of Pick's disease was made. The symptoms progressed until death at age 51. The proband's brain showed a marked frontotemporal atrophy that was most pronounced in the temporal lobes. Numerous tau-immunoreactive Pick bodies were present in the neocortex and the hippocampal formation, as well as in some subcortical brain regions. Their appearance and staining characteristics were indistinguishable from those of sporadic Pick's disease. Diffuse staining for hyperphosphorylated tau was also observed in some nerve cell bodies. Immunoblot analysis of sarkosyl-insoluble tau showed 2 major bands of 60 and 64 kDa and 2 very minor bands of 68 and 72 kDa. Upon dephosphorylation, these bands resolved into 6 bands consisting of 3-repeat and 4-repeat tau isoforms, with an overall preponderance of 3-repeat tau. Isolated tau filaments were narrow, irregularly twisted ribbons. Biochemically, recombinant tau proteins with the K257T mutation showed a reduced ability to promote microtubule assembly, suggesting that this may be the primary effect of the mutation. In addition, the K257T mutation was found to stimulate heparin-induced assembly of 3-repeat tau into filaments. Taken together, the present findings indicate that the K257T mutation in Tau can cause a dementing condition similar to Pick's disease.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 12/2000; 59(11):990-1001. · 4.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
581.10 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004
    • University of Leipzig
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2002
    • WWF United Kingdom
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1991–2001
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      • MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2000
    • Universität Basel
      • Institut für Pathologie
      Basel, BS, Switzerland
  • 1999–2000
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1997–1999
    • Aarhus University
      • Department of Medical Biochemistry
      Aars, Region North Jutland, Denmark
  • 1991–1998
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Brain Repair Centre
      • • MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1993
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Philadelphia, PA, United States