[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improving nutrient homeostasis is a major challenge of a sustainable maize cultivation, and cornerstone to ensure food supply for a growing world population. Although, iron constitutes an important nutrient, iron availability is limited. In this respect, iron deficiency associated chlorosis causes severe yield losses every year. Natural variation of the latter trait has yet not been addressed in maize and was therefore studied in the present analysis.
In this study, we i) report about the contrasting chlorosis phenotypes of the inbreds B73 and Mo17 at 10 and 300 muM iron regime, ii) identified over 400 significantly regulated transcripts (FDR < 0.05) within both inbreds at these growth conditions by deep RNA-Sequencing, iii) linked the gained knowledge with QTL information about iron deficiency related traits within the maize intermated B73 by Mo17 (IBM) population, and iv) highlighted contributing molecular pathways. In this respect, several genes within methionine salvage pathway and phytosiderophore synthesis were found to present constitutively high expression in Mo17, even under sufficient iron supply. Moreover, the same expression pattern could be observed for two putative bHLH transcription factors. In addition, a number of differentially expressed genes showed a co-localisation with QTL confidence intervals for iron deficiency related traits within the IBM population.
Our study highlights differential iron deficiency associated chlorosis between B73 and Mo17 and represents a valuable resource for differentially expressed genes upon iron limitation and chlorosis response. Besides identifying two putative bHLH transcription factors, we propose that methionine salvage pathway and sterol metabolism amongst others; underlie the contrasting iron deficiency related chlorosis phenotype of both inbreds. Altogether, this study emphasizes a contribution of selected genes and pathways on natural trait variation within the IBM population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most molecular studies of plant stress tolerance have been performed with Arabidopsis thaliana, although it is not particularly stress tolerant and may lack protective mechanisms required to survive extreme environmental conditions. Thellungiella salsuginea has attracted interest as an alternative plant model species with high tolerance of various abiotic stresses. While the T. salsuginea genome has recently been sequenced, its annotation is still incomplete and transcriptomic information is scarce. In addition, functional genomics investigations in this species are severely hampered by a lack of affordable tools for genome-wide gene expression studies.
Here, we report the results of Thellungiella de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation based on 454 pyrosequencing and development and validation of a T. salsuginea microarray. ESTs were generated from a non-normalized and a normalized library synthesized from RNA pooled from samples covering different tissues and abiotic stress conditions. Both libraries yielded partially unique sequences, indicating their necessity to obtain comprehensive transcriptome coverage. More than 1 million sequence reads were assembled into 42,810 unigenes, approximately 50% of which could be functionally annotated. These unigenes were compared to all available Thellungiella genome sequence information. In addition, the groups of Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins, Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinases and protein phosphatases were annotated in detail. We also predicted the target genes for 384 putative miRNAs. From the sequence information, we constructed a 44 k Agilent oligonucleotide microarray. Comparison of same-species and cross-species hybridization results showed superior performance of the newly designed array for T. salsuginea samples. The developed microarrayswere used to investigate transcriptional responses of T. salsuginea and Arabidopsis during cold acclimation using the MapMan software.
This study provides the first comprehensive transcriptome information for the extremophile Arabidopsis relative T. salsuginea. The data constitute a more than three-fold increase in the number of publicly available unigene sequences and will greatly facilitate genome annotation. In addition, we have designed and validated the first genome-wide microarray for T. salsuginea, which will be commercially available. Together with the publicly available MapMan software this will become an important tool for functional genomics of plant stress tolerance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Grooved Carpet shell clam Ruditapes decussatus is the autochthonous European clam and the most appreciated from a gastronomic and economic point of view. The production is in decline due to several factors such as Perkinsiosis and habitat invasion and competition by the introduced exotic species, the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. After we sequenced R. decussatus transcriptome we have design an oligo microarray capable of contributing to provide some clues on molecular response of the clam to Perkinsiosis.
A database consisting of 41,119 unique transcripts was constructed, of which12,479 (30.3%) were annotated by similarity. An oligo-DNA microarray platform was thendesigned and applied to profile gene expression in R. decussatus heavily infected by Perkinsus olseni. Functional annotation of differentially expressed genes between those two conditionswas performed by gene set enrichment analysis. As expected microarrays unveil genes related with stress/infectious agents such as hydrolases, proteases and others. The extensive role of innate immune system was also analyzed and effect of parasitosis upon expression of important molecules such as lectins reviewed.
This study represents a first attempt to characterize Ruditapes decussatus transcriptome, an important marine resource for the European aquaculture. The trancriptome sequencing and consequent annotation will increase the available tools and resources for this specie, introducing the possibility of high throughput experiments such as microarrays analysis. In this specific case microarray approach was used to unveil some important aspects of host-parasite interaction between the Carpet shell clam and Perkinsus, two non-model species, highlighting some genes associated with this interaction. Ample information was obtained to identify biological processes significantly enriched among differentially expressed genes in Perkinsus infected versus non-infected gills. An overview on the genes related with the immune system on R. decussatus transcriptome is also reported.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evolution of new genes can ensue through either gene duplication and the neofunctionalization of one of the copies or the formation of a de novo gene from hitherto nonfunctional, neutrally evolving intergenic or intronic genomic sequences. Only very rarely are entire genes created de novo. Mostly, nonfunctional sequences are coopted as novel parts of existing genes, such as in the process of exonization whereby introns become exons through changes in splicing. Here, we report a case in which a novel non-protein coding RNA evolved by intron-sequence recruitment into their structures. cDNAs derived from rat brain small RNAs, revealed a novel snoRNA originating from one of the Snord115 copies in the rat Prader-Willi-Syndrome locus. We suggest that a single point substitution in the Snord115 region led to the expression of a longer snoRNA variant, designated as L-Snord115. Cell culture and footprinting experiments confirmed that a single nucleotide substitution at Snord115 position 67 destabilized the kink-turn (K-turn) motif within the canonical snoRNA, while distal intronic sequences provided an alternate D-box region. The exapted sequence displays putative base pairing to 28S rRNA and mRNA targets.
Genome Biology and Evolution 10/2013; · 4.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize the transcriptome of a balanced polymorphism, under the regulation of a single gene, for phosphate fertilizer responsiveness/arsenate tolerance in wild grass Holcus lanatus genotypes screened from the same habitat. De novo transcriptome sequencing, RNAseq (RNA sequencing) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling were conducted on RNA extracted from H. lanatus. Roche 454 sequencing data were assembled into c. 22 000 isotigs, and paired-end Illumina reads for phosphorus-starved (P-) and phosphorus-treated (P+) genovars of tolerant (T) and nontolerant (N) phenotypes were mapped to this reference transcriptome. Heatmaps of the gene expression data showed strong clustering of each P+/P- treated genovar, as well as clustering by N/T phenotype. Statistical analysis identified 87 isotigs to be significantly differentially expressed between N and T phenotypes and 258 between P+ and P- treated plants. SNPs and transcript expression that systematically differed between N and T phenotypes had regulatory function, namely proteases, kinases and ribonuclear RNA-binding protein and transposable elements. A single gene for arsenate tolerance led to distinct phenotype transcriptomes and SNP profiles, with large differences in upstream post-translational and post-transcriptional regulatory genes rather than in genes directly involved in P nutrition transport and metabolism per se.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ror1 gene was fine-mapped to the pericentric region of barley chromosome 1HL. Recessively inherited loss-of-function alleles of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo) gene confer durable broad-spectrum disease resistance against the obligate biotrophic fungal powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Previous genetic analyses revealed two barley genes, Ror1 and Ror2, that are Required for mlo-specified resistance and basal defence. While Ror2 was cloned and shown to encode a t-SNARE protein (syntaxin), the molecular nature or Ror1 remained elusive. Ror1 was previously mapped to the centromeric region of the long arm of barley chromosome 1H. Here, we narrowed the barley Ror1 interval to 0.18 cM and initiated a chromosome walk using barley yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, next-generation DNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two non-overlapping YAC contigs containing Ror1 flanking genes were identified. Despite a high degree of synteny observed between barley and the sequenced genomes of the grasses rice (Oryza sativa), Brachypodium distachyon and Sorghum bicolor across the wider chromosomal area, the genes in the YAC contigs showed extensive interspecific rearrangements in orientation and order. Consequently, the position of a Ror1 homolog in these species could not be precisely predicted, nor was a barley gene co-segregating with Ror1 identified. These factors have prevented the molecular identification of the Ror1 gene for the time being.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 09/2013; 126(12):2969-2982. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, representatives of the Bacteroidetes have been increasingly recognized as specialists for the degradation of macromolecules. Formosa constitutes a Bacteroidetes genus within the class Flavobacteria, whose members have been found in marine habitats with high levels of organic matter, such as in association with algae, invertebrates and fecal pellets. Here we report on the generation and analysis of the genome of the type strain of Formosa agariphila (KMM 3901(T)) - an isolate from the green algae Acrosiphonia sonderi. F. agariphila is a facultative anaerobe with the capacity for mixed acid fermentation and denitrification. Its genome harbors 129 proteases and 88 glycoside hydrolases, indicating a pronounced specialization on the degradation of proteins, polysaccharides and glycoproteins. 65 of the glycoside hydrolases are organized in at least 13 distinct polysaccharide utilization loci, where they are clustered with TonB-dependent receptors, SusD-like proteins, sensors/transcription factors, transporters and oftentimes sulfatases. These loci play a pivotal role in bacteroidetal polysaccharide biodegradation, and in the case of F. agariphila revealed the capacity to degrade a wide range of algal polysaccharides from green, red and brown algae and thus a strong specialization of towards an algae-associated lifestyle. This was corroborated by growth experiments, which confirmed usage of particularly those monosaccharides that constitute the building blocks of abundant algal polysaccharides as well as of distinct algal polysaccharides such as laminarins, xylans and κ-carrageenans.
Applied and environmental microbiology 08/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ubiquitous bacteria from the genus Oleispira drive oil degradation in the largest environment on Earth, the cold and deep sea. Here we report the genome sequence of Oleispira antarctica and show that compared with Alcanivorax borkumensis-the paradigm of mesophilic hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria-O. antarctica has a larger genome that has witnessed massive gene-transfer events. We identify an array of alkane monooxygenases, osmoprotectants, siderophores and micronutrient-scavenging pathways. We also show that at low temperatures, the main protein-folding machine Cpn60 functions as a single heptameric barrel that uses larger proteins as substrates compared with the classical double-barrel structure observed at higher temperatures. With 11 protein crystal structures, we further report the largest set of structures from one psychrotolerant organism. The most common structural feature is an increased content of surface-exposed negatively charged residues compared to their mesophilic counterparts. Our findings are relevant in the context of microbial cold-adaptation mechanisms and the development of strategies for oil-spill mitigation in cold environments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An articulated endoskeleton that is calcified is a unifying innovation of the vertebrates, however the molecular basis of the structural divergence between terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, such as teleost fish, has not been determined. In the present study long-read next generation sequencing (NGS, Roche 454 platform) was used to characterise acellular perichondral bone (vertebrae) and chondroid bone (gill arch) in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus). A total of 15.97Mb and 14.53 Mb were produced, respectively from vertebrae and gill arch cDNA libraries and yielded 32,374 and 28,371 contigs (consensus sequences) respectively. 10,455 contigs from vertebrae and 10,625 contigs from gill arches were annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Comparative analysis of the global transcriptome revealed 4249 unique transcripts in vertebrae, 4201 unique transcripts in the gill arches and 3700 common transcripts. Several core gene networks were conserved between the gilthead sea bream and mammalian skeleton. Transcripts for putative endocrine factors were identified in acellular gilthead sea bream bone suggesting that in common with mammalian bone it can act as an endocrine tissue. The acellular bone of the vertebra, in contrast to current opinion based on histological analysis, was responsive to a short fast and significant (p<0.05) down-regulation of several transcripts identified by NGS, osteonectin, osteocalcin, cathepsin K and IGFI occurred. In gill arches fasting caused a significant (p<0.05) down-regulation of osteocalcin and up-regulation of MMP9.
General and Comparative Endocrinology 06/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Time-resolved utilization of multiple amino acids by Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 was studied during growth with casamino acids. The 15 detected amino acids could be grouped according to depletion rate into four different categories, i.e. from rapid (category I) to non-depletion (category IV). Upon entry into stationary growth phase, amino acids of category I (e.g. glutamate) were (almost) completely depleted, while those of categories II (e.g. leucine) and III (e.g. serine) were further consumed at varying rates and to different extents. Thus, cultures entered stationary growth phase despite the ample presence of organic nutrients, i.e. under non-limiting conditions. Integrated proteomic and metabolomic analysis identified 1,747 proteins and 94 intracellular metabolites. Of these, 180 proteins and 86 metabolites displayed altered abundance levels during growth. Most strikingly, abundance and activity profiles of alanine dehydrogenase concomitantly increased with the onset of enhanced alanine utilization during transition into stationary growth phase. Most enzymes of amino acid and central metabolism, however, displayed unaltered abundances across exponential and stationary growth phases. In contrast, metabolites of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and gluconeogenesis as well as cellular fatty acids increased markedly in abundance in early stationary growth phase. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phaeobacter gallaeciensis DSM 17395, a member of the Roseobacter clade, was studied for its adaptive strategies to complex and excess nutrient supply, here mimicked by cultivation with Marine Broth (MB). During growth in process-controlled fermenters, P. gallaeciensis grew faster (3.6-fold higher μmax ) and reached higher optical densities (2.2-fold) with MB medium, as compared to the reference condition of glucose-containing mineral medium. Apparently, in the presence of MB medium, metabolism was tuned to maximize growth rate at the expense of efficiency. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of cells harvested at ½ ODmax identified 1,783 (2D DIGE, membrane and extracellular protein-enriched fractions, shotgun) different proteins (46% coverage), 315 (based on 2D DIGE) of which displayed differential abundance profiles. Moreover, 145 different metabolites (intra- and extracellular combined) were identified, almost all of which (138) showed abundance changes. During growth with MB medium, P. gallaeciensis specifically formed the various proteins required for utilization of phospholipids and several amino acids, as well as for gluconeogenesis. Metabolic tuning on amino acid utilization is also reflected by massive discharge of urea to dispose the cell of excess ammonia. Apparently, P. gallaeciensis modulated its metabolism to simultaneously utilize diverse substrates from the complex nutrient supply. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Desulfocapsa sulfexigens SB164P1 (DSM 10523) belongs to the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfobulbaceae and is one of two validly described members of its genus. This strain was selected for genome sequencing, because it is the first marine bacterium reported to thrive on the disproportionation of elemental sulfur, a process with a unresolved enzymatic pathway in which elemental sulfur serves both as electron donor and electron acceptor. Furthermore, in contrast to its phylogenetically closest relatives, which are dissimilatory sulfate-reducers, D. sulfexigens is unable to grow by sulfate reduction and appears metabolically specialized in growing by disproportionating elemental sulfur, sulfite or thiosulfate with CO2 as the sole carbon source. The genome of D. sulfexigens contains the set of genes that is required for nitrogen fixation. In an acetylene assay it could be shown that the strain reduces acetylene to ethylene, which is indicative for N-fixation. The circular chromosome of D. sulfexigens SB164P1 comprises 3,986,761 bp and harbors 3,551 protein-coding genes of which 78% have a predicted function based on auto-annotation. The chromosome furthermore encodes 46 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA operons.
Standards in Genomic Sciences 04/2013; 8(1):58-68. · 2.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a group of diverse motile prokaryotes that biomineralize magnetosomes, the organelles responsible for magnetotaxis. Magnetosomes consist of intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometre-sized crystals of the magnetic minerals magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) or greigite (Fe3 S4 ) and are usually organized as a chain within the cell acting like a compass needle. Most information regarding the biomineralization processes involved in magnetosome formation comes from studies involving Alphaproteobacteria species which biomineralize cuboctahedral and elongated prismatic crystals of magnetite. Many magnetosome genes, the mam genes, identified in these organisms are conserved in all known MTB. Here we present a comparative genomic analysis of magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria that synthesize bullet-shaped crystals of magnetite and/or greigite. We show that in addition to mam genes, there is a conserved set of genes, designated mad genes, specific to the magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria, some also being present in Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum of the Nitrospirae phylum, but absent in the magnetotactic Alphaproteobacteria. Our results suggest that the number of genes associated with magnetotaxis in magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria is larger than previously thought. We also demonstrate that the minimum set of mam genes necessary for magnetosome formation in Magnetospirillum is also conserved in magnetite-producing, magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria. Some putative novel functions of mad genes are discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Notophthalmus viridescens, an urodelian amphibian, represents an excellent model organism to study regenerative processes, but mechanistic insights into molecular processes driving regeneration have been hindered by paucity and poor annotation of coding nucleotide sequences. The enormous genome size and the lack of a closely related reference genome have so far prevented assembly of the urodelian genome. RESULTS: We describe the de novo assembly of the transcriptome of the newt Notophthalmus viridescens and its experimental validation. RNA pools covering embryonic and larval development, different stages of heart, appendage and lens regeneration, as well as a collection of different undamaged tissues were used to generate sequencing datasets on Sanger, Illumina and 454 platforms. Through a sequential de novo assembly strategy, hybrid datasets were converged into one comprehensive transcriptome comprising 120,922 non-redundant transcripts with a N50 of 975. 38,384 putative transcripts were annotated and around 15,000 transcripts were experimentally validated as protein coding by mass spectrometry based proteomics. Bioinformatical analysis of coding transcripts identified 826 proteins specific for urodeles. Several newly identified proteins establish novel protein families based on the presence of new sequence motifs without counterparts in public databases, while others containing known protein domains extend already existing families and also constitute new ones. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that our multistep assembly approach allows de novo assembly of the newt transcriptome with an annotation grade comparable to well characterized organisms. Our data provide the groundwork for mechanistic experiments to answer the question whether urodeles utilize proprietary sets of genes for tissue regeneration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Delayed hatching is a form of dormancy evolved in some amphibian and fish embryos to cope with environmental conditions transiently hostile to the survival of hatchlings or larvae. While diapause and cryptobiosis have been extensively studied in several animals, very little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensing and response of fish embryos to environmental cues. Embryos of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus advance dvelopment when exposed to air but hatching is suspended until flooding with seawater. Here, we investigated how transcriptome regulation underpins this adaptive response by examining changes in gene expression profiles of aerially incubated killifish embryos at ∼100% relative humidity, compared to embryos continuously flooded in water. The results confirm that mid-gastrula embryos are able to stimulate development in response to aerial incubation, which is accompanied by the differential expression of at least 806 distinct genes during a 24 h period. Most of these genes (∼70%) appear to be differentially expressed within 3 h of aerial exposure, suggesting a broad and rapid transcriptomic response. This response seems to include an early sensing phase, which overlaps with a tissue remodeling and activation of embryonic development phase involving many regulatory and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, we found fast (0.5-1 h) transcriptional differences in representatives of classical "stress" proteins, such as some molecular chaperones, members of signalling pathways typically involved in the transduction of sensor signals to stress response genes, and oxidative stress-related proteins, similar to that described in other animals undergoing dormancy, diapause or desiccation. To our knowledge, these data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with desiccation resistance during delayed hatching in non-mammalian vertebrates. The exceptional transcriptomic plasticity observed in killifish embryos provides an important insight as to how the embryos are able to rapidly adapt to non-lethal desiccation conditions.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e64410. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In rocky shores, desiccation is triggered by daily tide changes, and experimental evidence
suggests that local distribution of algal species across the intertidal rocky zone is related to their capacity to
tolerate desiccation. In this context, the permanence of Pyropia columbina in the high intertidal rocky zone is
explained by its exceptional physiological tolerance to desiccation. This study explored the metabolic
pathways involved in tolerance to desiccation in the Chilean P. columbina, by characterizing its transcriptome
under contrasting conditions of hydration. We obtained 1,410 ESTs from two subtracted cDNA libraries in
naturally hydrated and desiccated fronds. Results indicate that transcriptome from both libraries contain
transcripts from diverse metabolic pathways related to tolerance. Among the transcripts differentially
expressed, 15% appears involved in protein synthesis, processing and degradation, 14.4% are related to
photosynthesis and chloroplast, 13.1% to respiration and mitochondrial function (NADH dehydrogenase and
cytochrome c oxidase proteins), 10.6% to cell wall metabolism, and 7.5% are involved in antioxidant activity,
chaperone and defense factors (catalase, thioredoxin, heat shock proteins, cytochrome P450). Both libraries
highlight the presence of genes/proteins never described before in algae. This information provides the first
molecular work regarding desiccation tolerance in P. columbina, and helps, to some extent, explaining the
classical patterns of ecological distribution described for algae across the intertidal zone.
Keywords: Pyropia, desiccation stress, ESTs, seaweeds, transcriptomics, proteins
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 01/2013; 41(5):933-958. · 0.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The C-terminal domain of the Dnmt3a de novo DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a-C) forms a complex with the C-terminal domain of Dnmt3L, which stimulates its catalytic activity. We generated and characterized single-chain fusion proteins of both these domains with linker lengths between 16 and 30 amino acid residues. The purified single-chain proteins showed about 10-fold higher DNA methylation activities than Dnmt3a-C in vitro and were more active in bacterial cells as well. After fusing the Dnmt3a-3L single-chain enzyme to an artificial zinc-finger protein targeting the VEGF-A promoter, we demonstrate successful targeting of DNA methylation to the VEGF-A promoter in human cells and observed that almost complete methylation of 12 CpG sites in the gene promoter could be achieved. Targeted methylation by the Dnmt3a-3L single-chain enzymes was about two-fold higher than that of Dnmt3a-C indicating that Dnmt3a-3L single-chain variants are more efficient as catalytic modules in chimeric DNA methyltransfeases than Dnmt3a-C. Targeted methylation of the VEGF-A promoter with the Dnmt3a-3L single chain variant led to a strong silencing of VEGF-A expression indicating that the artificial DNA methylation of an endogenous promoter is a powerful strategy to achieve silencing of the corresponding gene in human cells.
Journal of Molecular Biology 12/2012; · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylocystis sp. strain SC2 is an aerobic type II methanotroph isolated from a highly polluted aquifer in Germany. A specific trait of the SC2 strain is the expression of two isozymes of particulate methane monooxygenase with different methane oxidation kinetics. Here we report the complete genome sequence of this methanotroph that contains not only a circular chromosome but also two large plasmids.
Journal of bacteriology 11/2012; 194(21):6008-9. · 3.94 Impact Factor