[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Lung immaturity due to preterm birth is a significant complication affecting neonatal health. Despite the detrimental effects of supplemental oxygen on alveolar formation, it remains an important treatment for infants with respiratory distress. Macrophages are traditionally associated with the propagation of inflammatory insults, however increased appreciation of their diversity has revealed essential functions in development and regeneration.Methods
Macrophage regulatory cytokine Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) was investigated in a model of neonatal hyperoxia exposure, with the aim of promoting macrophages associated with alveologenesis to protect/rescue lung development and function. Neonatal mice were exposed to normoxia (21% oxygen) or hyperoxia (Hyp; 65% oxygen); and administered CSF-1 (0.5 ¿g/g, daily¿×¿5) or vehicle (PBS) in two treatment regimes; 1) after hyperoxia from postnatal day (P)7-11, or 2) concurrently with five days of hyperoxia from P1-5. Lung structure, function and macrophages were assessed using alveolar morphometry, barometric whole-body plethysmography and flow cytometry.Results and discussionSeven days of hyperoxia resulted in an 18% decrease in body weight and perturbation of lung structure and function. In regime 1, growth restriction persisted in the Hyp¿+¿PBS and Hyp¿+¿CSF-1 groups, although perturbations in respiratory function were resolved by P35. CSF-1 increased CSF-1R+/F4/80+ macrophage number by 34% at P11 compared to Hyp¿+¿PBS, but was not associated with growth or lung structural rescue. In regime 2, five days of hyperoxia did not cause initial growth restriction in the Hyp¿+¿PBS and Hyp¿+¿CSF-1 groups, although body weight was decreased at P35 with CSF-1. CSF-1 was not associated with increased macrophages, or with functional perturbation in the adult. Overall, CSF-1 did not rescue the growth and lung defects associated with hyperoxia in this model; however, an increase in CSF-1R+ macrophages was not associated with an exacerbation of lung injury. The trophic functions of macrophages in lung development requires further elucidation in order to explore macrophage modulation as a strategy for promoting lung maturation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intrauterine inflammation is a major contributor to preterm birth and has adverse effects on preterm neonatal cardiovascular physiology. Cardiomyocyte maturation occurs in late gestation in species such as humans and sheep. We tested the hypothesis that intrauterine inflammation has deleterious effects on cardiac function in preterm sheep which might be explained by altered cardiomyocyte proliferation and maturation. Pregnant ewes received an ultrasound-guided intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline 7 days prior to delivery at day 127 of pregnancy (term 147 days). Cardiac contractility was recorded in spontaneously beating hearts of the offspring, perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. Saline-filled latex balloons were inserted into left (LV) and right ventricles (RV). Responsiveness to isoprenaline and stop-flow/reperfusion was assessed. In other experiments, hearts were perfusion-fixed and cardiomyocyte nuclearity, volume and number determined. β-Adrenoceptor mRNA levels were determined in unfixed tissue. In hearts of LPS-exposed fetuses, contractility in LV and RV was suppressed by ~40% and cardiomyocyte numbers were reduced by ~25%. Immature mono-nucleated cardiomyocytes had lower volumes (~18%), while mature bi-nucleated cardiomyocyte volume was ~77% greater. While basal coronary flow was significantly increased by 21±7% in LPS-exposed hearts, following ischemia-reperfusion, end diastolic pressure was increased 2.4±0.3-fold and infarct area 3.2±0.6-fold versus in controls. Maximum responsiveness to isoprenaline was enhanced by LPS, without an increase in b-adrenoceptor mRNA, suggesting altered second messenger signalling. Intrauterine inflammation altered cardiac growth, suppressed contractile function and enhanced responsiveness to stress. Although these effects may ensure immediate survival, they likely contribute to the increased vulnerability of organ perfusion in preterm neonates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Caffeine is widely used to treat apnea of prematurity, but the standard dosing regimen is not always sufficient to prevent apnea. Before higher doses of caffeine can be used, their effects on the immature brain need to be carefully evaluated. Our aim was to determine the impact of daily high-dose caffeine administration on the developing white matter of the immature ovine brain.Methods:High-dose caffeine (25mg/kg caffeine base loading dose; 20mg/kg daily maintenance dose; n=9) or saline (n=8) were administered to pregnant sheep from 0.7-0.8 of term, equivalent to approximately 27-34 weeks in humans. At 0.8 of term, the white and grey matter were assessed histologically and immunohistochemically.Results:Daily caffeine administration led to peak caffeine concentration of 32mg/L in fetal plasma at 1h, followed by a gradual decline, with no effects on mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Initial caffeine exposure led to transient, mild alkalosis in the fetus but did not alter oxygenation. At necropsy, there was no effect of daily high-dose caffeine on brain weight, oligodendrocyte density, myelination, axonal integrity, microgliosis, astrogliosis, apoptosis or neuronal density.Conclusion:Daily high-dose caffeine administration does not appear to adversely affect the developing white matter at the microstructural level.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.55.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the impact of alcohol consumption by pregnant women on fetal neurodevelopment has received much attention, the effects on the cardiovascular system are not well understood. We hypothesised that repeated exposure to alcohol (ethanol) in utero would alter fetal arterial reactivity and wall stiffness, key mechanisms leading to cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Ethanol (0.75 g per kg body weight) was infused intravenously into ewes over one hour daily for 39 days in late pregnancy (days 95–133 of pregnancy, term ∼147 days). Maternal and fetal plasma ethanol concentrations at the end of the hour were ∼115 mg dL−1, and then declined to apparent zero over 8 h. At necropsy (day 134), fetal body weight and fetal brain-body weight ratio were not affected by alcohol infusion. Small arteries (250–300 μm outside diameter) from coronary, renal, mesenteric, femoral (psoas) and cerebral beds were isolated. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation sensitivity was reduced 10-fold in coronary resistance arteries, associated with a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA (P = 0.008). Conversely, vasodilation sensitivity was enhanced 10-fold in mesenteric and renal resistance arteries. Arterial stiffness was markedly increased (P = 0.0001) in all five vascular beds associated with an increase in elastic modulus and, in cerebral vessels, with an increase in collagen Iα mRNA. Thus, we show for the first time that fetal arteries undergo marked and regionally variable adaptations as a consequence of repeated alcohol exposure. These alcohol-induced vascular effects occurred in the apparent absence of fetal physical abnormalities or fetal growth restriction.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
The Journal of Physiology 04/2014; · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Preterm male infants have a higher incidence of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory insufficiency than females of the same gestational age. This male disadvantage could be due to differences in lung architecture; however, few studies have compared lung architecture in male and female fetuses during late gestation. Our principal objectives were to compare the morphology of the fetal lung and the maturity of the surfactant system in preterm male and female fetuses. Lungs from male (n = 9) and female (n = 11) fetal sheep were collected at 0.9 of term (131 days of the 145-day gestation) for morphological and molecular analyses. In separate groups, tracheal liquid was obtained from male (n = 9) and female (n = 9) fetuses at 0.9 of term for determination of surfactant phospholipid composition. We found no sex-related differences in body weight, lung weight, right lung volume, lung tissue and airspace fractions, mean linear intercept, septal crest density, septal thickness, the proportion of proliferating and apoptotic cells, and the percentages of collagen or elastin. The gene expression of surfactant protein -A, -B, -C, and -D and tropoelastin was similar between sexes. There were no differences in the proportion of the major phospholipid classes in the tracheal liquid between sexes; however there was a significantly higher percentage of the phospholipid species phosphatidylinositol 38:5 in males. The greater morbidity and mortality in preterm male lambs do not appear to be related to differences in lung structure or surfactant phospholipid synthesis before birth, but may relate to physiological adaptation to air-breathing at birth.
Experimental Lung Research 12/2013; · 1.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Creatine is an organic acid that contributes to the energy supply to the skeletal muscle. The basic substrates for creatine biosynthesis in the human body are semi-essential amino acids L-arginine, glycine and methionine. In this book, the authors discuss the biosynthesis, therapeutic uses and physiological effects of creatine supplementation. Topics include the role of creatine in the pathophysiology of depression and the possible mechanisms underlying its antidepressant effect; creatine treatment and positive effects on muscle performance, muscle mass gain, and the persistence and improvement of the quality of life in patients with chronic diseases; muscle ergogenic effects of creatine supplementation in resistance exercise training; experimental evidence that creatine supplementation during pregnancy is protective for the neonate; and creatine metabolism and role in sports physiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High levels of alcohol (ethanol) exposure during fetal life can affect liver development and can increase susceptibility to infection after birth. Our aim was to determine the effects of a moderate level of ethanol exposure in late gestation on the morphology, iron status and inflammatory status of the ovine fetal liver. Pregnant ewes were chronically catheterized at 91 days of gestation (DG; term ~145DG) for daily I.V. infusion of ethanol (0.75g/kg maternal body weight, n=8) or saline (n=7) over 1h from 95-133DG. At necropsy (134DG), fetal livers were collected for analysis. Liver weight, general liver morphology, hepatic cell proliferation and apoptosis, perivascular collagen deposition, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 or IL-8 mRNA levels were not different between groups. However, ethanol exposure led to significant decreases in hepatic content of ferric iron and gene expression of the iron-regulating hormone hepcidin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (all P<0.05). In the placenta, there was no difference in transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter 1 and ferritin mRNA levels; however, ferroportin mRNA levels were increased in ethanol-exposed animals (P<0.05) and ferroportin protein tended to be increased (P=0.054). Plasma iron concentration was not different between control and ethanol-exposed groups; control fetuses had significantly higher iron concentrations than their mothers, whereas maternal and fetal iron concentrations were similar in ethanol-exposed animals. We conclude that daily ethanol exposure during the third-trimester-equivalent in sheep does not alter fetal liver morphology; however, decreased fetal liver ferric iron content and altered hepcidin and ferroportin gene expression indicate that iron homeostasis is altered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A reduced nephron endowment early in life adversely impacts on long-term functional reserve in the kidney. A recent study has shown that acute exposure to chorioamnionitis during late gestation can adversely impact on nephrogenesis. The present study aimed to examine the effects of chronic, low-dose endotoxin exposure in utero, during the period of nephrogenesis, on nephron number and glomerular size in preterm lambs. Ewes were administered either: endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS; 1mg/day) or saline at 110 to 133 days of gestation (term ~147 days) via surgically implanted osmotic mini-pumps within the amniotic cavity. The ewes were induced to deliver preterm at 133 days gestation and the kidneys of the lambs were analysed at 8 weeks post term-equivalent age. Nephron number per kidney was determined using an unbiased optical disector/fractionator stereological approach; renal corpuscle size was also stereologically measured. At 8 weeks after term-equivalent age there was no significant effect of in utero exposure of endotoxin on body weight or kidney weight and there were no significant differences in nephron number, nephron density, or renal corpuscle volume between groups. We conclude that chronic intrauterine inflammation during the period of nephrogenesis may not adversely impact on the number of nephrons formed within the kidney or on the volume of the renal corpuscle. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 04/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preterm neonates are born while nephrogenesis is ongoing and are commonly exposed to factors in the extrauterine environment that may impair renal development. Supplemental oxygen therapy exposes the preterm infant to a hyperoxic environment which may induce oxidative stress. Our aim was to determine the immediate and long-term effects of exposure to hyperoxia, during the period of postnatal nephrogenesis, on renal development. Newborn mice (C57BL/6J) were kept in a normoxic (room air, 21% oxygen) or a controlled hyperoxic (65% oxygen) environment from birth to postnatal day 7 (P7d). From P7d, animals were maintained in room air until early adulthood at postnatal day 56 (P56d) or middle age (10 months; P10mo). Pups were assessed for glomerular maturity and renal corpuscle cross-sectional area at P7d (control n=14; hyperoxic n=14). Nephron number and renal corpuscle size were determined stereologically at P56d (control n=14; hyperoxic n=14) and P10mo (control n=10; hyperoxic n=10). At P7d, there was no effect of hyperoxia on glomerular size or maturity. In early adulthood (P56d) body weights, relative kidney weights and volumes, and nephron number were not different between groups, but the renal corpuscles were significantly enlarged. This was no longer evident at P10mo, with relative kidney weights and volumes, nephron number and renal corpuscle size not different between groups. Furthermore, hyperoxia-exposure did not significantly accelerate glomerulosclerosis in middle age. Hence, our findings show no overt long-term deleterious effects of early life hyperoxia on glomerular structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extremely preterm infants often receive mechanical ventilation (MV), which can contribute to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, the effects of MV alone on the extremely preterm lung and the lung's capacity for repair are poorly understood.
To characterise lung injury induced by MV alone, and mechanisms of injury and repair, in extremely preterm lungs and to compare them with very preterm lungs.
Extremely preterm lambs (0.75 of term) were transiently exposed by hysterotomy and underwent 2 h of injurious MV. Lungs were collected 24 h and at 15 d after MV. Immunohistochemistry and morphometry were used to characterise injury and repair processes. qRT-PCR was performed on extremely and very preterm (0.85 of term) lungs 24 h after MV to assess molecular injury and repair responses.
24 h after MV at 0.75 of term, lung parenchyma and bronchioles were severely injured; tissue space and myofibroblast density were increased, collagen and elastin fibres were deformed and secondary crest density was reduced. Bronchioles contained debris and their epithelium was injured and thickened. 24 h after MV at 0.75 and 0.85 of term, mRNA expression of potential mediators of lung repair were significantly increased. By 15 days after MV, most lung injury had resolved without treatment.
Extremely immature lungs, particularly bronchioles, are severely injured by 2 h of MV. In the absence of continued ventilation these injured lungs are capable of repair. At 24 h after MV, genes associated with injurious MV are unaltered, while potential repair genes are activated in both extremely and very preterm lungs.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63905. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) constitute a biomarker of heavy fetal ethanol exposure. Our objective was to measure meconium FAEE in fetal sheep following daily, relatively moderate-dose ethanol exposure in late gestation, and to evaluate their utility in identifying fetal organ-system injury.
Pregnant ewes received ethanol (0.75 g/kg; n = 14) or saline (n = 8) via 1-h IV infusion daily during the third trimester equivalent, while additional pregnant sheep served as untreated controls (n = 6). The daily ethanol regimen produced similar maximal maternal and fetal plasma ethanol concentrations of 0.11-0.12 g/dL. Ewes and fetuses were euthanized shortly before term, and meconium was collected and analyzed for FAEE (ethyl palmitate, stearate, linoleate, and oleate).
Meconium total FAEE concentration was significantly higher in ethanol-exposed fetuses compared with controls, and a positive cut-off of 0.0285 nmol total FAEE/g meconium had 93.3% sensitivity and specificity for detecting fetal ethanol exposure. When the studied animals (ethanol-exposed and controls) were classified according to meconium FAEE concentration, FAEE-positive and FAEE-negative groups frequently differed with respect to previously examined pathological endpoints, including nephron endowment, lung collagen deposition, cardiomyocyte maturation, and tropoelastin gene expression in cerebral vessels. Furthermore, in all studied animals as a group (ethanol-exposed and controls combined), meconium FAEE concentration was correlated with many of these pathological endpoints in fetal organs.
We conclude that, in fetal sheep, meconium FAEE could serve as a biomarker of daily ethanol exposure in late gestation and could identify fetuses with subtle ethanol-induced toxic effects in various organs. This study illustrates the potential for using meconium FAEE to identify neonates at risk for dysfunction of major organs following in-utero ethanol exposure that does not result in overt physical signs of ethanol teratogenicity.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59168. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Male preterm infants are at greater risk of respiratory morbidity and mortality than females but mechanisms are poorly understood. Our objective was to identify the basis for the "male disadvantage" following preterm birth using an ovine model of preterm birth in which survival of females is greater than males. At 0.85 of term, fetal sheep underwent surgery (11 female, 10 male) for the implantation of vascular catheters to monitor blood gases and arterial pressure. After cesarean delivery at 0.90 of term, lambs were monitored for 4 h while spontaneously breathing; lambs were then euthanized and static lung compliance measured. We analyzed surfactant phospholipid composition in amniotic fluid and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) taken at necropsy; we also analyzed surfactant protein (SP) expression in lung tissue. Before delivery male fetuses tended to have lower pH (P = 0.052) compared with females. One hour after delivery, males had significantly lower pH and higher arterial partial pressure of CO(2) (Pa(CO(2))), lactate, glucose, and mean arterial pressure than females. Two males died 1 h after birth. Static lung compliance was 37% lower in males than females (P < 0.05). In BALF, males had significantly more protein, a lower percentage of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) 32:0 (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) and higher percentages of PC34:2 and PC36:2. There were no sex-related differences in lung architecture or expression of SP-A, -B, -C, and -D. The lower lung compliance in male preterm lambs compared with females may be due to altered surfactant phospholipid composition and function. These changes may compromise gas exchange and impair respiratory adaptation after male preterm birth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to determine whether fetal exposure to intraamniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) persistently alters the lungs following moderate preterm birth. Fetal sheep were exposed to LPS (1 mg/d) or saline from 0.75 to preterm birth at 0.90 of gestation. Eleven weeks after preterm birth, lung structure was unaltered. Interleukin (IL)-1β messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were elevated in lungs of LPS-exposed lambs (P < .05) but IL-1β protein levels were unaltered. Lung mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor α, and percentage of inflammatory cells were not different between groups. Surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-C mRNA levels and SP-B tissue protein expression were higher in LPS-exposed lambs than controls (all P < .05); however, expression of SP-A and SP-C proteins was reduced. Prenatal LPS exposure causes a persistent increase in gene expression of proinflammatory mediators and surfactant proteins and a decrease in lung tissue SP-A and -C protein expression after preterm birth, which may affect lung immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains common in many countries. Exposure to even low amounts of alcohol (i.e. ethanol) in pregnancy can lead to the heterogeneous fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), while heavy alcohol consumption can result in the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS is characterized by cerebral dysfunction, growth restriction and craniofacial malformations. However, the effects of lower doses of alcohol during pregnancy, such as those that lead to FASD, are less well understood. In this article, we discuss the findings of recent studies performed in our laboratories on the effects of fetal alcohol exposure using sheep, in which we investigated the effects of late gestational alcohol exposure on the developing brain, arteries, kidneys, heart and lungs. Our studies indicate that alcohol exposure in late gestation can (1) affect cerebral white matter development and increase the risk of hemorrhage in the fetal brain, (2) cause left ventricular hypertrophy with evidence of altered cardiomyocyte maturation, (3) lead to a decrease in nephron number in the kidney, (4) cause altered arterial wall stiffness and endothelial and smooth muscle function and (5) result in altered surfactant protein mRNA expression, surfactant phospholipid composition and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in the lung. These findings suggest that fetal alcohol exposure in late gestation can affect multiple organs, potentially increasing the risk of disease and organ dysfunction in later life.
Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease. 08/2012; 3(04).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:Caffeine administration is associated with a reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, assisted ventilation, patent ductus arteriosus (DA) and cerebral palsy in preterm infants, but the mechanisms are unknown. Our aim was to determine the effects of acute caffeine administration on renal and pulmonary function in preterm lambs.Methods:Lambs were delivered by caesarean section at ~126 days of gestation and ventilated with a tidal volume of 5 ml/kg, 60 breaths/min and 5 cmH(2)O positive end-expiratory pressure. After 30 minutes, lambs received 40 mg/kg caffeine i.v (n=7) or saline (controls; n=6) over 30 minutes and were ventilated for 2 hours.Results:Arterial caffeine concentrations reached 35.9 ± 7.8 mg/l. Urine output was significantly higher after caffeine treatment than in controls (5.86 ± 1.95 vs 0.76 ± 0.94 ml/kg, area under curve p=0.041). Mean heart rate was significantly higher after caffeine treatment than in controls (211 ± 8 vs 169 ± 15 beats per minute, p<0.05) and remained higher for the experimental period.Discussion:Caffeine did not affect pulmonary artery or DA blood flows or other renal, respiratory or cardiovascular parameters examined. Neonatal caffeine administration increased heart rate and urine output but had little effect on pulmonary function in ventilated preterm lambs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review focuses on genetic and environmental influences that result in long term alterations in lung structure and function. Environmental factors operating during fetal and early postnatal life can have persistent effects on lung development and so influence lung function and respiratory health throughout life. Common factors affecting the quality of the intrauterine environment that can alter lung development include fetal nutrient and oxygen availability leading to intrauterine growth restriction, fetal intrathoracic space, intrauterine infection or inflammation, maternal tobacco smoking and other drug exposures. Similarly, factors that operate during early postnatal life, such as mechanical ventilation and high FiO(2) in the case of preterm birth, undernutrition, exposure to tobacco smoke and respiratory infections, can all lead to persistent alterations in lung structure and function. Greater awareness of the many prenatal and early postnatal factors that can alter lung development will help to improve lung development and hence respiratory health throughout life.
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 04/2012; 17(2):67-72. · 3.51 Impact Factor