R. Sunyaev

Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Moscow, Russia

Are you R. Sunyaev?

Claim your profile

Publications (943)1949.23 Total impact

  • Source
    Rishi Khatri · Rashid Sunyaev
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We use the Planck HFI channel maps to make an all sky map of $\mu$-distortion fluctuations. Our $\mu$-type distortion map is dominated by the $y$-type distortion contamination from the hot gas in the low redshift Universe and we can thus only place upper limits on the $\mu$-type distortion fluctuations. For the amplitude of $\mu$-type distortions on $10'$ scales we get the limit on root mean square (rms) value $\mu_{rms}^{10'}< 6.4\times 10^{-6}$, a limit 14 times stronger than the COBE-FIRAS ($95\%$ confidence) limit on the mean of $< \mu > <90\times 10^{-6}$. Using our maps we also place strong upper limits on the auto angular power spectrum of $\mu$, $C_{\ell}^{\mu\mu}$ and the cross angular power spectrum of $\mu$ with the CMB temperature anisotropies, $C_{\ell}^{\mu T}$. The strongest observational limits are on the largest scales, $\ell(\ell+1)/(2\pi)C_{\ell}^{\mu\mu}|_{\ell=2-26}<(2.3\pm 1.0)\times 10^{-12}$ and $\ell(\ell+1)/(2\pi)C_{\ell}^{\mu T}|_{\ell=2-26}<(2.6\pm 2.6)\times 10^{-12}~{K}$. Our observational limits can be used to constrain new physics which can create spatially varying energy release in the early Universe between redshifts $5\times 10^4\lesssim z\lesssim 2\times 10^6$. We specifically apply our observational results to constrain the primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type, when the source of $\mu$-distortion is Silk damping, for very squeezed configurations with the wavenumber for the short wavelength mode $46 \lesssim k_{S} \lesssim 10^4 ~{Mpc^{-1}}$ and for the long wavelength mode $k_{L}\approx 10^{-3} ~{Mpc^{-1}}$. Our limits on the primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are $f_{NL}<10^5, \tau_{NL}<1.4\times 10^{11}$ for $k_{S}/k_{L}\approx 5\times 10^4- 10^7$. We give a new derivation of the evolution of the $\mu$-distortion fluctuations. We also introduce mixing of Bose-Einstein spectra and $y^{BE}$-type distortions.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlation functions of CMB temperature and polarization. They use the hybrid approach employed previously: pixel-based at low multipoles, $\ell$, and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of cross-power spectra at higher $\ell$. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization data, and more detailed foreground and instrumental models. More than doubling the data allows further checks and enhanced immunity to systematics. Progress in foreground modelling enables a larger sky fraction, contributing to enhanced precision. Improvements in processing and instrumental models further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish robustness and accuracy, from temperature, from polarization, and from their combination, and show that the {\Lambda}CDM model continues to offer a very good fit. We further validate the likelihood against specific extensions to this baseline, such as the effective number of neutrino species. For this first detailed analysis of Planck polarization, we concentrate at high $\ell$ on E modes. At low $\ell$ we use temperature at all Planck frequencies along with a subset of polarization. These data take advantage of Planck's wide frequency range to improve the separation of CMB and foregrounds. Within the baseline cosmology this requires a reionization optical depth $\tau=0.078\pm0.019$, significantly lower than without high-frequency data for explicit dust monitoring. At high $\ell$ we detect residual errors in E, typically at the {\mu}K$^2$ level; we thus recommend temperature alone as the high-$\ell$ baseline. Nevertheless, Planck high-$\ell$ polarization spectra are already good enough to allow a separate high-accuracy determination of the {\Lambda}CDM parameters, consistent with those established from temperature alone.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a catalogue of sources detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions of the Planck compact source catalogues. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two sub-catalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The first of these catalogues covers most of the sky and allows the user to produce subsamples at higher reliabilities than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The PCCS2E contains sources detected in sky regions where the diffuse emission makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven polarization-sensitive Planck channels. The improved data-processing of the full-mission maps and their reduced noise levels allow us to increase the number of objects in the catalogue, improving its completeness for the target 80 % reliability as compared with the previous versions, the PCCS and ERCSC catalogues.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: (abridged) We discuss the Galactic foreground emission between 20 and 100GHz based on observations by Planck/WMAP. The Commander component-separation tool has been used to separate the various astrophysical processes in total intensity. Comparison with RRL templates verifies the recovery of the free-free emission along the Galactic plane. Comparison of the high-latitude Halpha emission with our free-free map shows residuals that correlate with dust optical depth, consistent with a fraction (~30%) of Halpha having been scattered by high-latitude dust. We highlight a number of diffuse spinning dust morphological features at high latitude. There is substantial spatial variation in the spinning dust spectrum, with the emission peak ranging from below 20GHz to more than 50GHz. There is a strong tendency for the spinning dust component near many prominent HII regions to have a higher peak frequency, suggesting that this increase in peak frequency is associated with dust in the photodissociation regions around the nebulae. The emissivity of spinning dust in these diffuse regions is of the same order as previous detections in the literature. Over the entire sky, the commander solution finds more anomalous microwave emission than the WMAP component maps, at the expense of synchrotron and free-free emission. This can be explained by the difficulty in separating multiple broadband components with a limited number of frequency maps. Future surveys (5-20GHz), will greatly improve the separation by constraining the synchrotron spectrum. We combine Planck/WMAP data to make the highest S/N ratio maps yet of the intensity of the all-sky polarized synchrotron emission at frequencies above a few GHz. Most of the high-latitude polarized emission is associated with distinct large-scale loops and spurs, and we re-discuss their structure...
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The quest for a $B$-mode imprint from primordial gravity waves on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) requires the characterization of foreground polarization from Galactic dust. We present a statistical study of the filamentary structure of the $353\,$GHz Planck Stokes maps at high Galactic latitude, relevant to the study of dust emission as a polarized foreground to the CMB. We filter the intensity and polarization maps to isolate filaments in the range of angular scales where the power asymmetry between $E$-modes and $B$-modes is observed. Using the Smoothed Hessian Major Axis Filament Finder, we identify 259 filaments at high Galactic latitude, with lengths larger or equal to $2$\deg\ (corresponding to $3.5\,$pc in length for a typical distance of $100\,$pc). These filaments show a preferred orientation parallel to the magnetic field projected onto the plane of the sky, derived from their polarization angles. We present mean maps of the filaments in Stokes $I$, $Q$, $U$, $E$, and $B$, computed by stacking individual images rotated to align the orientations of the filaments. Combining the stacked images and the histogram of relative orientations, we estimate the mean polarization fraction of the filaments to be $11\,$%. Furthermore, we show that the correlation between the filaments and the magnetic field orientations may account for the $E$ and $B$ asymmetry and the $C_{\ell}^{TE}/C_{\ell}^{EE}$ ratio, reported in the power spectra analysis of the Planck $353\,$GHz polarization maps. Future models of the dust foreground for CMB polarization studies will need to take into account the observed correlation between the dust polarization and the structure of interstellar matter.
  • Source
    Rishi Khatri · Rashid Sunyaev
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We use the published Planck and SPT cluster catalogs and recently published $y$-distortion maps to put strong observational limits on the contribution of the fluctuating part of the $y$-type distortions to the $y$-distortion monopole. Our bounds are $5.4\times 10^{-8} < \langle y\rangle < 2.2\times 10^{-6}$. Our upper bound is a factor of 6.8 stronger than the currently best upper $95\%$ confidence limit from COBE of $\langle y\rangle <15\times 10^{-6}$. In the standard cosmology, large scale structure is the only source of such distortions and our limits therefore constrain the baryonic physics involved in the formation of the large scale structure. Our lower limit, from the detected clusters in the Planck and SPT catalogs, also implies that a Pixie-like experiment should detect the $y$-distortion monopole at $>27$-$\sigma$. The biggest sources of uncertainty in our upper limit are the monopole offsets between different HFI channel maps that we estimate to be $<10^{-6}$.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 05/2015; 2015(08). DOI:10.1088/1475-7516/2015/08/013 · 5.88 Impact Factor
  • E. Churazov · A. Vikhlinin · R. Sunyaev
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Scaling relations in the Λ cold dark matter cosmology predict that for a given mass the clusters formed at larger redshift are hotter, denser and therefore more luminous in X-rays than their local z ∼ 0 counterparts. This effect overturns the decrease in the observable X-ray flux so that it does not decrease at z > 1, similar to the SZ signal. Provided that scaling relations remain valid at larger redshifts, X-ray surveys will not miss massive clusters at any redshift, no matter how far they are. At the same time, the difference in scaling with mass and distance of the observable SZ and X-ray signals from galaxy clusters at redshifts z ≲ 2 offers a possibility to crudely estimate the redshift and the mass of a cluster. This might be especially useful for pre-selection of massive high-redshift clusters and planning of optical follow-up for overlapping surveys in X-ray (e.g. by SRG/eRosita) and SZ (e.g. Planck, SPT and ACT).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2015; 450(2):1984-1989. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv743 · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories, as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep imaging observations were obtained for most of those sources; spectroscopic observations in either in long-slit or multi-object modes were obtained for many. We found optical counterparts for 73 of the 78 candidates. This sample includes 53 spectroscopic redshifts determinations, 20 of them obtained with a multi-object spectroscopic mode. The sample contains new redshifts for 27 Planck clusters that were not included in the first Planck SZ source catalogue (PSZ1).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: By looking at the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ) in Planck nominal mission data, we present a significant detection of baryons participating in large-scale bulk flows around central galaxies (CGs) at redshift $z\approx 0.1$. We estimate the pairwise momentum of the kSZ temperature fluctuations at the positions of the CGC (Central Galaxy Catalogue) samples extracted from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (DR7) data. For the foreground-cleaned maps, we find $1.8$-$2.5\sigma$ detections of the kSZ signal, which are consistent with the kSZ evidence found in individual Planck raw frequency maps, although lower than found in the WMAP-9yr W band ($3.3\sigma$). We further reconstruct the peculiar velocity field from the CG density field, and compute for the first time the cross-correlation function between kSZ temperature fluctuations and estimates of CG radial peculiar velocities. This correlation function yields a $3.0$-$3.7$$\sigma$ detection of the peculiar motion of extended gas on Mpc scales, in flows correlated up to distances of 80-100 $h^{-1}$ Mpc. Both the pairwise momentum estimates and kSZ temperature-velocity field correlation find evidence for kSZ signatures out to apertures of 8 arcmin and beyond, corresponding to a physical radius of $> 1$ Mpc, more than twice the mean virial radius of halos. This is consistent with the predictions from hydro simulations that most of the baryons are outside the virialized halos. We fit a simple model, in which the temperature-velocity cross-correlation is proportional to the signal seen in a semi-analytic model built upon N-body simulations, and interpret the proportionality constant as an "effective" optical depth to Thomson scattering. We find $\tau_T=(1.4\pm0.5)\times 10^{-4}$; the simplest interpretation of this measurement is that much of the gas is in a diffuse phase, which contributes little signal to X-ray or thermal SZ observations.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present foreground-reduced CMB maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales $\ell\gtrsim40$. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with $\ell < 20$ are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with respect to algorithmic and modelling choices. The resulting polarization maps have rms instrumental noise ranging between 0.21 and 0.27$\,\mu\textrm{K}$ averaged over 55 arcmin pixels, and between 4.5 and 6.1$\,\mu\textrm{K}$ averaged over 3.4 arcmin pixels. The cosmological parameters derived from the analysis of temperature power spectra are in agreement at the $1\sigma$ level with the Planck 2015 likelihood. Unresolved mismatches between the noise properties of the data and simulations prevent a satisfactory description of the higher-order statistical properties of the polarization maps. Thus, the primary applications of these polarization maps are those that do not require massive simulations for accurate estimation of uncertainties, for instance estimation of cross-spectra and cross-correlations, or stacking analyses.
  • Source
    E. Churazov · A. Vikhlinin · R. Sunyaev
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Scaling relations in the LCDM Cosmology predict that for a given mass the clusters formed at larger redshift are hotter, denser and therefore more luminous in X-rays than their local z~0 counterparts. This effect overturns the decrease in the observable X-ray flux so that it does not decrease at z > 1, but instead raises slowly, similar to the SZ signal. Provided that scaling relations remain valid at larger redshifts, X-ray surveys will not miss massive clusters at any redshift, no matter how far they are. At the same time, the difference in scaling with mass and distance of the observable SZ and X-ray signals from galaxy clusters at redshifts z<2 offers a possibility to crudely estimate the redshift and the mass of a cluster. This might be especially useful for preselection of massive high-redshift clusters and planning of optical follow-up for overlapping surveys in X-ray (e.g., by SRG/eRosita) and SZ (e.g. Planck, SPT, ACT and CoRe+).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be $n_\mathrm{s} = 0.968 \pm 0.006$ and tightly constrain its scale dependence to $d n_s/d \ln k =-0.003 \pm 0.007$ when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the high-$\ell$ polarization data is included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is $r_{0.002} < 0.11$ (95% CL), consistent with the B-mode polarization constraint $r< 0.12$ (95% CL) obtained from a joint BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck analysis. These results imply that $V(\phi) \propto \phi^2$ and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as $R^2$ inflation. Three independent methods reconstructing the primordial power spectrum are investigated. The Planck data are consistent with adiabatic primordial perturbations. We investigate inflationary models producing an anisotropic modulation of the primordial curvature power spectrum as well as generalized models of inflation not governed by a scalar field with a canonical kinetic term. The 2015 results are consistent with the 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest all-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, of which 1203 are confirmed clusters with identified counterparts in external data-sets, and is the first SZ-selected cluster survey containing > 103 confirmed clusters. We present a detailed analysis of the survey selection function in terms of its completeness and statistical reliability, placing a lower limit of 83% on the purity. Using simulations, we find that the Y5R500 estimates are robust to pressure-profile variation and beam systematics, but accurate conversion to Y500 requires. the use of prior information on the cluster extent. We describe the multi-wavelength search for counterparts in ancillary data, which makes use of radio, microwave, infra-red, optical and X-ray data-sets, and which places emphasis on the robustness of the counterpart match. We discuss the physical properties of the new sample and identify a population of low-redshift X-ray under- luminous clusters revealed by SZ selection. These objects appear in optical and SZ surveys with consistent properties for their mass, but are almost absent from ROSAT X-ray selected samples.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. These data are consistent with the six-parameter inflationary LCDM cosmology. From the Planck temperature and lensing data, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0= (67.8 +/- 0.9) km/s/Mpc, a matter density parameter Omega_m = 0.308 +/- 0.012 and a scalar spectral index with n_s = 0.968 +/- 0.006. (We quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% limits on other parameters.) Combined with Planck temperature and lensing data, Planck LFI polarization measurements lead to a reionization optical depth of tau = 0.066 +/- 0.016. Combining Planck with other astrophysical data we find N_ eff = 3.15 +/- 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom and the sum of neutrino masses is constrained to < 0.23 eV. Spatial curvature is found to be |Omega_K| < 0.005. For LCDM we find a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r <0.11 consistent with the B-mode constraints from an analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP data leads to a tighter constraint of r < 0.09. We find no evidence for isocurvature perturbations or cosmic defects. The equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = -1.006 +/- 0.045. Standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the Planck LCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We investigate annihilating dark matter and deviations from standard recombination, finding no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base LCDM are in agreement with BAO data and with the JLA SNe sample. However the amplitude of the fluctuations is found to be higher than inferred from rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. Apart from these tensions, the base LCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We predict and investigate four types of imprint of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies: the impact of PMFs on the CMB spectra; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; magnetically-induced non-Gaussianities; and the magnetically-induced breaking of statistical isotropy. Overall, Planck data constrain the amplitude of PMFs to less than a few nanogauss. In particular, individual limits coming from the analysis of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 4.4$ nG (where $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}$ is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity, and $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 5.6$ nG when we consider a maximally helical field. For nearly scale-invariant PMFs we obtain $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}<2.1$ nG and $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}<0.7$ nG if the impact of PMFs on the ionization history of the Universe is included in the analysis. From the analysis of magnetically-induced non-Gaussianity we obtain three different values, corresponding to three applied methods, all below 5 nG. The constraint from the magnetically-induced passive-tensor bispectrum is $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 2.8$ nG. A search for preferred directions in the magnetically-induced passive bispectrum yields $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 4.5$ nG, whereas the the compensated-scalar bispectrum gives $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 3$ nG. The analysis of the Faraday rotation of CMB polarization by PMFs uses the Planck power spectra in $EE$ and $BB$ at 70 GHz and gives $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 1380$ nG. In our final analysis, we consider the harmonic-space correlations produced by Alfv\'en waves, finding no significant evidence for the presence of these waves. Together, these results comprise a comprehensive set of constraints on possible PMFs with Planck data.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40<L<400 and an associated likelihood for cosmological parameter constraints. We find good agreement between our measurement of the lensing potential power spectrum and that found in the best-fitting LCDM model based on the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of the parameter combination Sigma_8 Omega_m^{0.25} = 0.591+-0.021. We combine our determination of the lensing potential with the E-mode polarization also measured by Planck to generate an estimate of the lensing B-mode. We show that this lensing B-mode estimate is correlated with the B-modes observed directly by Planck at the expected level and with a statistical significance of 10 sigma, confirming Planck's sensitivity to this known sky signal. We also correlate our lensing potential estimate with the large-scale temperature anisotropies, detecting a cross-correlation at the 3 sigma level, as expected due to dark energy in the concordance LCDM model.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Planck has mapped the microwave sky in nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz in temperature and seven bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive a consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided with angular resolutions varying between 7.5 arcmin and 1 deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4 uK over 93% of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1% in the remaining 7% of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are degeneracies among the spinning dust, free-free, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external low-frequency experiments will be essential to break these. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zero-points. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100-353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of temperature-to-polarization leakage, uncertainties in the analog-to-digital conversion, and very long time constant corrections, all of which are expected to improve in the near future.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have constructed all-sky y-maps of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 30 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck satellite survey. These reconstructed y-maps are delivered as part of the Planck 2015 release. The y-maps are characterised in terms of noise properties and residual foreground contamination, mainly thermal dust emission at large angular scales and CIB and extragalactic point sources at small angular scales. Specific masks are defined to minimize foreground residuals and systematics. Using these masks we compute the y-map angular power spectrum and higher order statistics. From these we conclude that the y-map is dominated by tSZ signal in the multipole range, 20-600. We compare the measured tSZ power spectrum and higher order statistics to various physically motivated models and discuss the implications of our results in terms of cluster physics and cosmology.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and contained 915 high S/N sources. It is based on the Planck 48 months mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 545, 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC sources lies between 13 and 14.5 K, depending on the quality of the flux density measurements, with a temperature ranging from 5.8 to 20 K after removing sources with the 1% largest temperature estimates. Using seven independent methods, reliable distance estimates have been obtained for 5574 sources, which allows us to derive their physical properties such as their mass, physical size, mean density and luminosity. The PGCC sources are located mainly in the solar neighbourhood, up to a distance of 10.5 kpc towards the Galactic centre, and range from low-mass cores to large molecular clouds. Because of this diversity and because the PGCC catalogue contains sources in very different environments, the catalogue is useful to investigate the evolution from molecular clouds to cores. Finally, the catalogue also includes 54 additional sources located in the SMC and LMC.
  • Source

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,949.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2015
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      • Space Research Institute
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1970–2015
    • Space Research Institute
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 2000–2014
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • Institute of Control Sciences
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2010
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1993–2005
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of California, San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Institut de France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004
    • NASA
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
    • Lomonosov Moscow State University
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1998
    • University of Helsinki
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 1994
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
    • Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 1991–1994
    • University of Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1989–1994
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1991–1993
    • Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
      Fontenay, Île-de-France, France