[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study determines if (1) basal protein levels of nitric oxide (NO) synthases (eNOS, iNOS, and nNOS) are different in cisplatin-sensitive (OV2008) and counterpart cisplatin-resistant (C13(*)) human ovarian cancer cells, (2) cisplatin alters NOS levels, (3) NO donor causes apoptosis and p53 upregulation, (4) NO donor sensitizes C13(*) cells to cisplatin via p53 upregulation (determined by p53 siRNA gene-knockdown), and (5) inhibition of endogenous NOS alters cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Basal iNOS levels were higher in OV2008 cells than in C13(*) cells. Cisplatin upregulated iNOS, but dramatically reduced eNOS and nNOS, in OV2008 cells only. Failure of cisplatin to upregulate iNOS and downregulate eNOS/nNOS in cisplatin-resistant C13(*) cells may be an aetiological factor in the development of resistance. The NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) increased p53 protein levels and induced apoptosis in both cell types, and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in C13(*) cells in a p53-dependent manner (i.e., enhancement blocked by p53 siRNA). Specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W partially blocked cisplatin-induced apoptosis in OV2008 cells. In cisplatin-resistant C13(*) cells, blocking all NOSs with N(G)-amino-L-arginine dramatically changed these cells from cisplatin-resistant to cisplatin-sensitive, greatly potentiating cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The data suggest important roles for the three NOSs in regulating chemoresistance to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells.
British Journal of Cancer 07/2008; 98(11):1803-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulated apoptosis plays a critical role in the development of a number of aberrant cellular processes, including tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. However, the mechanisms that govern the normal apoptotic program are not completely understood. Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) promote mammalian cell viability via an unknown mechanism and p53 status is a key determinant of cell fate in human ovarian cancer cells. Whether an interaction exists between these two determinants of cell fate is unknown. We hypothesized that basal sGC activity reduces p53 content and attenuates p53-dependent apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells. Suppression of sGC activity with the specific inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) lowered cGMP content, and increased p53 protein content and induced apoptosis in three ovarian cancer cell lines, effects which were attenuated by the cGMP analog 8-Br-cGMP and by Atrial Natriuretic Factor, an activator of particulate guanylyl cyclase, which circumvent the inhibition of sGC. ODQ prolonged p53 half-life, induced phosphorylation of p53 on Ser15, and upregulated the p53-dependent gene products p21, murine double minute-2, and the proapoptotic, p53-responsive gene product Bax. ODQ activated caspase-3, and ODQ-induced apoptosis was inhibited by overexpression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis Protein. Pretreatment with the specific p53 inhibitor pifithrin or downregulation of p53 using a specific small inhibitory RNA significantly attenuated ODQ-induced apoptosis. Moreover, ODQ-induced upregulation of p21 and Bax and ODQ-induced apoptosis were significantly reduced in a p53 mutant cell line relative to the wild-type parental cell line. Thus, the current study establishes that basal sGC/cGMP activity regulates p53 protein stability, content, and function, possibly by altering p53 phosphorylation and stabilization, and promotes cell survival in part through regulation of caspase-3 and p53.