[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Converging evidence implicates immune abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ), and recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified immune-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SCZ. Using the conditional false discovery rate (FDR) approach, we evaluated pleiotropy in SNPs associated with SCZ (n=21 856) and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=43 879), an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Because SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) show substantial clinical and genetic overlap, we also investigated pleiotropy between BD (n=16 731) and MS. We found significant genetic overlap between SCZ and MS and identified 21 independent loci associated with SCZ, conditioned on association with MS. This enrichment was driven by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Importantly, we detected the involvement of the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in both SCZ and MS, but with an opposite directionality of effect of associated HLA alleles (that is, MS risk alleles were associated with decreased SCZ risk). In contrast, we found no genetic overlap between BD and MS. Considered together, our findings demonstrate genetic pleiotropy between SCZ and MS and suggest that the MHC signals may differentiate SCZ from BD susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 7,481 individuals with bipolar disorder (cases) and 9,250 controls as part of the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium. Our replication study tested 34 SNPs in 4,496 independent cases with bipolar disorder and 42,422 independent controls and found that 18 of 34 SNPs had P < 0.05, with 31 of 34 SNPs having signals with the same direction of effect (P = 3.8 x 10(-7)). An analysis of all 11,974 bipolar disorder cases and 51,792 controls confirmed genome-wide significant evidence of association for CACNA1C and identified a new intronic variant in ODZ4. We identified a pathway comprised of subunits of calcium channels enriched in bipolar disorder association intervals. Finally, a combined GWAS analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder yielded strong association evidence for SNPs in CACNA1C and in the region of NEK4-ITIH1-ITIH3-ITIH4. Our replication results imply that increasing sample sizes in bipolar disorder will confirm many additional loci.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this report we describe findings that imply dysregulation of several fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system transcripts in frontal cortical regions of brains from human subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). This altered gene expression was discovered by microarray analysis of frontal cortical tissue from MDD, bipolar, and nonpsychiatric control subjects and was verified by quantitative real-time PCR analysis and, importantly, in a separate cohort of MDD subjects. Furthermore, we show, through a separate analysis of specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-treated and non-SSRI-treated MDD subjects that the observed changes in expression of FGF transcripts are not secondary to drug treatment. Rather, changes in specific FGF transcripts are attenuated by SSRIs and may thus be partially responsible for the mechanism of action of these drugs. We also make available the gene-expression profile of all of the other growth factors and growth factor receptors detected in these postmortem samples.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2004; 101(43):15506-11. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0406788101 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcriptional profiles within discrete human brain regions are likely to reflect structural and functional specialization. Using DNA microarray technology, this study investigates differences in transcriptional profiles of highly divergent brain regions (the cerebellar cortex and the cerebral cortex) as well as differences between two closely related brain structures (the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Replication of this study across three independent laboratories, to address false-positive and false-negative results using microarray technology, is also discussed. We find greater than a thousand transcripts to be differentially expressed between cerebellum and cerebral cortex and very few transcripts to be differentially expressed between the two neocortical regions. We further characterized transcripts that were found to be specifically expressed within brain regions being compared and found that ontological classes representing signal transduction machinery, neurogenesis, synaptic transmission, and transcription factors were most highly represented.
Neurobiology of Disease 11/2003; 14(2):240-50. DOI:10.1016/S0969-9961(03)00126-8 · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA microarrays are powerful tools for the analysis of the organization and regulation of the brain, in both illness and health. Such messenger RNA expression methods are outgrowths of a marriage between the several genome sequencing projects and a wide variety of physical, chemical, optical, and electronic systems. The advantages of microarray analyses include the ability to study the regulation of several genes or even the entire genome in a single experiment. However, there are substantive issues associated with the use of these tools that need to be considered before drawing conclusions about the genomic regulation of the brain. These issues include the loss of most anatomic (i.e., cellular and circuit) specificity, only fair sensitivity, lack of absolute quantitative data, poor comparability between studies, and high variability in sample values, to mention the most obvious. In this review we point to some of the solutions proposed for these problems and novel techniques and approaches for newer methods. Among these are methods for making arrays more sensitive, including nonarray messenger RNA expression systems. The future of this field and its links to deeper protein and cell biology are both emphasized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural elements of the rat mu-opioid receptor important in ligand receptor binding and selectivity were examined using a site-directed mutagenesis approach. Five single amino acid mutations were made, three that altered conserved residues in the mu, delta, and kappa receptors (Asn150 to Ala, His297 to Ala, and Tyr326 to Phe) and two designed to test for mu/delta selectivity (Ile196 to Val and Val202 to Ile). Mutation of His297 in transmembrane domain 6 (TM6) resulted in no detectable binding with [3H]DAMGO (3H-labeled D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol5-enkephalin), [3H]bremazocine, or [3H]ethylketocyclazocine. Mutation of Asn150 in TM3 produces a three- to 20-fold increase in affinity for the opioid agonists morphine, DAMGO, fentanyl, beta-endorphin1-31, JOM-13, deltorphin II, dynorphin1-13, and U50,488, with no change in the binding of antagonists such as naloxone, naltrexone, naltrindole, and nor-binaltorphamine. In contrast, the Tyr326 mutation in TM7 resulted in a decreased affinity for a wide spectrum of mu, delta, and kappa agonists and antagonists. Altering Val202 to Ile in TM4 produced no change on ligand affinity, but Ile196 to Val resulted in a four- to fivefold decreased affinity for the mu agonists morphine and DAMGO, with no change in the binding affinities of kappa and delta ligands.
Journal of Neurochemistry 02/1997; 68(1):344-53. · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opioids have been found to modulate the immune system by regulating the function of immunocompetent cells. Several studies suggest that the interaction between immune and opioid systems is not unidirectional, but rather reciprocal, in nature. In the CNS, one cellular target of immune system activation is the astrocytes. These glial cells have been shown to produce the opioid peptide, proenkephalin, to express the mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors, and to respond to the immune factor interleukin-1 beta (IL1 beta) with an increased proenkephalin synthesis. To characterize more completely the astrocytic opioid response to immune factor stimulation, we examined the effect of IL1 beta (1 ng/ml) on the mu-receptor mRNA expression in primary astrocyte-enriched cultures derived from rat (postnatal day 1-2) cortex, striatum, cerebellum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. A 24-h treatment with IL1 beta produced a 70-80% increase in the mu-receptor mRNA expression in the striatal, cerebellar, and hippocampal cultures but had no effect on this expression in the cortical and hypothalamic cultures. This observation represents one of the few demonstrated increases in levels of the mu-receptor mRNA in vitro or in vivo, since the cloning of the receptor. The enhanced mu-receptor mRNA expression, together with the previous observation that IL1 beta stimulates proenkephalin synthesis in astrocytes, supports the IL1 beta-mediated regulation of an astroglial opioid peptide and receptor in vitro, a phenomenon that may be significant in the modulation of the gliotic response to neuronal damage. Therefore, the astroglial opioid "system" may be important in the IL1 beta-initiated, coordinated response to CNS infection, trauma, or injury.
Journal of Neurochemistry 02/1996; 66(1):425-8. · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The existence of opioid receptors within glial cell membranes has been proposed by several laboratories based on biochemical and radioligand binding data. The recent cloning of the mu, delta and kappa receptors has enabled us to directly examine the issue of opioid receptor expression in rat brain astroglia by using solution hybridization/ribonuclease protection assays to analyze the total RNA obtained from primary cultures of cortical, striatal, cerebellar, hippocampal and hypothalamic astrocytes. The results indicate that all five glial cultures expressed mu, delta and kappa receptor mRNA. The rank order of receptor mRNA abundance, expressed collectively across all five cultures, was determined to be delta > or = kappa > mu. An analysis of the glial distribution profile for each receptor type revealed that mu receptor mRNA levels were the most abundantly expressed in cortical cultures, while the greatest levels of delta receptor mRNA were found in the cortical and hypothalamic cultures, and significant kappa receptor mRNA levels were produced by the cortical, hypothalamic and cerebellar cultures. Furthermore, the five glial cultures each expressed different levels of total opioid receptor (mu + delta + kappa) mRNA. The rank order of total opioid receptor mRNA expression across different astroglial cultures was found to be cortex > hypothalamus > cerebellum = hippocampus > striatum. An analysis of the relative expression profiles for mu, delta and kappa receptor mRNA within each culture revealed that all cultures manifested relatively high levels of delta and kappa receptor mRNA, but relatively low levels of mu receptor mRNA. Generally, cortical, hippocampal and hypothalamic cultures were characterized by comparable levels of delta and kappa receptor mRNA, and little, if any, mu receptor mRNA. However, striatal cultures were characterized by a high level of delta receptor mRNA which was approximately twice and four times that of the kappa and mu receptor mRNA, respectively. In contrast, cerebellar cultures expressed predominantly kappa receptor mRNA at a level which was almost twice that of the delta receptor mRNA, and expressed very little mu receptor mRNA. These data show that primary astroglial cultures not only express mu, delta and kappa receptor mRNAs, but they do so in a manner dependent upon receptor type and brain region. This suggests a regional heterogeneity of astrocytes with respect to opioid receptor expression, a characteristic previously described only for neurons. Furthermore, it suggests the existence of an additional anatomical component in CNS opioid systems.
Molecular Brain Research 01/1996; 34(2):209-20. DOI:10.1016/0169-328X(95)00165-O · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Within the large family of G-protein-coupled receptors, a picture is emerging which contrasts the binding of small ligands and the binding of peptides to the seven-helix configuration of the proteins. Because of its unique richness in both peptide and non-peptide ligands, the opioid receptor family offers several advantages for achieving a better understanding of similarities and differences in ligand/receptor interactions across different classes of agonists and antagonists. Since multiple, naturally occurring, ligands interact with the multiple receptors with varying degrees of selectivity, this family is also an excellent model for examining the structural basis of selectivity. Thus, the molecular basis of binding affinity and selectivity of the kappa and the delta opioid receptors was investigated by the construction of four kappa/delta chimeric receptors. The pharmacological profiles of these chimeras as well as those of the wild type kappa and delta receptors were determined by their binding with several different categories of opioid ligands. A linear model was used to deduce the relative contribution of each corresponding pairs of kappa-delta receptor segments to the binding of a given ligand. The results show that the kappa and delta receptors bind the same opioid core differently and achieve their selectivity through different mechanisms. In addition, the interaction of a peptide ligand with a receptor appears to be different from that of a small ligand. Furthermore, these results point to a particularly important role of the second extracellular loop and the top half of transmembrane domain 4 in the binding of prodynorphin products. Together, the results suggest that these peptide receptors can be bound and activated via multiple binding pockets as a function of their own topography and the nature of the interacting ligand.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/1995; 270(21):12730-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A full-length cDNA encoding the guinea pig kappa opioid (dynorphin) receptor has been isolated. The deduced protein contains 380 aa and seven hydrophobic alpha-helices characteristic of the G protein-coupled receptors. This receptor is 90% identical to the mouse and rat kappa receptors, with the greatest level of divergence in the N-terminal region. When expressed in COS-7 cells, the receptor displays high affinity and stereospecificity toward dynorphin peptides and other kappa-selective opioid ligands such as U50, 488. It does not bind the mu- and delta-selective opioid ligands. The expressed receptor is functionally coupled to G protein(s) to inhibit adenylyl cyclase and Ca2+ channels. The guinea pig kappa receptor mRNA is expressed in many brain areas, including the cerebellum, a pattern that agrees well with autoradiographic maps of classical guinea pig kappa binding sites. Species differences in the pharmacology and mRNA distribution between the cloned guinea pig and rat kappa receptors may be worthy of further examination.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1994; 91(9):3779-83. DOI:10.1073/pnas.91.9.3779 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A full-length cDNA was isolated from a rat striatal library by using low-stringency screening with two PCR fragments, one spanning transmembrane domains 3-6 of the mouse delta opioid receptor and the other unidentified but homologous to the mouse delta receptor from rat brain. The novel cDNA had a long open reading frame encoding a protein of 380 residues with 59% identity to the mouse delta receptor and topography consistent with a seven-helix guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor. COS-1 cells transfected with the coding region of this clone showed high-affinity binding to kappa opioid receptor-selective ligands such as dynorphin A and U-50,488 and also nonselective opioid ligands such as bremazocine, ethylketocyclazocine, and naloxone. Not bound at all (or bound with low affinity) were dynorphin A-(2-13), enantiomers of naloxone and levophanol [i.e., (+)-naloxone and dextrorphan], and selective mu and delta opioid receptor ligands. Activation of the expressed receptor by kappa receptor agonists led to inhibition of cAMP. Finally, in situ hybridization revealed a mRNA distribution in rat brain that corresponded well to the distribution of binding sites labeled with kappa-selective ligands. These observations indicate that we have cloned a cDNA encoding a rat kappa receptor of the kappa 1 subtype.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/1993; 90(21):9954-8. DOI:10.1073/pnas.90.21.9954 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) cDNA we previously isolated from the rat hippocampus differs from the clone isolated from the kidney at the 5'-untranslated (5'UT) region. The kidney clone (alpha MR mRNA) and the hippocampal clone (beta MR mRNA) possess unique 5'UT sequences of 220 and 300 nucleotides, respectively, but share an invariant peptide-coding domain and appear to encode an identical MR protein. The two mRNA variants may represent tissue-specific forms of the MR or may be coexpressed in the rat hippocampus along with other 5'UT variants. Here, we report that three mRNA subtypes were found in the hippocampus; their relative abundance was as follows: alpha = beta > gamma. The three mRNA variants were differentially distributed within the hippocampal subfields, with the alpha form being highly enriched in CA2, dentate, the fasciculum cinereum, and the indusium griseum, whereas beta and gamma forms were evenly distributed through CA1-4. Adrenalectomy selectively increased alpha MR mRNA content, but the changes were restricted to CA1, CA2, and CA3 regions. We conclude that multiple MR mRNAs are differentially expressed in the rat hippocampus. The expression of alpha MR mRNA is specifically increased during adrenalectomy, suggesting that the increase in total MR mRNA content documented previously arises from a substantial increase in a single MR variant that elevates the total MR mRNA content, with the apparent elevation reflecting the average of regulated and unregulated transcripts. It is suggested from our data that a complex mechanism involving transcription and translation regulates MR expression in the rat hippocampus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in vivo was assessed via in situ hybridization histochemistry, using probes directed against an intronic sequence of the CRH gene. Initial characterization of the CRH intron (CRHin) probe revealed specific localization of signal to the nuclear compartment of neurons in the medial parvocellular paraventricular hypothalamus, which are known to produce CRH peptide and mRNA. Abundance of CRHin signal was low, commensurate with a low resting pool of CRH heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA), representing CRH primary transcript. Regulation of CRH hnRNA levels was assessed after acute glucocorticoid synthesis blockade by injection of metyrapone. Metyrapone inhibits the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone, thereby rapidly depleting glucocorticoids and serving as a discrete stimulus for hypothalamo-pituitary-adreno-cortical activation. Plasma hormone measurements verified the efficacy of treatment, as metyrapone-treated rats showed extremely low basal corticosterone levels at all postinjection time points, while exhibiting progressive increases in plasma ACTH release over the 60-min postinjection period. CRH hnRNA levels were markedly increased 15-30 min after metyrapone injection, consistent with a rapid induction of CRH gene transcription in response to the stimulatory event. CRH mRNA, on the other hand, did not exceed control levels until 60 min post metyrapone, illustrative of a temporal lag between transcriptional changes and detectable changes in mRNA pools. Additional sections from metyrapone-and vehicle-treated rats were hybridized with probes complementary to mRNA encoding the immediate-early gene c-fos. c-fos was not present under unstimulated conditions yet was rapidly induced upon metyrapone treatment or vehicle injection (15 min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of mRNAs coding for the ACTH secretagogues corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rats bearing hippocampal lesions. Either total hippocampectomy (HPX) or extirpation of the dorsal hippocampus (DHPX) precipitated a 4-fold increase in CRF mRNA expression relative to sham-operated controls (SHAM), as determined by semiquantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry. AVP mRNA was localized to individual parvocellular neurons of the medial parvocellular division of the PVN in only the HPX and DHPX groups, consistent with enhanced production of AVP message in this neuronal population subsequent to hippocampal damage. HPX did not affect AVP mRNA content in magnocellular divisions of PVN. Plasma beta-endorphin levels were significantly elevated in the HPX and DHPX groups relative to SHAM animals, indicating a chronic increase in release of proopiomelanocortin peptides from the anterior pituitary gland in response to hippocampal lesion. Circulating corticosterone levels were elevated in HPX rats as well. To control for effects of lesion size and location, additional animals received large ablations of cerebral cortex or cerebellum. In neither case was CRF or AVP mRNA significantly altered in the PVN. The results suggest that the hippocampus exercises a tonic inhibitory role on ACTH secretagogue production in neuroendocrine neurons promoting ACTH release.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 10/1989; 9(9):3072-82. · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 7,481 individuals with bipolar disorder (cases) and 9,250 controls as part of the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium. Our replication study tested 34 SNPs in 4,496 independent cases with bipolar disorder and 42,422 independent controls and found that 18 of 34 SNPs had P < 0.05, with 31 of 34 SNPs having signals with the same direction of effect (P = 3.8 Ã 10(-7)). An analysis of all 11,974 bipolar disorder cases and 51,792 controls confirmed genome-wide significant evidence of association for CACNA1C and identified a new intronic variant in ODZ4. We identified a pathway comprised of subunits of calcium channels enriched in bipolar disorder association intervals. Finally, a combined GWAS analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder yielded strong association evidence for SNPs in CACNA1C and in the region of NEK4-ITIH1-ITIH3-ITIH4. Our replication results imply that increasing sample sizes in bipolar disorder will confirm many additional loci.