[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of atrial septal defects (ASD) and their closure on systolic and diastolic right and left ventricular function; and by comparing surgical closure with transcatheter device closure, to establish differences attributable to cardiopulmonary bypass.
Cross sectionally guided M mode echocardiographic ventricular long axis function was measured prospectively before and within one week after ASD closure by device in 17 patients and by surgery in 12 patients, and compared with 18 normal subjects.
All indices of right ventricular function were impaired after surgery: mean total excursion, -1.89 cm (95% confidence interval (CI), -2.18 to -1.59); peak shortening rate, -9.09 cm/s (-10.82 to -7.35); peak lengthening rate, -9.26 cm/s (-11.09 to -7.43). Total excursion and peak lengthening rate were preserved after device closure, at -0.12 cm (-0.28 to 0.05) and 0.01 cm/s (-2.29 to 2.31), respectively. Left ventricular free wall function was unchanged after closure by either method, while all septal measurements were reduced after closure by either method (changes ranging from -3.51 to -0.32; 95% CI ranging from -4.90 to -0.13).
Left ventricular free wall function is unaffected by ASD closure, whereas septal function is impaired, irrespective of the method of closure. Right ventricular function, both systolic and diastolic, is impaired by cardiopulmonary bypass but preserved after device closure. These findings support the transcatheter approach to ASD closure in anatomically suitable defects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative pulmonary hypertension in children after congenital heart surgery is a risk factor for death and is associated with severe acute changes in both pulmonary vascular resistance and lung mechanics.
To examine the impact of changes in pulmonary blood flow on lung mechanics in preoperative children with congenital heart disease, in order to assess the cause-effect relation of pulmonary vascular-bronchial interactions.
Prospective, cross sectional study.
Cardiac catheterisation laboratory, general anaesthesia with mechanical ventilation.
Variation of pulmonary blood flow (Qp) by either balloon occlusion of an atrial septal defect before interventional closure, or by complete occlusion of the pulmonary artery during balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty for pulmonary valve stenosis.
Ventilatory tidal volume (Vt), dynamic respiratory system compliance (Cdyn), respiratory system resistance (Rrs).
28 occlusions were examined in nine patients with atrial septal defect (median age 9.5 years) and 22 in eight patients with pulmonary stenosis (median age 1.2 years). Normalisation of Qp during balloon occlusion of atrial septal defect caused no significant change in airway pressures and Rrs, but there was a small decrease in Vt (mean (SD): 9.61 (0.85) to 9.52 (0.97) ml/kg; p < 0.05) and Cdyn (0.64 (0.11) to 0.59 (0.10) ml/cm H(2)O*kg; p < 0.01). These changes were more pronounced when there was complete cessation of Qp during balloon valvuloplasty in pulmonary stenosis, with a fall in Vt (9.71 (2.95) to 9.32 (2.84) ml/kg; p < 0.05) and Cdyn (0.72 (0.29) to 0.64 (0.26) ml/cm H(2)O*kg; p < 0.001), and there was also an increase in Rrs (25.1 (1. 7) to 28.8 (1.6) cm H(2)O/litre*s; p < 0.01). All these changes exceeded the variability of the baseline measurements more than threefold.
Acute changes in pulmonary blood flow are associated with simultaneous changes in lung mechanics. While these changes are small they may represent a valid model to explain the pathophysiological impact of spontaneous changes in pulmonary blood flow in clinically more critical situations in children with congenital heart disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy and complications of device occlusion of atrial septal defects in adults, using the Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO).
A prospective interventional study.
Paediatric cardiology departments in two European teaching hospitals.
The first 20 patients accepted for atrial septal defect device occlusion, on the basis of transoesophageal echocardiography. Sixteen patients had larger defects with right heart dilatation, while the primary indication for closure in four was a history of early paradoxical embolism.
Transcatheter atrial septal defect occlusions performed under transoesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopic guidance between December 1996 and June 1998.
Success of deployment of ASO devices, procedure and fluoroscopic times, complications, and symptoms.
The ASO device was successfully implanted in all 20 patients (14 female), median age 44.2 years, with no complications. Of the 16 patients with right heart dilatation, the median Qp:Qs was 2.5:1. Defects measured 11-22 mm (median 18) on transoesophageal echocardiography, with balloon sized diameter (and device size) of 13-28 mm (median 20). For all 20 patients, the procedure time ranged from 38-78 minutes (median 61), and fluoroscopy 8.4-24.7 minutes (median 15.2). There were residual shunts in three patients at the end of the procedure, which were trivial (</= 1 mm) as assessed by transoesophageal echocardiography, and persisted for more than six months in only one patient. Follow up ranged from 0.1-1.5 years (median 0.7). There have been no late complications.
The ASO device can be used successfully to close selected oval fossa defects in adults, with minimal procedural morbidity and excellent early results.