[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of gender difference and estrogen in ischemic cerebrovascular events is controversial. Evidence is lacking as to whether or not there are significant gender differences in the incidence and outcome of stroke in the clinical setting. Recent clinical epidemiological studies have demonstrated that there is no significant association between the use of hormonal replacement therapy and the risk of stroke. However, several animal studies have shown that there are gender differences in stroke outcome and that exogenous administered estrogens are neuroprotective. In this study, the influence of gender differences and the effects of synthetic and non-synthetic estrogens were examined in a model of focal cerebral ischemia using 210 male, intact female, and ovariectomized female rats. All animals underwent 3 h of middle cerebral artery and bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. After 72 h, the rats were sacrificed and stained for histological assessment of infarction. There were no gender differences in infarction volume. Intravenous administration of either low or high dose 17 beta-estradiol or tibolone did not alter infarct volume. Subcutaneous administration of low and high dose 17beta-estradiol using 7-day release pellets did not alter infarct volume. Low dose tibolone using implanted 7-day release pellets did not alter infarct volume. However, high dose tibolone using implanted 7-day release pellets significantly (P<0.05) reduced infarct volume only in ovariectomized female rats. These results demonstrate that estrogen therapy has no effect on infarction volume following severe focal cerebral ischemia.
Brain Research 10/2000; 878(1-2):88-97. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations in polyamine metabolism during and after global or focal cerebral ischemia can produce a multiplicity of effects on brain such as modification in mitochondria calcium buffering capacity, exacerbating glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity, and impairment of the blood-brain barrier. In this study, the endogenous polyamine spermine was administered intravenously 30 min prior to temporary focal cerebral ischemia in rats induced by clipping of the left middle cerebral and bilateral common carotid arteries for 3 h. Three days after removal of the microclips, intracardiac perfusion with 2% 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride was performed. Coronal slices were cut, photographed, and examined for cortical infarct volume. Spermine reduced infarct volume in a dose-dependent fashion. This study demonstrates that the use of polyamines may be considered as a powerful tool in prevention of ischemic tissue damage following focal cerebral ischemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interaction between nitric oxide (NO.) and focal cerebral ischemia is multifaceted. Experiments have shown that inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) either ameliorates or exacerbates focal cerebral ischemia. Recent in vitro experiments have shown that NOS activity is pH-dependent. Previous work from this laboratory has demonstrated that N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME) mitigated cerebral ischemia independent from regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes during moderate focal cerebral ischemia. This study examined the effects of L-NAME inhibition on brain pH(i), rCBF, and NADH redox state during 3 h of severe focal cerebral ischemia. Fifteen fasted rabbits under 1.5% halothane were equally divided into three groups: ischemic controls and two drug groups receiving either 1.0 or 10 mg/kg L-NAME intravenously 30 min prior to ischemia. In the ischemic controls, brain pH(i) declined from 6.95+/-0.04 to 6.60+/-0.05, rCBF declined from 48+/-7 to 10+/-3 ml/100 g/min, and NADH fluorescence increased by 149+/-15% 3 h after onset of ischemia (p<0.01 for all three parameters). L-NAME at either dose did not significantly alter these values. Infarct volume was not significantly different between both the L-NAME treated groups and the ischemic control group. This data suggests that during severe focal cerebral ischemia, NO. mechanisms of injury have a less important punitive role. One possible explanation is that the severity of acidosis secondary to anaerobic metabolism during severe focal cerebral ischemia attenuates NOS activity.
Brain Research 03/2000; 856(1-2):220-6. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the physiological mechanisms of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of great importance to neurosurgeons engaged in the management of patients with cerebrovascular disease. Over the past 50 years, techniques to measure CBF and mathematical methods to calculate CBF have evolved substantially. For the cerebrovascular surgeon, intraoperative CBF monitoring is an important adjunct in certain intra- and extracranial procedures. The authors review current techniques in use for the intraoperative measurement of CBF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in the rat is often used to study focal cerebral ischemia, the model of ischemia affects the size and reproducibility of infarction. The purpose of this experiment was to methodically examine different preparations to determine the optimum focal cerebral ischemia model to produce a reproducible severe ischemic injury. Eighty-two Wistar rats underwent either 1 hour, 3 hour, or permanent MCA occlusion combined with no, unilateral, or bilateral common carotid artery artery (CCA) occlusion. Three days after ischemia, the animals were prepared for tetrazolium chloride assessment of infarction size. One-hour MCA occlusion produced a coefficient of variation (CV) of 200% with an infarction volume of 20.3+/-10.5 mm(3). Adding unilateral or bilateral CCA occlusion resulted in a CV of 134% and 101%, respectively. Three-hour MCA occlusion combined with bilateral CCA occlusion decreased the CV to 58% with a cortical infarction volume of 82.6+/-12.1 mm(3), P<05, compared with 1-hour MCA occlusion with or without CCA occlusion. Permanent MCA occlusion combined with 3 hours of bilateral CCA occlusion resulted in a CV of 47% with a cortical infarction volume of 89.6+/-16.0 mm(3). These results indicate that 3-hour MCA occlusion combined with bilateral CCA occlusion provide consistently a large infarction volume after temporary focal cerebral ischemia.
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 11/1999; 8(6):380-7. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A critical review of the literature indicates that the effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on focal cerebral ischemia are contradictory. In this experiment the authors methodically examined the dose-dependent effects of two NOS inhibitors and two NO donors on cortical infarction volume in an animal model of temporary focal cerebral ischemia simulating potential ischemia during neurovascular interventions.
Ninety-two Wistar rats underwent 3 hours of combined left middle cerebral artery and bilateral common carotid artery occlusion after having been anesthetized with 1% halothane. A nonselective NOS inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME), and two NO donors, 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride and NOC-18, DETA/NO, (Z)-1-[2(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-i um-1,2-diolate, were administered intravenously 30 minutes before ischemia was induced. A selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), was administered intraperitoneally in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 60 minutes before ischemia was induced. Two ischemic control groups, to which either saline or DMSO was administered, were also included in this study. Seventy-two hours after flow restoration, the animals were perfused with tetrazolium chloride for histological evaluation. Cortical infarction volume was significantly reduced by 71% in the group treated with 1 mg/kg L-NAME when compared with the saline-treated ischemic control group (27.1+/-37 mm3 compared with 92.5+/-26 mm3, p < 0.05). The NOS inhibitor 7-NI significantly reduced cortical infarction volume by 70% and by 92% at doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg: 35.2+/-32 mm3 (p < 0.05) and 9+/-13 mm3 (p < 0.005), respectively, when compared with the DMSO-treated ischemic control group (119+/-43 mm3). There was no significant difference between the saline-treated and DMSO-treated ischemic control groups. Treatment with NO donors did not significantly alter cortical infarction volume.
These results support an important role for NO in ischemic neurotoxicity and indicate that neuronal NOS inhibition may be valuable in reducing cortical injury in patients suffering temporary focal cerebral ischemia during neurovascular procedures.
Journal of Neurosurgery 02/1999; 90(2):332-8. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Within the ischemic penumbra, there is a heterogeneous development of cortical intracellular acidosis that is associated with selective neuronal injury. This experiment, which used a rabbit model of moderate focal cerebral ischemia, examined the time course for changes in intracellular brain pH, cortical blood flow, capillary bed density, and mitochondrial function in the ischemic penumbra. After cortical annotation of regions of intracellular acidosis in the ischemic penumbra, the animals underwent transcardiac carbon black perfusion for measurement of capillary bed density. Analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between capillary bed density, brain intracellular pH, mitochondrial function, and cortical blood flow. Thirty minutes after the onset of ischemia, cortical blood flow declined from 46+/-2 to 22+/-1 mL/100gm/min (P<.01) in all groups. The overall cortical intracellular brain pH measured 6.78+/-.01 compared with a preischemic value of 6.98+/-.01 (P<.05). Within this moderately ischemic cortex, there were small regions (1,000 to 45,000 mum(2)) of increased acidosis, meauring 6.68+/-.01, not associated with focal changes in cortical blood flow, occurring within 15 minutes of ischemia and persisting throughout the ischemic period. Capillary bed density progressively declined with ongoing ischemia occurring after the development of acidosis. For example, capillary bed density in preischemic controls was 338+/-6/mm(2), whereas after 1 hour of ischemia, it measured 147+/-12/mm(2), at 3 hours 97+/-23/mm(2), and at 6 hours 92+/-16/mm(2). Mitochondrial function was reduced coinciding with the decrease in capillary bed density. These data support the hypothesis that cortical acidosis in the ischemic penumbra facilitates the development of perfusion defects that subsequently lead to mitochondrial dysfunction.
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 01/1999; 8(6):368-79. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During focal cerebral ischemia, the ischemic penumbra or border-zone regions of moderate cortical blood flow reductions have a heterogeneous development of intracellular cortical acidosis. This experiment tested the hypotheses that (1) this acidosis is secondary to glucose utilization and (2) this intracellular acidosis leads to recruitment of potentially salvageable tissue into infarction.
Brain pHi, regional cortical blood flow, and NADH redox state were measured by in vivo fluorescent imaging, and infarct volume was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride histology. Thirty fasted rabbits divided into 6 groups of 5 each were subjected to 4 hours of permanent focal ischemia in the presence of hypoglycemia ( approximately 2.8 mmol/L), moderate hyperglycemia ( approximately 11 mmol/L), and severe hyperglycemia (>28 mmol/L) under either normoxia or moderate hypoxia (PaO2 approximately 50 mm Hg).
Preischemic hyperglycemia led to a more pronounced intracellular acidosis and retardation of NADH regeneration than in the hypoglycemia groups under both normoxia and moderate hypoxia in the ischemic penumbra. For example, 4 hours after ischemia, brain pHi in the severe hyperglycemia/normoxia group measured 6.46, compared with 6.84 in the hypoglycemia/normoxia group (P<0.01), and NADH fluorescence measured 173% compared with 114%. Infarct volume in the severe hyperglycemia/normoxia group measured 35.1+/-6.9% of total hemispheric volume, compared with 13.5+/-4.2% in the hypoglycemia/normoxia group (P<0.01).
Hyperglycemia significantly worsened both cortical intracellular brain acidosis and mitochondrial function in the ischemic penumbra. This supports the hypothesis that the evolution of acidosis in the ischemic penumbra is related to glucose utilization. Furthermore, the observation that hypoglycemia significantly decreased infarct size supports the postulate that cortical acidosis leads to recruitment of ischemic penumbra into infarction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on brain acidosis, regional cortical blood flow (rCBF), and NADH redox state were examined using in vivo fluorescence imaging during four 15-min periods of moderate focal cerebral ischemia, each separated by three 5-min reperfusion periods followed by a final 3-h reperfusion period. Fasted rabbits under 1.5% halothane were divided into six groups of seven animals each: nonischemic controls, ischemic controls, and the following drug groups receiving NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) intravenously 20 min before repetitive ischemia (as follows: 0.1 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 1 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg L-arginine). L-NAME at 0.1 and 1 mg/kg prevented the development of significant brain acidosis throughout the four ischemic insults. L-NAME at 10 mg/kg reduced preischemic rCBF by 21% (P < 0.05) and did not mitigate brain acidosis after the third and fourth ischemic insults. Brain intracellular pH returned toward baseline after the 3-h final reperfusion in all groups. NADH redox state was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated from baseline controls in all groups during the last three ischemic insults. During the final reperfusion period, NADH redox state returned toward baseline values only in the 0.1 mg/kg L-NAME and ischemic control group. In conclusion, low-dose L-NAME attenuated brain acidosis independent from rCBF changes during intermittent, moderate focal cerebral ischemia.
The American journal of physiology 09/1996; 271(2 Pt 2):H588-94. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This experiment examined the effects of nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition on brain intracellular pH, regional cortical blood flow, and NADH fluorescence before and during 3 h of focal cerebral ischemia using in vivo fluorescence imaging. Thirty fasted rabbits under 1% halothane were divided into four treatment groups receiving N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) intravenously at 20 min prior to ischemia (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg L-arginine) and two control groups (nonischemic and ischemic). In ischemic controls, brain pH(i), declined to 6.73 +/- 0.03 at 30 min and remained acidotic through the remainder of the ischemic period. In the 0.1 mg/kg group, brain pH(i) fell after 30 min of ischemia to 6.76 +/- 0.05 (p < 0.05), but then improved progressively despite occlusion. In the 1 mg/kg group, brain pH(i), remained normal despite middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. In the 10 mg/kg group and in the combined L-NAME + L-arginine group, pH(i) fell after 30 min of ischemia to 6.81 +/- 0.03 (p < 0.05) and remained acidotic. During occlusion, regional cortical blood flow dropped in a dose-dependent manner. After 3 h of ischemia, regional cortical blood flow was 33.9 +/- 10.9 and 25.1 +/- 8.9 ml/100 g/min at doses of 0.1 and 10.0 mg/kg, respectively, L-NAME treatment did not significantly alter the increased NADH fluorescence that accompanied occlusion. This study shows that L-NAME can prevent intracellular brain acidosis during focal cerebral ischemia independent from regional cortical blood flow changes. This experiment suggests that NO is involved in pH(i) regulation during focal cerebral ischemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors examined the effects of both intermittent reperfusion and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition, caused by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) during episodes of focal cerebral ischemia induced to simulate the neurosurgical setting. Seventy-eight Wistar rats underwent single (60 minutes of ischemia) or repetitive (four 15-minute periods of ischemia separated by 5 minutes of reperfusion) episodes of middle cerebral artery occlusion while under anesthesia (1.0% halothane). Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the animals were given neurological examinations and then sacrificed for histological preparation and examination. The intermittent reperfusion groups tended to have smaller mean cortical infarctions. There was also a trend showing a decrease in infarction size in groups given L-NAME. The combination of intermittent reperfusion and preischemic administration of L-NAME (10 mg/kg) resulted in a 65% reduction in infarction size (p < 0.05) when compared to that caused by 60 minutes of single occlusion without L-NAME. The use of NOS inhibition combined with intermittent reperfusion may be a technique to provide intraoperative cerebral protection during neurovascular procedures that require temporary vascular occlusion.
Journal of Neurosurgery 09/1995; 83(3):491-5. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of intermittent reperfusion versus straight occlusion during neurovascular procedures is controversial. This experiment studied the effects of intermittent reperfusion and single occlusion on intracellular brain pH (pHi), regional cerebral or cortical blood flow, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence during temporary focal ischemia.
Twenty fasted rabbits under 1.0% halothane anesthesia were divided into four groups: (1) nonischemic controls, (2) 60 minutes of uninterrupted focal ischemia, (3) 2 x 30-minute periods of focal ischemia separated by a 5-minute reperfusion, and (4) 4 x 15-minute periods of focal ischemia separated by three 5-minute reperfusion periods. Focal ischemia was produced by occlusion of both the middle cerebral and ipsilateral anterior cerebral arteries. After the final occlusion, there was a 3-hour reperfusion period in all groups. Regional cerebral and cortical blood flow, brain pHi, and NADH fluorescence were measured with in vivo panoramic fluorescence imaging.
During occlusion, regional cerebral and cortical blood flows and NADH fluorescence values were not different among the groups. Brain pHi was significantly lower in the 4 x 15-minute group compared with the 1 x 60-minute group (6.57 +/- 0.02 versus 6.73 +/- 0.06; P < .03) but not significant when compared with the 2 x 30-minute group. During the short reperfusion periods, all parameters returned to normal except for NADH fluorescence levels, which remained elevated. During the postischemic final reperfusion period, there was a mild brain alkalosis of approximately 7.1 in all groups. There were no significant differences in NADH fluorescence among groups during the final reperfusion. Regional cerebral and cortical blood flow returned to near normal values in all groups.
This study demonstrates that intermittent reperfusion during temporary focal ischemia has different effects on the intracytoplasmic and the intramitochondrial compartments: worsening of brain cytoplasmic pHi but no significant differences in the oxidation/reduction level of mitochondrial NADH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This experiment determined if postischemic administration of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) would result in neovascularization to minimize neuronal injury following a focal cerebral ischemia insult. Fifty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and were divided into three groups receiving either vehicle, serum, or 50 ng bFGF biweekly through an indwelling ventricular cannula. At variable time intervals, the animals underwent carbon black perfusion of capillary beds and histological staining for assessment of neuronal injury. Following MCA occlusion, there was a significant decrease in capillary bed density in peri-infarction cortex which normalized by two weeks. The number of alive neurons in the peri-infarction cortex was also significantly decreased compared to contralateral control cortex. The chronic administration of bFGF commencing two days after MCA occlusion did not result in either a significant increase in capillary bed density or the number of alive neurons in the peri-infarction cortex.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences 02/1995; 128(1):66-70. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Basic FGF has recently been shown to produce systemic and cerebral vasodilation. To test the hypothesis that bFGF increases regional cortical blood flow (rCBF), rCBF and brain pHi were measured while bFGF or vehicle was superperfused onto the cortex of rabbits. The results of this study demonstrate that topical application of bFGF causes an increase in rCBF.
Brain Research 12/1994; 665(1):155-7. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to examine further the effects of hypocapnia and the contribution of hypotension to the haemodynamic consequences of cerebral arteriovenous fistula ablation in the rat chronic carotid-jugular fistula model. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the (14)C-iodoantipyrine technique under halothane anaesthesia 12 weeks after the creation of the fistula. rCBFs in all groups were conducted at a similar PaCO(2) (22-26 mmHg). The rCBF in control animals ranged from a mean of 51-71 ml/100 g/min at a mean systemic arterial pressure of 136 mmHg, and 56-71 ml/100 g/min at a mean systemic arterial pressure of 89 mmHg after 2.5 ml blood loss. These values correspond to those expected for this degree of hypocapnia in rats without a carotid-jugular fistula. In animals with an open carotid-jugular fistula created 12 weeks prior to the study, mean rCBFs at comparable blood pressure ranged from 23-33 ml/100 g/min in normotensive animals and 29-44 ml/100 g/min in the hypotensive animals. These flows were not significantly different. The conclusion of this study is that the carotid-jugular fistula group is able to autoregulate and maintain a constant regional cerebral blood flow during the challenge of hypotension under hypocapnic conditions. This ability to autoregulate is preserved despite the chronic hypoperfusion due to the arteriovenous shunt and the added insult of low regional cerebral blood flows caused by hypocapnia at the time of the experiment.
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 07/1994; 1(3):193-6. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo panoramic imaging of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), intracellular brain pH (pHi), and cortical blood flow was used to characterize the ischemic penumbra during focal ischemia. During global ischemia, hypoxia, and status epilepticus, the development of cortical acidic foci has been observed. The hypothesis tested was that during focal ischemia, acidic foci develop, which may lead to recruitment of the ischemic penumbra into infarction.
Five fasted New Zealand White rabbits underwent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion under 1.5% halothane anesthesia through a retro-orbital approach, and five animals served as controls. Brain pHi and cerebral blood flow were measured with in vivo umbelliferone fluorescence.
Baseline brain pHi was 6.98 +/- 0.05, whereas cortical blood flow and NADH fluorescence measured 52.2 +/- 8.7 mL/100 g per minute and 35.5 +/- 3.7 gray-scale units, respectively. Fifteen minutes after MCA occlusion, overall brain pHi and cortical blood flow of the ischemic penumbra measured 6.61 +/- 0.06 and 31.9 +/- 9.2 mL/100 g per minute. Over 3 hours there was normalization of pHi in the majority of the penumbra due to increases in cortical blood flow. Within the ischemic penumbra acidic foci developed with an initial pHi of 6.35 +/- 0.09 and cortical blood flow of 18.0 +/- 5.7 mL/100 g per minute. These foci remained acidic with increased NADH fluorescence despite being surrounded by cortex that was recovering from ischemia. On light microscopy, these acidic foci had a mixed pattern of neuronal injury.
Within the ischemic penumbra, acidic foci develop that do not follow a vascular distribution and have microscopic evidence of ischemic neuronal injury. This suggests that there is a cortical selective vulnerability regarding pHi regulation and these acidic foci may lead to recruitment of the ischemic penumbra into infarction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo panoramic imaging of regional cortical blood flow and intracellular brain pH with umbelliferone fluorescence was performed in fasted New Zealand White rabbits (n = 30) subjected to constant or stepwise increases in arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) up to 160 mmHg under 1.0% halothane anesthesia. At a PaCO2 of 40 mmHg, baseline brain pHi measured 7.03 +/- 0.04, while regional cortical blood flow was 47.0 +/- 4.3 ml.100 g-1.min-1. With an immediate but constant exposure to a PaCO2 of 60, 80, or 120 mmHg, at 15 min pHi fell to 6.94 +/- 0.03, 6.89 +/- 0.03, and 6.90 +/- 0.03 and recovered over 20, 80, and 120 min, respectively. At 160 mmHg PaCO2, pHi fell to 6.68 +/- 0.04 and remained acidotic. With stepwise increases in PaCO2 up to 80 mmHg, brain pHi decreased from 7.01 +/- 0.02 to 6.99 +/- 0.02, not significantly different despite a severe systemic acidosis of 7.022 +/- 0.034. At a PaCO2 of 120 and 160 mmHg, pHi dropped to 6.97 +/- 0.02 and 6.93 +/- 0.02, respectively. The difference in brain pHi between an immediate and stepwise exposure to a PaCO2 of 160 mmHg was significant (P < 0.005). These results demonstrate that brain pHi is tightly regulated across the cortical surface and resistant to profound changes in extracellular pH. The difference in pHi between the constant and incremental increases in PaCO2 suggests that there is upregulation of pH homeostatic mechanisms.
The American journal of physiology 12/1993; 265(5 Pt 2):R974-81. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corticotropin releasing factor is an endogenous neuropeptide released by the hypothalamus that activates the pituitary-adrenocortical system in response to stressful stimuli. It has been demonstrated that corticotropin releasing factor increases the excitability of hippocampal neurons in both in vitro and in vivo studies, which may contribute to neurological injury during hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of corticotropin releasing factor and its synthetic competitive antagonist, alpha-CRF, on neuronal synaptic recovery after a hypoxic insult using the hippocampal slice.
Wistar rat hippocampal brain slices (n = 120) were treated with various concentrations (10(-6) to 10(-11)) of corticotropin releasing factor or its synthetic antagonist during a 10-minute hypoxic episode. Extracellular recording of population spikes was used during and after the hypoxic insult to assess neuronal recovery.
Corticotropin releasing factor provided dose-dependent neuronal protection with maximum recovery (37.95 +/- 8.71%) occurring at 10(-9) concentrations. The competitive antagonist alpha-CRF provided a similar degree of recovery at 10(-6) concentration, whereas 10(-9) molar concentration of competitive antagonist resulted in 16.84 +/- 7.68% recovery.
Corticotropin releasing factor provides moderate protection to hypoxic hippocampal neurons in the brain slice preparation. The mechanism of action is unknown but appears to be a direct neuronal effect. These results support the hypothesis that corticotropin releasing factor may act as an endogenous neuroprotective hormone during hypoxia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this experiment was to study the serial changes in brain intracellular pH, cerebral blood flow, and the oxidation/reduction level of intramitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence across the cortical surface during severe incomplete global ischemia.
Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence and brain intracellular pH using the pH-sensitive indicator umbelliferone were measured with in vivo panoramic fluorescence imaging of the cortical surface. Cerebral blood flow was measured with the clearance of both umbelliferone and xenon-133. Fifteen minutes of severe incomplete global ischemia was produced by temporary occlusion of the innominate, left carotid, and subclavian arteries in five fasted New Zealand White rabbits.
Baseline brain intracellular pH was homogeneous over the exposed cortex, measuring 7.00 +/- 0.02, while cerebral blood flow was 48.0 +/- 2.6 ml/100 g/min. During 15 minutes of ischemia, cerebral blood flow measured 6.3 +/- 1.8 ml/100 g/min and brain pH declined to 6.61 +/- 0.02 (p < 0.005); in addition, there were acidotic foci with pH measuring 6.40 +/- 0.10. During reperfusion, there was an initial normalization of brain intracellular pH without an alkaline shift followed by a recurrent cortical acidosis of pH 6.88 +/- 0.06. There was a heterogeneous pattern of fluorescence that increased significantly following 60 minutes of reperfusion, coinciding with a postischemic hypoperfusion. The hypoperfusion was a uniform reduction in cerebral blood flow over the brain's surface, with reductions of 42.5% and 44.2% at 30 and 45 minutes, respectively.
During incomplete global ischemia there is a heterogeneous pattern of brain intracellular pH and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide changes that do not correlate with changes in cortical blood flow. The acidotic foci that were approximately 0.2 pH units more acidotic than the surrounding cortex may be the result of continued glucose delivery under anaerobic conditions. The degree of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence suggests that the cortex is most vulnerable to metabolic failure after 60 minutes of reperfusion following severe incomplete global ischemia. The heterogeneous pattern of brain intracellular pH and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide changes suggest that there may be a selective vulnerability of cortical tissue to an ischemic challenge.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Generalized seizures can induce both hypertension and hyperglycemia which may aggravate preexisting cerebral or medical conditions in patients. In vivo fluorescent imaging of regional cortical blood flow and brain intracellular pH (pHi) was performed in fasted New Zealand rabbits (n = 35) in which either mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) or serum glucose was the covaried factor during pentylenetetrazole induced status epilepticus under 1.5% inspired halothane. Baseline brain pHi and regional cortical blood flow were 7.02 +/- 0.02 and 51.1 +/- 1.7 ml/100 g/min, respectively. Following seizure induction, MABP increased to 105 mm Hg and brain pHi fell to 6.79 +/- 0.03 within 15 min and remained at this level for 1 h (P < 0.001). With normalization of MABP during ongoing seizures, there was no worsening in brain pHi despite a significant decrease in regional cortical blood flow. Hyperglycemia decreased pHi to 6.71 +/- 0.02 compared to 6.84 +/- 0.04 in normoglycemic animals (P < 0.001). Using pHi as a cerebral metabolic index, these data suggest that normalization of MABP does not increase metabolic injury while hyperglycemia does significantly worsen brain acidosis. Therefore, administration of glucose to patients with status epilepticus should be avoided unless there is documented hypoglycemia.
Epilepsy Research 03/1993; 14(2):123-37. · 2.24 Impact Factor