Biochemical Society Transactions 06/1997; 25(2):335S. · 2.59 Impact Factor
Biochemical Society Transactions 06/1997; 25(2):336S. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prevention of sexually transmitted HIV infection was investigated in macaques by immunization with a recombinant SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) envelope gp 120 and core p27 vaccine. In two independent series of experiments, we used the novel targeted iliac lymph node (TILN) route of immunization, aiming close to the iliac lymph nodes draining the genitorectal mucosa. Rectal challenge with the SIVmac 32H J5 molecular clone in two series induced total protection in four out of seven macaques immunized by TILN, compared with infection in 13 of 14 unimmunized macaques or immunized by other routes (P = 0.025). The remaining three macaques showed either a decrease in viral load ( > 90%) or transient viremia, indicating that all seven TILN-immunized macaques showed total or partial protection (P = 0.001). Protection was associated with significant increase in the iliac lymph nodes of IgA antibody-secreting cells to p27 (P < 0.02), CD8-suppressor factor (P < 0.01), and the chemokines RANTES and MIP-1 beta (P < 0.01).
Nature Medicine 07/1996; 2(7):767-75. · 22.86 Impact Factor
Available from: pnas.org
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in North America and Europe occurs most commonly through the rectal mucosa during homosexual intercourse. The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model has been used to investigate rectal immunization. The vaccine used was a recombinant SIV gag p27 expressed as hybrid Ty virus-like particles (Ty-VLP). Sequential ororectal (OR) mucosal immunization was compared with i.m. immunization. Whereas both routes of immunization induced serum IgA and IgG p27 antibodies, only OR immunization induced rectal secretory IgA antibodies. Specific CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses to stimulation with p27 were found after i.m. immunization only in the blood and spleen, but after OR immunization they were found in the internal iliac and inferior mesenteric lymph nodes in addition to the blood and spleen. T-cell epitope mapping of the proliferative responses of short-term cell lines (STCLs) grown from peripheral blood or lymphoid cells revealed a major epitope within the polypeptide 121-150 after either route of immunization. Two minor T-cell epitopes were found within peptide 41-80 in STCLs from splenic and circulating cells. B-cell epitope mapping of serum or biliary IgA and IgG antibodies revealed two overlapping or adjacent immunodominant epitopes to the T-cell epitopes within the polypeptides 121-170 and 51-90. The results suggest that rectal augmented by oral immunization with a recombinant particulate antigen in nonhuman primates elicits secretory IgA and to a lesser extent IgG responses in the draining lymph nodes and the rectal mucosa, whereas systemic immunization targets predominantly splenic and circulating T- and B-cell responses. These findings may have important implications in the strategy of designing vaccines in prevention of homosexual transmission of HIV infection.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/1993; 90(18):8638-42. · 9.74 Impact Factor