R. A. Sunyaev

Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Arching, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (343)665.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Galaxy clusters are formed via nonlinear growth of primordial density fluctuations and are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the present Universe. Their number density at different epochs and their properties depend strongly on the properties of dark matter and dark energy, making clusters a powerful tool for observational cosmology. Observations of the hot gas filling the gravitational potential well of a cluster allows studying gasdynamic and plasma effects and the effect of supermassive black holes on the heating and cooling of gas on cluster scales. The work of Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich has had a profound impact on virtually all cosmological and astrophysical studies of galaxy clusters, introducing concepts such as the Harrison–Zeldovich spectrum, the Zeldovich approximation, baryon acoustic peaks, and the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect. Here, we review the most basic properties of clusters and their role in modern astrophysics and cosmology.
    Physics-Uspekhi 04/2014; 57(4):317. · 1.87 Impact Factor
  • M R Gilfanov, R A Sunyaev
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    ABSTRACT: Observations of low-mass X-ray binaries in our Galaxy and external galaxies have drawn attention to the accretion disc boundary layer where the accreting matter slows down from its Keplerian orbital velocity of about half of the speed of light to a neutron star's rotational velocity and in which it releases about half of its gravitational energy. Correspondingly, a hot spectral component appears in the emission of accreting neutron stars, which is absent in accreting black holes. We review different approaches to the problem of the radiation-dominated boundary layer. In particular, we consider the theory of a levitating spreading layer, which assumes that the accreting matter slows down while spreading over the neutron star surface.
    Physics-Uspekhi 04/2014; 57(4):377. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the potential of large X-ray selected AGN samples for detecting baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). Though AGN selection in X-ray band is very clean and efficient, it does not provide us redshift information, and thus needs to be complemented with an optical follow-up. The main focus of this study is: (i) to find necessary requirements to the quality of the optical follow-up and (ii) to formulate the optimal strategy of the X-ray survey, in order to detect the BAO. We demonstrate that redshift accuracy of sigma_0=10^{-2} and the catastrophic failure rate of <~30% are sufficient for a reliable detection of BAO in future X-ray surveys. Spectroscopic quality redshifts combined with negligible fraction of catastrophic failures will boost the confidence level of the BAO detection by a factor of ~2. For the meaningful detection of BAO, X-ray surveys of moderate depth of F_lim ~ few 10^{-15} erg/s/cm^2 covering sky area from a ~few hundred to ~ten thousand square degrees are required. The optimal strategy for the BAO detection does not necessarily require full sky coverage. For example, in a 1000 days long survey by an eROSITA type telescope, an optimal strategy would be to survey a sky area of ~9000 deg^2, yielding a ~16 sigma BAO detection. A similar detection will be achieved by ATHENA+ or WFXT class telescopes in a survey with a duration of 100 days, covering similar sky area. XMM-Newton can achieve a marginal BAO detection in a 100 days survey covering ~400 deg^2. These surveys would demand a moderate to high cost in terms the optical follow-ups, requiring determination of redshifts of ~10^5 (XMM-Newton) to ~3x10^6 objects (eROSITA, ATHENA+ and WFXT) in the above mentioned sky areas.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of measurements of the total X-ray flux from the Andromeda galaxy (M31) in the 3-100 keV band based on data from the RXTE/PCA, INTEGRAL/ISGRI, and SWIFT/BAT space experiments. We show that the total emission from the galaxy has a multicomponent spectrum whose main characteristics are specified by binaries emitting in the optically thick and optically thin regimes. The galaxy's luminosity at energies 20-100 keV gives about 6% of its total luminosity in the 3-100 keV band. The emissivity of the stellar population in M31 is L 2-20 keV ̃ 1.1 × 1029 erg s-1 M {☉/-1} in the 2-20 keV band and L 20-100 keV ̃ 8 × 1027 erg s-1 M {☉/-1} in the 20-100 keV band. Since low-mass X-ray binaries at high luminosities pass into a soft state with a small fraction of hard X-ray emission, the detection of individual hard X-ray sources in M31 requires a sensitivity that is tens of times better (up to 10-13 erg s-1 cm-2) than is needed to detect the total hard X-ray emission from the entire galaxy. Allowance for the contribution from the hard spectral component of the galaxy changes the galaxy's effective Compton temperature approximately by a factor of 2, from ̃1.1 to ̃2.1 keV.
    Astronomy Letters 12/2013; 40(1). · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    Margherita Molaro, Rishi Khatri, Rashid Sunyaev
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    ABSTRACT: We suggest a thin (scale height ~80 pc) diffuse component to the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE) arising from the scattering of the radiation of bright X-ray binaries (XBs) by the interstellar medium. The morphology of the scattered component is expected to trace the clumpy molecular and HI clouds. We calculate this contribution to the GRXE from known Galactic XBs assuming that they are all persistent. The known XBs sample is however incomplete as it is flux-limited and spans the small lifetime of X-ray astronomy (~50 years), compared to the characteristic time of 1000-10000 years that would contribute to the diffuse emission observed today due to time delays. We therefore also use a simulated sample of sources, to estimate the diffuse emission we should expect in an optimistic case assuming that the X-ray luminosity of our Galaxy is on average similar to that of other galaxies. In the calculations we also take into account the enhancement of the total scattering cross section due to coherence effects in the elastic scattering from multi-electron atoms and molecules. This scattered emission can be distinguished from the contribution of low X-ray luminosity stars by the presence of narrow fluorescent K-$\alpha$ lines of Fe, Si and other abundant elements present in the interstellar medium and by directly resolving the contribution of low X-ray luminosity stars. We find that within $1^o$ latitude of the Galactic plane the scattered emission contributes on average 10-50% of the GRXE flux and can even dominate the stellar emission in the optimistic case. X-rays with energies $\gtrsim 1$ keV from XBs should also penetrate deep inside the HI and molecular clouds, be absorbed and heat the interstellar medium. We find that this heating rate can dominate over the heating by cosmic rays in a significant part of the Galaxy.
    12/2013;
  • Physics-Uspekhi 11/2013; 56(11):1150. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations of the sky emission at wavelengths ranging from millimeter-wave to the far-infrared. PRISM's main objective is to explore the distant universe, probing cosmic history from very early times until now as well as the structures, distribution of matter, and velocity flows throughout our Hubble volume. PRISM will survey the full sky in a large number of frequency bands in both intensity and polarization and will measure the absolute spectrum of sky emission more than three orders of magnitude better than COBE FIRAS. The aim of this Extended White Paper is to provide a more detailed overview of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible by PRISM
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Based on multiyear INTEGRAL observations of SS433 in 2003-2011, a composite IBIS/ISGRI 18-60 keV orbital light curve is constructed around zero precessional phases psi_{pr}= 0 at the maximim accretion disk opening angle. It shows a peculiar shape with significant excess near the orbital phase phi_orb= 0.25, which is not seen in the softer 2-10 keV energy band. The 40-60 keV orbital light curve demonstrates two almost equal humps at phases \sim 0.25 and \sim 0.75, most likely due to nutation effects of the accretion disk. The nutational variability of SS433 in 15-50 keV with a period of 6.290 days is independently found from timing analysis of Swift/BAT data. The change of the off-eclipse 18-60 keV X-ray flux with the precessional phase shows a double-wave form with strong primary maximum at psi_{pr}= 0 and weak but significant secondary maximum at psi_{pr}= 0.6. A weak variability of the 18-60 keV flux in the middle of the orbital eclipse correlated with the disk precessional phase is also observed. The joint analysis of the broadband 18-60 keV orbital and precessional light curves confirms the presence of a hot extended corona in the central parts of the supercritical accretion disk and constrains the binary mass ratio in SS433 in the range 0.5>q>0.3, suggesting the black hole nature of the compact object.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2013; 436(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in response to the Call for White Papers for the definition of the L2 and L3 Missions in the ESA Science Programme. PRISM would have two instruments: (1) an imager with a 3.5m mirror (cooled to 4K for high performance in the far-infrared---that is, in the Wien part of the CMB blackbody spectrum), and (2) an Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) somewhat like the COBE FIRAS instrument but over three orders of magnitude more sensitive. Highlights of the new science (beyond the obvious target of B-modes from gravity waves generated during inflation) made possible by these two instruments working in tandem include: (1) the ultimate galaxy cluster survey gathering 10e6 clusters extending to large redshift and measuring their peculiar velocities and temperatures (through the kSZ effect and relativistic corrections to the classic y-distortion spectrum, respectively) (2) a detailed investigation into the nature of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) consisting of at present unresolved dusty high-z galaxies, where most of the star formation in the universe took place, (3) searching for distortions from the perfect CMB blackbody spectrum, which will probe a large number of otherwise inaccessible effects (e.g., energy release through decaying dark matter, the primordial power spectrum on very small scales where measurements today are impossible due to erasure from Silk damping and contamination from non-linear cascading of power from larger length scales). These are but a few of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible with PRISM.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Details of the observations of a new (second) outburst of the X-ray transientMAXI J1836-194 discovered late in August 2011, a suspected black hole in a low-mass binary system, with the instruments of the SWIFT and INTEGRAL orbiting observatories are presented. The outburst was weaker than the first one; the source had a power-law spectrum in a wide X-ray (0.3–400 keV) energy range without any clear evidence for the presence of a soft (blackbody) component related to the emission from the outer accretion disk regions. This shows that the outburst was a “failed” one: the source did not pass through the sequence of spectral states characteristic of X-ray novae. The observed optical emission from the source whose variability was strongly correlated with its X-ray variability seems to have also been an extension of the power-law spectrum. Spectrum uniformity is, on the whole, unusual for other sources containing a black hole and raises the question about the nature of the emission from MAXI J1836-194 (disk or jet).
    Astronomy Letters 06/2013; 39(6). · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The four-year X-ray all-sky survey (eRASS) of the eROSITA telescope aboard the Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite will detect ~3 million active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a median redshift of z~1 and a typical luminosity of L_(0.5-2.0 keV) ~ 10^(44) erg/s. We show that this unprecedented AGN sample, complemented with redshift information, will supply us with outstanding opportunities for large-scale structure research. For the first time, detailed redshift- and luminosity-resolved studies of the bias factor for X-ray selected AGN will become possible. The eRASS AGN sample will not only improve the redshift- and luminosity-resolution of these studies, but will also expand their luminosity range beyond L_(0.5-2.0 keV) ~ 10^(44) erg/s, thus enabling a direct comparison of the clustering properties of luminous X-ray AGN and optical quasars. These studies will dramatically improve our understanding of the AGN environment, triggering mechanisms, the growth of supermassive black holes and their co-evolution with dark matter halos. The eRASS AGN sample will become a powerful cosmological probe. It will enable detecting baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) for the first time with X-ray selected AGN. With the data from the entire extragalactic sky, BAO will be detected at a >~10sigma confidence level in the full redshift range and with ~8sigma confidence in the 0.8 < z < 2.0 range, which is currently not covered by any existing BAO surveys. To exploit the full potential of the eRASS AGN sample, photometric and spectroscopic surveys of large areas and a sufficient depth will be needed.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Gert Hütsi, Marat Gilfanov, Rashid Sunyaev
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    ABSTRACT: Our goal is to find a minimalistic model that describes the luminosity function and large-scale clustering bias of the X-ray-selected AGN in the general framework of the concordance LCDM model. We assume that a simple population-averaged scaling relation between the AGN X-ray luminosity L_X and the host dark matter halo mass M_h exists. With such a relation, the AGN X-ray luminosity function can be computed from the halo mass function. Using the concordance LCDM halo mass function for the latter, we obtain the M_h-L_X relation required to match the redshift-dependent AGN X-ray luminosity function known from X-ray observations. We find that with a simple power-law-scaling M_h \propto L_X^\Gamma(z), our model can successfully reproduce the observed X-ray luminosity function. Furthermore, we automatically obtain predictions for the large-scale AGN clustering amplitudes and their dependence on the luminosity and redshift, which seem to be compatible with AGN clustering measurements. Our model also includes the redshift-dependent AGN duty cycle which peaks at the redshift z ~ 1, and its peak value is consistent with unity, suggesting that on average there is no more than one AGN per dark matter halo. For a typical X-ray-selected AGN at z ~ 1, our best-fit M_h-L_X scaling implies low Eddington ratio L_X/L_Edd ~ 10^{-4}-10^{-3} (2-10 keV band, no bolometric correction applied) and correspondingly large mass growth e-folding times, suggesting that the typical X-ray AGN are dominantly fueled via relatively inefficient 'hot-halo' accretion mode.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss the potential of the eROSITA telescope on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) observatory to detect stellar tidal disruption events (TDE) during its 4-year all-sky survey. These events are expected to reveal themselves as luminous flares of UV/soft X-ray emission associated with the centres of previously non-active galaxies and fading by few orders of magnitude on time-scales of several months to years. Given that eROSITA will complete an all-sky survey every 6 months and a total of 8 such scans will be performed over the course of the mission, we propose to distinguish TDEs from other X-ray transients using two criteria: I) large (more than a factor of 10) X-ray variation between two subsequent 6-month scans and ii) soft X-ray spectrum. The expected number of TDE candidates is $\sim 10^3$ per scan (with most of the events being new discoveries in a given scan), so that a total of several thousand TDE candidates could be found during the 4-year survey. The actual number may significantly differ from this estimate, since it is based on just a few TDEs observed so far. The eROSITA all-sky survey is expected to be nearly equally sensitive to TDEs occurring near supermassive black holes (SMBH) of mass between $\sim 10^6$ and $\sim 10^7 M_\odot$ and will thus provide a unique census of quiescent SMBHs and associated nuclear stellar cusps in the local Universe ($z\lesssim 0.15$). Information on TDE candidates will be available within a day after their detection and localization by eROSITA, making possible follow-up observations that may reveal peculiar types of TDEs.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Rishi Khatri, Rashid A. Sunyaev
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    ABSTRACT: Silk damping at redshifts 1.5 x 10^4 < z < 2 x 10^6 erases CMB anisotropies on scales corresponding to the comoving wavenumbers 8 < k < 10^4 Mpc^-1 (10^5 < \ell < 10^8). This dissipated energy is gained by the CMB monopole, creating distortions from a blackbody in the CMB spectrum of the \mu-type and the i-type. We study, using Fisher matrices, the constraints we can get from measurements of these spectral distortions on the primordial power spectrum from future experiments such as Pixie, and how these constraints change as we change the frequency resolution and the sensitivity of the experiment. We show that the additional information in the shape of the $i$-type distortions, in combination with the \mu-type distortions, allows us to break the degeneracy between the amplitude and the spectral index of the power spectrum on these scales and leads to much tighter constraints. We quantify the information contained in both the \mu-type distortions and the i-type distortions taking into account the partial degeneracy with the y-type distortions and the temperature of the blackbody part of the CMB. We also calculate the constraints possible on the primordial power spectrum when the spectral distortion information is combined with the CMB anisotropies measured by the WMAP, SPT, ACT and Planck experiments.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 03/2013; 2013(06). · 6.04 Impact Factor
  • Rishi Khatri, Rashid Sunyaev
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    ABSTRACT: Spectrum created by energy release in the early Universe, before recombination, creates distortions which are a superposition of ?-type, y-type and intermediate-type distortions. The final spectrum can thus be constructed from the templates, once energy injection rate as a function of redshift is known. This package contains the templates spaced at dy=0.001 for y<1 and dy=0.01 for y>1 covering a range 0.001 < y < 10. Also included is a Mathematica code which can combine these templates for user-defined rate of energy injection as a function of redshift. Silk damping, particle decay and annihilation examples are also included.
    Astrophysics Source Code Library. 03/2013;
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    Rashid A. Sunyaev, Rishi Khatri
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    ABSTRACT: Spectral features in the CMB energy spectrum contain a wealth of information about the physical processes in the early Universe, z < 2 x 10^6. The CMB spectral distortions are complementary to all other probes of cosmology. In fact, most of the information contained in the CMB spectrum is inaccessible by any other means. This review outlines the main physics behind the spectral features in the CMB throughout the history of the Universe, concentrating on the distortions which are inevitable and must be present at a level observable by the next generation of proposed CMB experiments. The spectral distortions considered here include spectral features from cosmological recombination, resonant scattering of CMB by metals during reionization which allows us to measure their abundances, y-type distortions during and after reionization and \mu-type and i-type (intermediate between \mu and y) distortions created at redshifts z > 1.5 x 10^4.
    International Journal of Modern Physics D 02/2013; 22(7). · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    Rashid A. Sunyaev, Rishi Khatri
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    ABSTRACT: y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background allow us to detect clusters and groups of galaxies, filaments of hot gas and the non-uniformities in the warm hot intergalactic medium. Several CMB experiments (on small areas of sky) and theoretical groups (for full sky) have recently published y-type distortion maps. We propose to search for two artificial hot spots in such y-type maps resulting from the incomplete subtraction of the effect of the motion induced dipole on the cosmic microwave background sky. This dipole introduces, at second order, additional temperature and y-distortion anisotropy on the sky of amplitude few \mu K which could potentially be measured by Planck HFI and Pixie experiments and can be used as a source of cross channel calibration by CMB experiments. This y-type distortion is present in every pixel and is not the result of averaging the whole sky. This distortion, calculated exactly from the known linear dipole, can be subtracted from the final y-type maps, if desired.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 02/2013; 2013(03). · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quasar feedback outflows are commonly invoked to drive gas out of galaxies in the early gas-rich epoch to terminate growth of galaxies. Here we present simulations that show that AGN feedback may drive not only gas but also stars out of their host galaxies under certain conditions. The mechanics of this process is as following: (1) AGN-driven outflows accelerate and compress gas filling the host galaxy; (2) the accelerated dense shells become gravitationally unstable and form stars on radial trajectories. For the spherically symmetric initial conditions explored here, the black hole needs to exceed the host's M_sigma mass by a factor of a few to accelerate the shells and the new stars to escape velocities. We discuss potential implications of these effects for the host galaxies: (i) radial mixing of bulge stars with the rest of the host; (ii) contribution of quasar outflows to galactic fountains as sources of high-velocity clouds; (iii) wholesale ejection of hyper velocity stars out of their hosts, giving rise to type II supernovae on galactic outskirts, and contributing to reionization and metal enrichment of the Universe; (iv) bulge erosion and even complete destruction in extreme cases resulting in overweight or bulgeless SMBHs.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2013; 431(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The main element of the observing program of the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma orbital observatory is a four-year all-sky survey, in the course of which the entire sky will be scanned eight times. Aims. We analyze the statistical properties of AGN and QSOs that are expected to be detected in the course of the eROSITA all-sky survey (eRASS). Methods. According to the currently planned survey strategy and based on the parameters of the Galactic and extragalactic X-ray background as well as on the results of the recent calculations of the eROSITA instrumental background, we computed a sensitivity map of the eRASS. Using the best available redshift-dependent AGN X-ray luminosity function (XLF), we computed various characteristics of the eRASS AGN sample, such as their luminosity- and redshift distributions, and the brightness distributions of their optical counterparts. Results. After four years of the survey, a sky-average sensitivity of ~1x10^(-14) erg/s/cm^2 will be achieved in the 0.5-2.0keV band. With this sensitivity, eROSITA is expected to detect ~3 million AGN on the extragalactic sky (|b|>10deg). The median redshift of the eRASS AGN will be z~1 with ~40% of the objects in the z=1-2 redshift range. About 10^4 - 10^5 AGN are predicted beyond redshift z=3 and about 2 000 - 30 000 AGN beyond redshift z=4, the exact numbers depend on the poorly known behavior of the AGN XLF in the high-redshift and luminosity regimes. Of the detected AGN, the brightest 10% will be detected with more than ~38 counts per PSF HEW, while the faintest 10% will have fewer than ~9 counts. The optical counterparts of ~95% of the AGN will be brighter than I_(AB)=22.5mag. The planned scanning strategy will allow one to search for transient events on a timescale of half a year and a few hours with a 0.5-2.0keV sensitivity of ~2x10^(-14) to ~2x10^(-13) erg/s/cm^2, respectively.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Rishi Khatri, Rashid A. Sunyaev
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    ABSTRACT: We calculate numerical solutions and analytic approximations for the intermediate-type spectral distortions. Detection of a μ-type distortion (saturated comptonization) in the CMB will constrain the time of energy injection to be at a redshift 2 × 106gtrsimzgtrsim2 × 105, while a detection of a y-type distortion (minimal comptonization) will mean that there was heating of CMB at redshift zlesssim1.5 × 104. We point out that the partially comptonized spectral distortions, generated in the redshift range 1.5 × 104lesssimzlesssim2 × 105, are much richer in information than the pure y and μ-type distortions. The spectrum created during this period is intermediate between y and μ-type distortions and depends sensitively on the redshift of energy injection. These intermediate-type distortions cannot be mimicked by a mixture of y and μ-type distortions at all frequencies and vice versa. The measurement of these intermediate-type CMB spectral distortions has the possibility to constrain precisely not only the amount of energy release in the early Universe but also the mechanism, for example, particle annihilation and Silk damping can be distinguished from particle decay. The intermediate-type distortion templates and software code using these templates to calculate the CMB spectral distortions for user-defined energy injection rate is made publicly available.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 09/2012; 2012(09):016. · 6.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
665.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2013
    • European Space Agency
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1990–2013
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      • Space Research Institute
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1970–2011
    • Space Research Institute
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1991–1997
    • University of Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1989–1995
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany